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Volume 62 (2022): Issue 1 (May 2022)

Volume 61 (2021): Issue 2 (November 2021)

Volume 61 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)

Volume 60 (2020): Issue 2 (November 2020)

Volume 60 (2020): Issue 1 (May 2020)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 2 (November 2019)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 1 (May 2019)

Volume 58 (2018): Issue 2 (November 2018)

Volume 58 (2018): Issue 1 (May 2018)

Volume 57 (2017): Issue 2 (November 2017)

Volume 57 (2017): Issue 1 (May 2017)

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 2 (November 2016)

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 1 (May 2016)

Volume 55 (2015): Issue 2 (November 2015)

Volume 55 (2015): Issue 1 (May 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 2 (November 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

14 Articles
Open Access

The Relationship Between the Models of Sport Commitment and Self-Determination among Adolescent Athletes

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 79 - 95

Abstract

Summary

This study examined the relationship between the Sport Commitment Model and the Self-Determination Theory. The participants were 214 adolescent athletes who completed the Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and the Hungarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Several commitment sources predicted SMS scores as well. Amotivation was predicted by the obligatory reason for commitment such as Personal Investment-Loss and Other Priorities. External Regulation was predicted by Social factors of commitment. Introjected Regulation was determined by Desire to Excel-Mastery and Personal Investment-Loss. Identified Regulation was explained by Desire to Excel-Mastery, Valuable Opportunities, and Personal Investment-Loss. Integrated Regulation was explained with Valuable Opportunities, Desire to Excel-Mastery, Personal Investment-Loss and Social Support-Informal. The Intrinsic Motivation subscale was significantly predicted by Desire to Excel-Mastery, Personal Investment-Loss, Sport Enjoyment and Social Support-Informal. As we see the types of commitment showed a clear association with SMS, however the commitment sources showed a complex relationship with self-determination, thus it is hard to separate them on the Self-determination continuum.

Keywords

  • enthusiastic commitment
  • constraints commitment
  • regression
  • athletes
  • motivation
Open Access

Gender Differences in Quality of Life and Physical Activity of High School Students

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 96 - 110

Abstract

Summary

This article demonstrates the gender differences between the physical activity (PA), the joy of physical activity (PACES) and quality of life areas of boys and girls from high schools with different sports level and in the different ages. In this survey participated 630 boys and 672 girls from high schools in the age from 16 to 19 years. The quality of life is measured by the SQUALA survey, joy of the movement by the PACES survey, and the level of physical activity per week in hours by PAQ survey. The level of sports performance is defined by levels (occasional, active and registered sportsman). The data are presented by descriptive characteristics (n, M, SD) and the significance of differences and the relations are measure by non-parametric methods (W, rs). Differences in the PA, PACES, SQUALA levels at the group of boys and girls in the different age and sports level are rare. Different load of physical activity relates to sport level. It was not proven that with the increasing sports level, the joy of the physical activity also rises. The interactions between indicators of PA, PACES, and SQUALA in boys and girls in the different age and sports level were proven sporadically with a predominance of negative correlations. In most cases, the positive interactions of PA with PACES and areas of physical well-being was not proven. The higher appearance of positive correlations of PA with areas of SQUALA prevails in 18-years old girls. Boys show the higher number of interactions of PACES with areas of SQUALA. The joy of the movement positively correlates with spiritual well-being in groups of 18-19 years old boys, which perform physical activities in all sports levels. The gender differences between monitored indicators show that the gender factor is very important in this study. The age and sport level factor contributed significantly in the differentiated results of high school boys and girls.

