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Journal & Issues

Volume 62 (2022): Issue 1 (May 2022)

Volume 61 (2021): Issue 2 (November 2021)

Volume 61 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)

Volume 60 (2020): Issue 2 (November 2020)

Volume 60 (2020): Issue 1 (May 2020)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 2 (November 2019)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 1 (May 2019)

Volume 58 (2018): Issue 2 (November 2018)

Volume 58 (2018): Issue 1 (May 2018)

Volume 57 (2017): Issue 2 (November 2017)

Volume 57 (2017): Issue 1 (May 2017)

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 2 (November 2016)

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 1 (May 2016)

Volume 55 (2015): Issue 2 (November 2015)

Volume 55 (2015): Issue 1 (May 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 62 (2022): Issue 1 (May 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

COVID-19, Public Health Strategies and Post Pandemic AAS/Androgen Use: A Commentary/Short Communication

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Summary

In this commentary/short communication we summarize many recent developments related to public health strategies for COVID-19. At this time, there are a wide range of emerging themes post various lockdown measures that have been reported, such as increased exercise, increased drug use, and various associated declines in mental health and other deleterious effects on eating behaviour patterns. Aligned to this, AAS/Androgen use has increased during and post-lockdowns and we posit, in the context of the aforementioned additional risks that have been reported, that future public health strategies need to demonstrate awareness of increased risk that they (AAS/Androgens) present at this time.

Keywords

  • Mental Health
  • Body Image
  • Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs
  • Disordered Eating
  • Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS) /Androgens
Open Access

Explosive Power of Lower Limbs of Acrobatic Rock and Roll Dancers

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 8 - 15

Abstract

Summary

Acrobatic rock and roll is dynamic sport dance where explosive power is very important ability.

Aim. The aim of the thesis was to determine and compare the level of explosive power of the lower limbs of acrobatic rock and roll dancers. We assume that dancers from couple categories will reach a significantly higher level of explosive power of the lower limbs than dancers from ladies formations.

Methods. The research sample consisted of 22 acrobatic rock and roll female dancers. To determine the level of explosive power of the lower limbs, we used a 10 s test on a jump ergometer. We used the non-parametric statistical method Mann Whitney U-test for independent files.

Results. The female dancers from couple categories achieved better results in all parameters than dancers from ladies formations. The first examined parameter was the power in the active phase of the take off where the dancers from couples achieved 46.08 ± 5.32 W.kg−1, the dancers from ladies formations reached 38.13 ± 3.63 W.kg−1 (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.64). The second examined parameter was the height of the jump, where dancers from couples achieved 28.91 ± 2.49 cm, dancers from ladies formations reached 25.92 ± 3.21 cm (p ≤ 0.05, r = 0.48). The last examined parameter was the rebound efficiency, where dancers from couples achieved 177.41 ± 25.62 cm.s−1, dancers from ladies formations reached 138.48 ± 15.96 cm.s−1 (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.65).

Conclusions. In addition to differences in the explosive power of the lower limbs, the results also pointed to the importance of development in all categories. We recommend dancers to include plyometric exercises and repeated rope skipping jumps in the pre-competition and competition period, after completing strength training.

Keywords

  • acrobatic rock and roll
  • explosive power of lower limbs
  • jump ergometer
Open Access

Self-Perceived Fatigue After Motor Abilities Testing in Adolescent Elite Tennis Players

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 16 - 25

Abstract

Summary

The objective of the study was to determine self-perceived fatigue (S-PF) after motor abilities testing (MAT) in adolescent male and female elite tennis players. The research sample comprised of 17 male (mean age of 13.00 ± 1.54 years) and 20 female (mean age of 13.15 ± 1.42 years) adolescent elite tennis players who underwent testing of selected motor abilities in tennis. The level of fatigue in adolescent elite tennis players was measured with the Training Distress Scale (TDS). Both groups of elite tennis players declared the lowest, zero level of S-PF by TDS symptoms as inability to remember things and loose bowels or diarrhoea and significant S-PF during 48 hours after MAT was in both genders felt by lack of energy, feeling of heavy arms and legs, joint stiffness of soreness, and muscle soreness. Boys versus girls experienced significantly higher S-PF in the symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, being unusually tired during the day, joint stiffness of soreness, and ordinary tasks require extra effort. No significant differences were found in overall TDS between males and females adolescent elite tennis players.

