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Volume 62 (2022): Issue 1 (May 2022)

Volume 61 (2021): Issue 2 (November 2021)

Volume 61 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)

Volume 60 (2020): Issue 2 (November 2020)

Volume 60 (2020): Issue 1 (May 2020)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 2 (November 2019)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 1 (May 2019)

Volume 58 (2018): Issue 2 (November 2018)

Volume 58 (2018): Issue 1 (May 2018)

Volume 57 (2017): Issue 2 (November 2017)

Volume 57 (2017): Issue 1 (May 2017)

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 2 (November 2016)

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 1 (May 2016)

Volume 55 (2015): Issue 2 (November 2015)

Volume 55 (2015): Issue 1 (May 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 1 (May 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Communication Strategies Used by Physical Education Teachers and Coaches in Residential Schools for the Deaf in the U.S.

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 1 - 15

Abstract

Summary

The purpose of this study was to determine what communication and instructional techniques including coaching strategies were being implemented by coaches and physical education (PE) teachers working in residential or day schools for the deaf throughout the U. S. Further, to share this information with coaches and PE teachers in general education classrooms. Questionnaire was answered electronically from 32 coaches and PE teachers (38 % return rate). Topics in the survey included: a) types of sports/PE classes; b) mode of communication used; c) coaching and teaching techniques; d) coaching and teaching strategies; e) breakdowns in communication; f) advice to new coaches a teachers starting out in the field. Advice for new coaches, who had not previously worked with the individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), six themes emerged: become fluent in ASL, remember to get the student’s attention before you start signing, use a lot of modelling, role playing, and videos (when needed), keep it simple, stress the fundamentals and insist on repetition until skills are mastered, and be flexible, each player will learn differently. Our results suggest that targeted and adapted communication strategies in PE and physical activities play important role for individuals who are D/HH.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • sport settings
  • deaf
  • hard of hearing
Open Access

Effect of 3-Months Home-Based Exercise Program on Changes of Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults Living in Old People’s Home

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 16 - 29

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of regular participation in home-based exercise programme on cognitive functioning changes in institutionalised older adults. Two groups of participants were recruited for the study: experimental (n = 17) in mean age 76 ± 5.6 years, who participated in home-based exercise program and control (n = 14) in mean age 80 ± 4.2 years. The standardised Stroop Color-Word Test-Victoria version (VST) was used to measure the level of cognitive functions. Group differences were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples and for differences between pre-measurements and post-measurements on experimental and control group we used non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed - Rank Test. The level of significance was α < 0.05. Application of 3-months home-based exercise program significantly improved the cognitive functions only in one (Word condition; p<0.01) from three VST conditions in institutionalised older adults. That’s why we recommend longer participation in home-based exercise program, at least 6- months, with combination of various types of cognitive interventions, like concepts of cognitive training, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in older adults living in old peoples’ homes.

Keywords

  • institutionalised seniors
  • exercise
  • Stroop Color-Word Test-Victoria
  • cognitive functions
Open Access

Somatic Changes of University Students in BMI and WHR

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 30 - 41

Abstract

Summary

The article dealt with the assessment of somatic changes of the students at the Slovak University of Technology (STU), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME), specifically expressed by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) during the years 2007 and 2013. In total 2228 men were involved in the study and measured upon their entry at the university. It was found out that the values of BMI belonged to the category of average range measured for adults (from 22.96 kg.m-2 to 24.60 kg.m-2) and indicates standard values. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) were discovered between the years 2011 (23.70 kg.m-2) and 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2), 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2) and 2013 (22.96 kg.m-2). In 2012 participants achieved in average the highest values (BMI = 24.60 kg.m-2), which borders with a moderate overweight. In the contrary, in 2013 the students achieved the lowest values of BMI (22.96 kg.m-2). A slight increase of average BMI values may be observed from the first test in 2007 until 2012. The predominance of standard weight was measured at 71% of the total number of monitored students and the predominance of overweight was measured at 22% of students from the total number of university students. The observation of WHR numbers makes us conclude that during our seven year study no significant differences were discovered in the first five years. The values were stable and from the mean point of view, they do not indicate the risk of development of diseases relating to overweight and obesity. In 2012 and 2013 a slight decrease of WHR values was detected < 0.85. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were discovered between the years 2010 (0.854) and 2011 (0.864), and also between 2011 (0.864) and 2012 (0.843). The lowest mean value of WHR was measured when performing the last test in the year 2013 (0.823). There was a statistically significant difference at p<0.05 within the years 2012 and 2013. The highest mean value was discovered in 2011 (0.864). However, the average values achieved in a group of students were lower than 1.0, which can be evaluated as a set with no risk of obesity and overweight disease development.