Keywords

  • quality of life
  • joy of the movement
  • physical activity
  • age
  • gender
  • sports level
Open Access

The Relationship Between Swimming Performance and Time Parameters of the Start and Turn

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 111 - 117

Abstract

Summary

The start and the turn are factors that influence performance in different swimming disciplines. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of selected time parameters of the start and the turn with sport performance of 100 m and 1 500 m freestyle finalists in the Olympic Games 2016. Monitored parameters of the start were the start reaction, time under water after the start, and time at a distance of 15 m after the start. The monitored parameters of the turn were the time of 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn, the time under water after the turn, and time reached at a distance of 15 m after the turn. There was any significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed start indicators. The significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed turn indicators was time 5 m before the turn r = 0.952 (p = 0.000); the duration of the turn r = 0.830 (p = 0.011); time at a distance of 15 m after the turn r = 0.886 (p = 0.003). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed start indicators was time under water after the start r = −0.714 (p = 0.047). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed turn indicators was the duration of the turn was r = 0.905 (p = 0.002). The results point out the existing relations between 100 m freestyle and time under water after start and duration of the turn. And for 1 500 m existing relations with time 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn and time at a distance of 15 m after the turn. Therefore, our recommendations for sports practice include development of speed, power and coordination skills with technical execution of the start and the turn into regular swimming training.

Keywords

  • aquatic sport
  • freestyle
  • Olympic games
  • finalists
Open Access

The Effect of Biological Age in the Evaluation of Physical Indicators and the Changes in Selected Motoric Tests of Young Female Basketball Players

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 118 - 128

Abstract

Summary

Basketball is a complex team sport, which combines cyclic and acyclic motion structures consisting mainly of fast and dynamic moves with or without a ball. The puberty is characterized by considerable variability that may occur earlier (developmental acceleration, early maturing) or later (developmental retardation, late maturing): an example can be a 12-year-old girl whom biological age could range from 9.5 to 14.5 years. For this study we selected 6 girls-players from the whole team. Two players were according to the norms from the zone of developmental retardation (BioRet), two players whose decimal and biological age i.e. bone age was identical (DC = BV), and the other two were in the biological acceleration zone (BioAkc.). All players were 13-years old and competed in the U14 category. We have confirmed that there are great differences in biological age in a group of 13-years old girls – in our research it has shown almost four years difference. We did not confirm the author's conclusions that biologically accelerated individuals achieved better results than the retarded ones in the speed and strength tests.

Keywords

  • biological age
  • decimal age
  • young athlete
  • somatic and speed abilities
  • strength
Open Access

Motivation and Physical Education Learning Achievement among Students with Hearing Impairment

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 129 - 137

Abstract

Summary

Playing is a pleasure for every child with no exception to the children who have physical disorder and their capability of motion is limited. Children with hearing impairment need appropriate motivation for learning and performing physical activities. This motivation affects also their Physical Education. For students with the hearing impairment, the materials that are supposed to be taught during the physical education lessons are divided according to the level of disability. Under these circumstances, the research is conducted to determine the relationship between the motivation to learn during the Physical Education lessons and the academic achievement among students with hearing impairment. Researchers used traditional Quantitative methods of research with 40 Junior High School students with hearing impairment from Indonesia, Sekolah Menengah Pertama Luar Biasa (SMPLB), category B. We used the questionnaire dealing with learning motivation of children to collect the data. The data were processed using the SPSS and analyzed by descriptive quantitative operations. Results of the study showed, that there is a relationship between learning motivation of Physical Education and learning outcomes of Physical Education among students of Category B SMPLB, where the value of 0,000 is less than 0.05.

Keywords

  • learning motivation
  • Physical Education
  • academic achievement
  • deaf students
Open Access

Spinal Mobility in Women with Sedentary Job

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 138 - 147

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the paper is to provide insight into the spine mobility of a selected group of women. The task was to diagnose and evaluate spinal mobility in women aged 25 to 30, who are dominated by a sedentary way in workplace but also outside the work environment. Spinalmouse® technology was used for diagnostic purposes, which records the shape and mobility of the spine in the sagittal and frontal plane. Tests were performed in the sagittal and frontal plane of the baseline. The sm® software evaluated the measured data immediately. Based on the results of the measurements, we found different curves in specific spine sectors outside the standards. Changes in spine movement range were also noted. The research continues.