Keywords

  • elite tennis players
  • boys
  • girls
  • fatigue
  • Training Distress Scale
  • symptoms
Open Access

The Acute Effects of Different Warm-Up Protocols on Some Performance Parameters in U11-16 Soccer Players

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 27 - 40

Abstract

Summary

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the acute effects of different warm-up protocols on some physical performance parameters in the Under 11-16 (U11-16) category soccer players.

Material and Methods: The participant group of the study consisted of seventy-two male soccer players who regularly train in the U11-16 category. Soccer players randomly and counterbalanced participated in the one of the warm-up protocols of FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, Dynamic warm-up, or Mixed warm-up on non-consecutive days. After participants performed one of the protocols, their flexibility, vertical jump, 30m sprint, and agility performances were measured. Repeated measures in the ANOVA test were used to determine intra-group differences (U11-U12-U13-U14-U15-U16) and Bonferroni test was used to decide which protocol caused a significant difference.

Results: In all underage categories, FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up caused a significant difference in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility compared to Mixed warm-up (p < 0. 05).

Conclusions: As a result of the study, it was shown that FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up protocols acutely caused a positive influence in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility in all underage categories. These three warm-up protocols may be used to prevent athletes from warm-up uniformity and monotony and support multidirectional development.

Keywords

  • Fifa11+
  • Harmoknee
  • Dynamic Warm-up
  • Countermovement Jump
  • Agility
  • Flexibility
Open Access

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Psychical Health and Social Relationships Among University Students

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 41 - 52

Abstract

Summary

We have never faced such a global pandemic as COVID-19 in modern history. It´s important for us to find out how it can affect mental health and social relationships of students. This pandemic has brought us not only the risk of dying from a viral infection, but also brought the enormous psychological pressure on people. Purpose of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and social relationships of university students.

Methods: The research group consisted of 95 students of the Faculty of Sports of the University of Prešov in Prešov (men: n = 62, women: n = 33) with an average age of 22 +/- 6 years. As a method of data collection we used the standardized questionnaire of the World Health Organization - WHOQOL-BREF. Our modified WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire represents a selection of 9 items, six of them represent mental health: (1) Positive feeling (2) Self-esteem (3) Thinking, learning, memory and concentration (4) Bodily image and appearance, (5) Satisfy with you, (6) Negative feelings, and three represent social relationships (7) Personal relationships, (8) Sexual activity, (9) Social support. Due to the extraordinary pandemic situation an online survey was conducted to the students. Students had time to complete the questionnaire from 17.11.2021 to 19.11.2021.

Results: Statistical significant difference between periods before and during COVID-19 pandemic was determined using the Wilcoxon paired t test. There were statistically significant differences in the psychological experience and social relationships of university students before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusion: We recommend monitoring the mental health of university students and raising awareness of various media platforms about psychological problems during a pandemic.

Keywords

  • Undergraduate students
  • pandemic
  • mental health
  • social relationships
Open Access

Analysis of the Professional Competency Indicators of University Physical Trainer Students

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 53 - 71

Abstract

Summary

Objective: The main purpose of this study was to analyse the indicators of the professional Competency of University physical Trainer students, and to explore the importance of these professional indicators. By referring to the two international physical fitness education institutions and literature reviews, three important perspectives of professional Competences are: Professional knowledge, Professional skills, Professional attitude, Furthermore, the result of this research was concluded after three integration of opinions.

Method : Delphi technique was used to integrate the opinions of fifty-two experts and scholars, and the research results were obtained after three integrations. Among the 52 indicators at the three levels.