Keywords

  • BMI
  • WHR
  • somatometry
  • university students
  • overweight and obesity
Open Access

Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 42 - 52

Abstract

Summary

The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

Keywords

  • catharsis
  • philosophy of sport
  • long-distance running
  • personality
Open Access

The Impact of Endurance Training on Functional Parameters During the Preparation Phase among Cross-Country Skiers

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 53 - 65

Abstract

Summary

In the study, we have tried to demonstrate the effect of endurance training on changes in functional parameters during the preparation phase (12-week mesocycle) among cross-country skiers. The group consisted of 10 male cross-country skiers (age: 21.4 ±5 year) who completed control (1st 6 week mesocycle) and experimental period (2nd 6 week mesocycle).We focused on the following time-varying parameters: changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the level of aerobic (AeT) and anaerobic thresholds (AT), maximum heart rate (HRmax) and performance on the running treadmill. The intra-individual monitoring of each athlete revealed statistical significance of VO2max (mid_VO2max = 69.48 ± 5.72 l.kg-1.min-1, post_ VO2max = 70.96 ± 5.67 ml.kg-1.min-1; p≤0.05) and the level of AT (mid_AT = 86.2 ± 5.43 %, post_AT = 87.8 ± 5.59 %; p≤0.01) the performance on the running treadmill (mid_t = 14:54 ± 1:43 min., post_t = 15:30 ± 1:50 min.; p≤0.05).The significant changes were recorded in the AeT(pre_AeT = 70.3 ± 7.56 %, mid_AeT = 72.5 ± 7.59 %; p≤0.05) in theHRmax(pre_HRmax = 190 ± 8.04 bpm, mid_HRmax = 189 bpm, post_HRmax = 188 ± 7.34 bpm; p = n.s.) during control period. We assume that the significant differences occurred as a result of adaptation changes due to training stimuli, which were induced by changes in functional parameters. Increased training volume in zone lower level of oxygen regime (A1), upper level of oxygen regime (A2) and upper level of lactate tolerance(T2) during experimental period elicited changes which reflected the increase functional parameters and performance on the running treadmill compared to that of control period.

Keywords

  • cross-country skiing
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • aerobic and anaerobic threshold level
  • the endurance training
Open Access

The Differences in Comparison of Real Body Mass Index and Perceived Body-Size among Adolescent Girls from Selected Secondary School

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 66 - 77

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the research was to determine the differences between real body mass index and perceived body-size among adolescent girls from selected secondary schools. We chose the classes from the 4-year secondary school in Bratislava. Girls involved in research were aged between 15 and 18 years. They have been measured in height and weight during the physical education lessons. We calculated the body mass index (BMI). While having them measured, they subsequently received a questionnaire with silhouettes of female figures. They identified one of the body-size about which they felt that most resembling their own body. We found the differences between real BMI and perceived body-size. From the results of our research, we can say that from all of girls (92) only 22 were seen the illustrated female body approximately at the same range as their real BMI. Test of good match - chi square not confirmed 1 % neither 5 % level of statistics significance.

Keywords

  • real BMI
  • perceived body-size
  • adolescent girls
  • secondary school
6 Articles
Open Access

Communication Strategies Used by Physical Education Teachers and Coaches in Residential Schools for the Deaf in the U.S.

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 1 - 15

Abstract

Summary

The purpose of this study was to determine what communication and instructional techniques including coaching strategies were being implemented by coaches and physical education (PE) teachers working in residential or day schools for the deaf throughout the U. S. Further, to share this information with coaches and PE teachers in general education classrooms. Questionnaire was answered electronically from 32 coaches and PE teachers (38 % return rate). Topics in the survey included: a) types of sports/PE classes; b) mode of communication used; c) coaching and teaching techniques; d) coaching and teaching strategies; e) breakdowns in communication; f) advice to new coaches a teachers starting out in the field. Advice for new coaches, who had not previously worked with the individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), six themes emerged: become fluent in ASL, remember to get the student’s attention before you start signing, use a lot of modelling, role playing, and videos (when needed), keep it simple, stress the fundamentals and insist on repetition until skills are mastered, and be flexible, each player will learn differently. Our results suggest that targeted and adapted communication strategies in PE and physical activities play important role for individuals who are D/HH.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • sport settings
  • deaf
  • hard of hearing
Open Access

Effect of 3-Months Home-Based Exercise Program on Changes of Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults Living in Old People’s Home

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 16 - 29

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of regular participation in home-based exercise programme on cognitive functioning changes in institutionalised older adults. Two groups of participants were recruited for the study: experimental (n = 17) in mean age 76 ± 5.6 years, who participated in home-based exercise program and control (n = 14) in mean age 80 ± 4.2 years. The standardised Stroop Color-Word Test-Victoria version (VST) was used to measure the level of cognitive functions. Group differences were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples and for differences between pre-measurements and post-measurements on experimental and control group we used non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed - Rank Test. The level of significance was α < 0.05. Application of 3-months home-based exercise program significantly improved the cognitive functions only in one (Word condition; p<0.01) from three VST conditions in institutionalised older adults. That’s why we recommend longer participation in home-based exercise program, at least 6- months, with combination of various types of cognitive interventions, like concepts of cognitive training, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in older adults living in old peoples’ homes.