Keywords

  • intervention
  • Mobility
  • Movement
  • Spinal mouse
  • Scoliosis
  • Curvature
Open Access

The Effect of High-Intensity Exercise on Changes of Blood Concentration Components in Algerian National Judo Athletes

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 148 - 160

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the present study to verify the impact of judo competition on changes in the blood count of judo athletes during an official competition. Also to compare these results with the different weight category. Methods: fifteen youth trained athletes were included in the study were divided into three groups according to weight category (light, medial, and heavy) weight. All subjects performed a 5×4mn round of competition with 15mn of rest between rounds and Complete Blood Count (CBC) were collected before, immediately after the competition, Data are reported as mean and standard deviation. The Shapiro-Wilk test was performed to verify the normality of the data, and the significance level was set at P < 0.05. Blood sample count was tested by a paired Student’s t-test to compare the pre-test and post-test for the three groups. The results showed that blood cell count was significantly decreased immediately after judo competition (p < 0.05). However, red blood cell, White blood cell Blood platelets, Mean Cell Volume were significantly increased after the performance (p < 0.05). The current study showed that the judo competition (Rondori) effectively enhance some blood cell count; these changes are transient and probably due to the adaptation to efforts related to judo competition in highly-trained athletes.

Keywords

  • Randori
  • blood count
  • judo Athletes
Open Access

Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being of Healthy High-School Students

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 161 - 171

Abstract

Summary

The objective of this study was to analyse the level of subjective well-being (SWB) through five SWB dimensions and compare it between healthy male and healthy female high school students preferring sedentary leisure time activities. The research sample comprised of 90 male high school students (mean age 16.72 ± 1.33) and 126 female high school students (mean age 16.71 ± 1.36) who preferred sedentary types of leisure time activities with self-reported good health status. A standardized The Bern Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire for Adolescents (BFW) was used as a primary research method. We found significantly higher level of positive SWB dimension (U = 4281, p = 0.002, r = 172) and significantly lower level of negative SWB dimension (U = 2835, p = 0.000, r = 424) in the group of male high school students with self-reported good health status in comparison to female high school students. Parents should be involved in the selection of their children's leisure time activities, so it should not have only the sedentary character but also sport leisure time activities, mainly among young girls.

Keywords

  • positive and negative dimensions
  • male and female high school students
  • self-reported health status
  • sedentary types of leisure activities
Open Access

Changes of Body Posture in Elementary School Pupils by Applying Propriofoot Concept in P.E. Lessons

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 172 - 183

Abstract

Summary

Searching for active, effective intervention approaches, aimed to improving health protection, not only among children and youth, is an up-to-date research intention from a number of points of view. The reason is the prevalence of civilization diseases, in our case the muscular and skeletal system offers a number of issues of the prevention in relation to feet position and body posture. Based on the above, the aim of research was to identify change of body posture in elementary school pupil by applying Propriofoot Concept in physical and sport education. The monitored group (n = 1), within selected seventh year of Elementary School Radovan Kaufman in Partizánske, consisted of male pupil (n = 1) (12 years of age, 48 kg, 160 cm and 18.75 Bmi) in pubescence who underwent various data acquisition methods (plantogram and visual scale method, index method, method of evaluation body posture, evaluation of dynamic spine function), after and before applying Propriofoot Concept, within lessons of physical and sport education, as their processing and evaluation was realized with the help of clinical case reports. The analysis and synthesis, inductive and deductive approaches, comparisons and generalizations were used, as well as the primary statistics (arithmetic mean (±) and percentage frequency analysis (%). The obtained research results pointed to the positive changes in all of the above mentioned data acquisition methods, i.e. in the plantogram and visual scale method (from pes planus/1st pes planus to norm), index method (- 0.24), method of evaluation body posture (from bad to good posture) and dynamic spine function (tests of Schober - + 1.8, Stibor - + 3.1 and Otto - + .7, + .8). The applied six-week intervention physical program, in the form of Propriofoot Concept, and within the school lessons of physical and sport education changed the body posture in the elementary school pupil and therefore the Propriofoot Concept is considered as health tool in acting and changing the body posture through the foot proprioception. The mentioned concept is considered as diversification of school physical and sport education, in connection with the applying new variants of health tools and changing body postures of the elementary and high school pupils/students.