Result: experts agree that professional attitude is the most important. followed by professional skills, and then professional knowledge. the professional attitude level, “maintaining a positive and enthusiastic professional attitude” was the most important indicator. In the professional skills level, it was noted that “physical fitness training cycle plan design ability”, “physical fitness action correction ability”, “emergency intervention” Ability to adapt” and “ability to use and demonstrate sports equipment” are the most important indicators. In terms of professional knowledge, “customer sports curriculum design” is the most important.

Conclusion: this research can provide references for the university in future development of physical trainer’s training program and establish regulations; fitness club hiring process; self-growth in the industry; future researches and studies.

Keywords

  • personal fitness trainer
  • professional competence
  • index construction
  • Delphi technique
Open Access

Intraindividual Evaluation of Reaction Time At the Men’s World Athletics Championships 1999 - 2019

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 72 - 82

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the article was the intraindividual evaluation of reaction time at the Men’s World Athletics Championships from 1999 to 2019. We generated the rating of sprinters from the age point of view with comparison of two periods with different false start rules. In the result section, we analysed the sprinters that took part at WCH at least 3 times and appeared in the final. We assessed the reaction speed from the aging point of view, or more different false start judging conditions. The results shows that the stricter start judging rules in sprint disciplines did not have a significant influence on the reaction time. We also confirmed a research that the sprinters over 30 years old sprinters can achieve very low reaction time at the start. Reaction abilities can be improved by regular and systematic training, so it is necessary to pay attention to them in the training process and focus on their monitoring and subsequent improvement.

Keywords

  • athletics
  • reaction time
  • world championship
  • sprinters
Open Access

Post-Pandemic Policy Priorities for Financing Sport and Physical Activity in the EU

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 83 - 95

Abstract

Summary

The most sport-relevant points in a resolution adopted by the European Parliament with regard to the use of post-Covid-19 relief funds from the general budget of the European Union (EU) are highlighted. Members of Parliament (MEPs) have indicated unambiguous preferences for part of the EU funding to be directed towards the need of youth and sport, the latter in particular at grassroots level, and the resolution represents a piece of soft law which should be drawn upon to interpret relevant legal acts such as the relevant financial instrument(s). The article goes on to discuss the implications in relation to traditional sport policies, as opposed to more participation-driven policies following the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) paradigm.

8 Articles
Open Access

COVID-19, Public Health Strategies and Post Pandemic AAS/Androgen Use: A Commentary/Short Communication

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Summary

In this commentary/short communication we summarize many recent developments related to public health strategies for COVID-19. At this time, there are a wide range of emerging themes post various lockdown measures that have been reported, such as increased exercise, increased drug use, and various associated declines in mental health and other deleterious effects on eating behaviour patterns. Aligned to this, AAS/Androgen use has increased during and post-lockdowns and we posit, in the context of the aforementioned additional risks that have been reported, that future public health strategies need to demonstrate awareness of increased risk that they (AAS/Androgens) present at this time.

Keywords

  • Mental Health
  • Body Image
  • Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs
  • Disordered Eating
  • Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS) /Androgens
Open Access

Explosive Power of Lower Limbs of Acrobatic Rock and Roll Dancers

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 8 - 15

Abstract

Summary

Acrobatic rock and roll is dynamic sport dance where explosive power is very important ability.

Aim. The aim of the thesis was to determine and compare the level of explosive power of the lower limbs of acrobatic rock and roll dancers. We assume that dancers from couple categories will reach a significantly higher level of explosive power of the lower limbs than dancers from ladies formations.

Methods. The research sample consisted of 22 acrobatic rock and roll female dancers. To determine the level of explosive power of the lower limbs, we used a 10 s test on a jump ergometer. We used the non-parametric statistical method Mann Whitney U-test for independent files.