Keywords

  • institutionalised seniors
  • exercise
  • Stroop Color-Word Test-Victoria
  • cognitive functions
Open Access

Somatic Changes of University Students in BMI and WHR

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 30 - 41

Abstract

Summary

The article dealt with the assessment of somatic changes of the students at the Slovak University of Technology (STU), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME), specifically expressed by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) during the years 2007 and 2013. In total 2228 men were involved in the study and measured upon their entry at the university. It was found out that the values of BMI belonged to the category of average range measured for adults (from 22.96 kg.m-2 to 24.60 kg.m-2) and indicates standard values. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) were discovered between the years 2011 (23.70 kg.m-2) and 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2), 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2) and 2013 (22.96 kg.m-2). In 2012 participants achieved in average the highest values (BMI = 24.60 kg.m-2), which borders with a moderate overweight. In the contrary, in 2013 the students achieved the lowest values of BMI (22.96 kg.m-2). A slight increase of average BMI values may be observed from the first test in 2007 until 2012. The predominance of standard weight was measured at 71% of the total number of monitored students and the predominance of overweight was measured at 22% of students from the total number of university students. The observation of WHR numbers makes us conclude that during our seven year study no significant differences were discovered in the first five years. The values were stable and from the mean point of view, they do not indicate the risk of development of diseases relating to overweight and obesity. In 2012 and 2013 a slight decrease of WHR values was detected < 0.85. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were discovered between the years 2010 (0.854) and 2011 (0.864), and also between 2011 (0.864) and 2012 (0.843). The lowest mean value of WHR was measured when performing the last test in the year 2013 (0.823). There was a statistically significant difference at p<0.05 within the years 2012 and 2013. The highest mean value was discovered in 2011 (0.864). However, the average values achieved in a group of students were lower than 1.0, which can be evaluated as a set with no risk of obesity and overweight disease development.

Keywords

  • BMI
  • WHR
  • somatometry
  • university students
  • overweight and obesity
Open Access

Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 42 - 52

Abstract

Summary

The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

Keywords

  • catharsis
  • philosophy of sport
  • long-distance running
  • personality
Open Access

The Impact of Endurance Training on Functional Parameters During the Preparation Phase among Cross-Country Skiers

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 53 - 65

Abstract

Summary

In the study, we have tried to demonstrate the effect of endurance training on changes in functional parameters during the preparation phase (12-week mesocycle) among cross-country skiers. The group consisted of 10 male cross-country skiers (age: 21.4 ±5 year) who completed control (1st 6 week mesocycle) and experimental period (2nd 6 week mesocycle).We focused on the following time-varying parameters: changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the level of aerobic (AeT) and anaerobic thresholds (AT), maximum heart rate (HRmax) and performance on the running treadmill. The intra-individual monitoring of each athlete revealed statistical significance of VO2max (mid_VO2max = 69.48 ± 5.72 l.kg-1.min-1, post_ VO2max = 70.96 ± 5.67 ml.kg-1.min-1; p≤0.05) and the level of AT (mid_AT = 86.2 ± 5.43 %, post_AT = 87.8 ± 5.59 %; p≤0.01) the performance on the running treadmill (mid_t = 14:54 ± 1:43 min., post_t = 15:30 ± 1:50 min.; p≤0.05).The significant changes were recorded in the AeT(pre_AeT = 70.3 ± 7.56 %, mid_AeT = 72.5 ± 7.59 %; p≤0.05) in theHRmax(pre_HRmax = 190 ± 8.04 bpm, mid_HRmax = 189 bpm, post_HRmax = 188 ± 7.34 bpm; p = n.s.) during control period. We assume that the significant differences occurred as a result of adaptation changes due to training stimuli, which were induced by changes in functional parameters. Increased training volume in zone lower level of oxygen regime (A1), upper level of oxygen regime (A2) and upper level of lactate tolerance(T2) during experimental period elicited changes which reflected the increase functional parameters and performance on the running treadmill compared to that of control period.

Keywords

  • cross-country skiing
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • aerobic and anaerobic threshold level
  • the endurance training
Open Access

The Differences in Comparison of Real Body Mass Index and Perceived Body-Size among Adolescent Girls from Selected Secondary School

Published Online: 18 May 2016
Page range: 66 - 77

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the research was to determine the differences between real body mass index and perceived body-size among adolescent girls from selected secondary schools. We chose the classes from the 4-year secondary school in Bratislava. Girls involved in research were aged between 15 and 18 years. They have been measured in height and weight during the physical education lessons. We calculated the body mass index (BMI). While having them measured, they subsequently received a questionnaire with silhouettes of female figures. They identified one of the body-size about which they felt that most resembling their own body. We found the differences between real BMI and perceived body-size. From the results of our research, we can say that from all of girls (92) only 22 were seen the illustrated female body approximately at the same range as their real BMI. Test of good match - chi square not confirmed 1 % neither 5 % level of statistics significance.

Keywords

  • real BMI
  • perceived body-size
  • adolescent girls
  • secondary school

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