Keywords

  • Body posture
  • Foot
  • Muscular and skeletal system
  • Propriofoot Concept
  • Pupil
Open Access

The Effects of a 6-Week Strength and Endurance Circuit Training on Body Image of High School Girls

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 184 - 192

Abstract

Summary

The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge about the influence of strength and endurance circuit training intervention on body image of the female high school students. Our hypothesis was: The objectively and subjectively measured body image among the 16 – 17 years old females will be significantly improved after the participation in 6-week strength and endurance circuit training. We used experiment with 2 groups from 2nd class from the secondary school: experimental (intervention) group consists of 15 female students (age = 16.99 ± 0.29 years) and control group consists of 20 female students (age = 17.11 ± 0.36 years). The experimental factor was the strength and endurance circuit training, practicing during 6 weeks (twice a week), performed during the physical education lessons. The body image of the girl was measured using 2 methods: the objective one was the somatometry (body height, body weight and Body Mass Index), subjective measurements of the body image were the Silhouettes – Contour Drawing Rating Scale (Thomson & Gray 1995). After these 6 weeks we succeeded in every measurement of the body image – the significant effect was noticed in the experimental group in pre- and post-test on Body Mass Index (p = 0,003) and on Contour Drawing Rating Scale (p = 0,003). According to the received knowledge we suggest to integrate this movement program to the lessons of the physical and sport education for the female adolescents.

Keywords

  • body image
  • high school female students
  • strength and endurance
  • circuit training
Open Access

The Development of the Physiological Adjustment of Physical Loads and Its Impact on the Circulatory System and the Skills of Football Players

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 193 - 202

Abstract

Summary

This research was focused on the important question, what is the effect of the development of physiological adjustment of the physical load on the respiratory system and the performance of the skills of football players. In addition we tried to comfirm the relationship between the physical qualities and the performance of the skills. We have applied the experimental approach which best suits to this type of question. Proposing a program based on the physiological adjustment of the respiratory system, we applied the approach to a sample of twenty players (table 3), which were a deliberate sample divided into experimental and control, during the general physical preparation. The results confirmed that there are statistically significant differences between the pre-test and post-test of the experimental sample in both the respiratory system tests and the functional performance tests, in addition to statistical differences between the control and experimental groupe in the post-test.

Keywords

  • physiological adjustment
  • physical loads
  • respiratory system
  • skill performance
Open Access

Swimming Performance to 25 Meters Backstroke Depends on Selected Factors of Explosive Strength of Lower Limbs

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 203 - 213

Abstract

Summary

The aim of our work was to analyze the partial shares of selected factors of explosive strength of lower limbs on the overall explanation of swimming performance to the 25 meters backstroke. 29 students of Physical Education took part in our research and completed 6 tests. These tests were realized on a dry-land and in the water and they consisted of swimming performance to 25 meters backstroke, swimming start speed to 4 meters, vertical jump with and without arm-swing, maximum and average velocity of take-off performance on dry land under the backstroke start conditions. The obtained data are described by descriptive statistics and all parameters were entered to the correlation analysis for their dependence evaluation. By the analysis, we found that all tests significantly correlated with each other (p < 0.01; p < 0.05) except for the start to 4 meters test and Tendo velocity average test. For the evaluation of factors that determine the swimming performance to 25 meters backstroke, we use the regression analysis of parameters where the regression model was reflected as statistically significant (R2 = 0.479 %; SEE = 3.396 %). Partial shares of individual tests, except for tests of maximal and average velocity on a dryland, showed up as statistically significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.01), with the highest share of swimming start to 4 meters performance (p < 0.01; r = 0.686). We used the regression step analysis in which we decrease the indicators to the three main factors of the strength of lower limbs model, which influence the swimming performance to the 25 meters backstroke significantly with large effect (R2 = 0.4787 %; f2 = 0.9183; F = 7.652; p < 0.01). Again, the highest and statistically significant (p < 0.01) share on the explanation of swimming performance had the start to 4 meters with 43.33 % percentage share. Besides the swimming start, the Countermovement Jump test was statistically significant too (p < 0.05) and statistically insignificant was test of maximum velocity on a dry-land. By this study we can evaluate how individual factors of strength of lower limbs influence the swimming performance and for the future it is necessary to complete them with the other factors for the better creation of the appropriate swimming training program.