Results. The female dancers from couple categories achieved better results in all parameters than dancers from ladies formations. The first examined parameter was the power in the active phase of the take off where the dancers from couples achieved 46.08 ± 5.32 W.kg−1, the dancers from ladies formations reached 38.13 ± 3.63 W.kg−1 (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.64). The second examined parameter was the height of the jump, where dancers from couples achieved 28.91 ± 2.49 cm, dancers from ladies formations reached 25.92 ± 3.21 cm (p ≤ 0.05, r = 0.48). The last examined parameter was the rebound efficiency, where dancers from couples achieved 177.41 ± 25.62 cm.s−1, dancers from ladies formations reached 138.48 ± 15.96 cm.s−1 (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.65).

Conclusions. In addition to differences in the explosive power of the lower limbs, the results also pointed to the importance of development in all categories. We recommend dancers to include plyometric exercises and repeated rope skipping jumps in the pre-competition and competition period, after completing strength training.

Keywords

  • acrobatic rock and roll
  • explosive power of lower limbs
  • jump ergometer
Open Access

Self-Perceived Fatigue After Motor Abilities Testing in Adolescent Elite Tennis Players

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 16 - 25

Abstract

Summary

The objective of the study was to determine self-perceived fatigue (S-PF) after motor abilities testing (MAT) in adolescent male and female elite tennis players. The research sample comprised of 17 male (mean age of 13.00 ± 1.54 years) and 20 female (mean age of 13.15 ± 1.42 years) adolescent elite tennis players who underwent testing of selected motor abilities in tennis. The level of fatigue in adolescent elite tennis players was measured with the Training Distress Scale (TDS). Both groups of elite tennis players declared the lowest, zero level of S-PF by TDS symptoms as inability to remember things and loose bowels or diarrhoea and significant S-PF during 48 hours after MAT was in both genders felt by lack of energy, feeling of heavy arms and legs, joint stiffness of soreness, and muscle soreness. Boys versus girls experienced significantly higher S-PF in the symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, being unusually tired during the day, joint stiffness of soreness, and ordinary tasks require extra effort. No significant differences were found in overall TDS between males and females adolescent elite tennis players.

Keywords

  • elite tennis players
  • boys
  • girls
  • fatigue
  • Training Distress Scale
  • symptoms
Open Access

The Acute Effects of Different Warm-Up Protocols on Some Performance Parameters in U11-16 Soccer Players

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 27 - 40

Abstract

Summary

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the acute effects of different warm-up protocols on some physical performance parameters in the Under 11-16 (U11-16) category soccer players.

Material and Methods: The participant group of the study consisted of seventy-two male soccer players who regularly train in the U11-16 category. Soccer players randomly and counterbalanced participated in the one of the warm-up protocols of FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, Dynamic warm-up, or Mixed warm-up on non-consecutive days. After participants performed one of the protocols, their flexibility, vertical jump, 30m sprint, and agility performances were measured. Repeated measures in the ANOVA test were used to determine intra-group differences (U11-U12-U13-U14-U15-U16) and Bonferroni test was used to decide which protocol caused a significant difference.

Results: In all underage categories, FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up caused a significant difference in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility compared to Mixed warm-up (p < 0. 05).

Conclusions: As a result of the study, it was shown that FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up protocols acutely caused a positive influence in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility in all underage categories. These three warm-up protocols may be used to prevent athletes from warm-up uniformity and monotony and support multidirectional development.

Keywords

  • Fifa11+
  • Harmoknee
  • Dynamic Warm-up
  • Countermovement Jump
  • Agility
  • Flexibility
Open Access

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Psychical Health and Social Relationships Among University Students

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 41 - 52

Abstract

Summary

We have never faced such a global pandemic as COVID-19 in modern history. It´s important for us to find out how it can affect mental health and social relationships of students. This pandemic has brought us not only the risk of dying from a viral infection, but also brought the enormous psychological pressure on people. Purpose of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and social relationships of university students.

Methods: The research group consisted of 95 students of the Faculty of Sports of the University of Prešov in Prešov (men: n = 62, women: n = 33) with an average age of 22 +/- 6 years. As a method of data collection we used the standardized questionnaire of the World Health Organization - WHOQOL-BREF. Our modified WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire represents a selection of 9 items, six of them represent mental health: (1) Positive feeling (2) Self-esteem (3) Thinking, learning, memory and concentration (4) Bodily image and appearance, (5) Satisfy with you, (6) Negative feelings, and three represent social relationships (7) Personal relationships, (8) Sexual activity, (9) Social support. Due to the extraordinary pandemic situation an online survey was conducted to the students. Students had time to complete the questionnaire from 17.11.2021 to 19.11.2021.

Results: Statistical significant difference between periods before and during COVID-19 pandemic was determined using the Wilcoxon paired t test. There were statistically significant differences in the psychological experience and social relationships of university students before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusion: We recommend monitoring the mental health of university students and raising awareness of various media platforms about psychological problems during a pandemic.

Keywords

  • Undergraduate students
  • pandemic
  • mental health
  • social relationships
Open Access

Analysis of the Professional Competency Indicators of University Physical Trainer Students

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 53 - 71

Abstract

Summary

Objective: The main purpose of this study was to analyse the indicators of the professional Competency of University physical Trainer students, and to explore the importance of these professional indicators. By referring to the two international physical fitness education institutions and literature reviews, three important perspectives of professional Competences are: Professional knowledge, Professional skills, Professional attitude, Furthermore, the result of this research was concluded after three integration of opinions.

Method : Delphi technique was used to integrate the opinions of fifty-two experts and scholars, and the research results were obtained after three integrations. Among the 52 indicators at the three levels.

Result: experts agree that professional attitude is the most important. followed by professional skills, and then professional knowledge. the professional attitude level, “maintaining a positive and enthusiastic professional attitude” was the most important indicator. In the professional skills level, it was noted that “physical fitness training cycle plan design ability”, “physical fitness action correction ability”, “emergency intervention” Ability to adapt” and “ability to use and demonstrate sports equipment” are the most important indicators. In terms of professional knowledge, “customer sports curriculum design” is the most important.

Conclusion: this research can provide references for the university in future development of physical trainer’s training program and establish regulations; fitness club hiring process; self-growth in the industry; future researches and studies.

Keywords

  • personal fitness trainer
  • professional competence
  • index construction
  • Delphi technique
Open Access

Intraindividual Evaluation of Reaction Time At the Men’s World Athletics Championships 1999 - 2019

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 72 - 82

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the article was the intraindividual evaluation of reaction time at the Men’s World Athletics Championships from 1999 to 2019. We generated the rating of sprinters from the age point of view with comparison of two periods with different false start rules. In the result section, we analysed the sprinters that took part at WCH at least 3 times and appeared in the final. We assessed the reaction speed from the aging point of view, or more different false start judging conditions. The results shows that the stricter start judging rules in sprint disciplines did not have a significant influence on the reaction time. We also confirmed a research that the sprinters over 30 years old sprinters can achieve very low reaction time at the start. Reaction abilities can be improved by regular and systematic training, so it is necessary to pay attention to them in the training process and focus on their monitoring and subsequent improvement.

Keywords

  • athletics
  • reaction time
  • world championship
  • sprinters
Open Access

Post-Pandemic Policy Priorities for Financing Sport and Physical Activity in the EU

Published Online: 19 May 2022
Page range: 83 - 95

Abstract

Summary

The most sport-relevant points in a resolution adopted by the European Parliament with regard to the use of post-Covid-19 relief funds from the general budget of the European Union (EU) are highlighted. Members of Parliament (MEPs) have indicated unambiguous preferences for part of the EU funding to be directed towards the need of youth and sport, the latter in particular at grassroots level, and the resolution represents a piece of soft law which should be drawn upon to interpret relevant legal acts such as the relevant financial instrument(s). The article goes on to discuss the implications in relation to traditional sport policies, as opposed to more participation-driven policies following the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) paradigm.

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