Keywords

  • swimming
  • backstroke
  • lower limbs
  • performance
Open Access

Diagnostics of Didactic Competencies of Students of Faculty of Physical Education and Sport

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 214 - 223

Abstract

Summary

Physical education has been the subject of research for a long time. Research focuses most often on the use of time to get pupils to move actively or on their physical load during a lesson. The evaluation of the didactic interaction of the teaching student - pupil(s) is also an essential area of research. The aim of the paper is to introduce the MADI method and its subsequent use in the evaluation of didactic outputs of teaching students in subjects focused on the didactics of swimming. The method Analysis of Didactic Interaction (ADI) has been modified to assess didactic interactions between the teaching (student) - pupil(s). Modified Analysis of Didactic Interaction (MADI) was created by reducing the number of monitored categories and focusing attention on the activity of the student. The achieved results showed that the most frequent form of behaviour among the students was observation followed by instruction. This influenced both the form of their manifestations, dominated by silence, and the overall manifestation, which was neutral and mostly without material significance. In terms of activities that have been the subject of didactic interaction, students have been taught these activities. The results obtained show that the chosen method seems to be effective for evaluation of didactic output of teaching students. A deeper analysis of student didactic outcomes can contribute to influencing the quality of student didactic competencies. At the same time, it can also serve as a feedback tool on their didactic activities for their faculty teachers.

Keywords

  • didactic interaction
  • communication
  • didactic competence
  • modified analysis of didactic interaction
  • swimming
Open Access

Impact of Age and Agility Performance Level on the Disjunctive Reaction Time of Soccer Goalkeepers

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 224 - 238

Abstract

Summary

The soccer goalkeeper's reaction speed to stimulus is essential for the overall success rate of goalkeepers in soccer. Our research was aimed at finding out the impact of age and agility performance level on the length of the disjunctive reaction time of elite goalkeepers in Slovakia. The research group was comprised of 24 goalkeepers of two Slovak soccer clubs (in group A were elite players and in group B sub-elite players). To gain the research data, the disjunctive reaction time was measured using the Fitro Agility Check device. The acquired results were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U-Test and Cohen's “d”. The impact of age (n.s) and performance level (n.s) on the length of the disjunctive reaction time of goalkeepers was not statistically confirmed. However, the substantive and logical significance showed that the best goalkeepers achieved a considerably shorter time of disjunctive reaction time to the set stimulus (difference – 20 %).

Keywords

  • soccer
  • goalkeeper
  • disjunctive reaction time
  • age
  • agility performance level
14 Articles
Open Access

The Relationship Between the Models of Sport Commitment and Self-Determination among Adolescent Athletes

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 79 - 95

Abstract

Summary

This study examined the relationship between the Sport Commitment Model and the Self-Determination Theory. The participants were 214 adolescent athletes who completed the Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and the Hungarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Several commitment sources predicted SMS scores as well. Amotivation was predicted by the obligatory reason for commitment such as Personal Investment-Loss and Other Priorities. External Regulation was predicted by Social factors of commitment. Introjected Regulation was determined by Desire to Excel-Mastery and Personal Investment-Loss. Identified Regulation was explained by Desire to Excel-Mastery, Valuable Opportunities, and Personal Investment-Loss. Integrated Regulation was explained with Valuable Opportunities, Desire to Excel-Mastery, Personal Investment-Loss and Social Support-Informal. The Intrinsic Motivation subscale was significantly predicted by Desire to Excel-Mastery, Personal Investment-Loss, Sport Enjoyment and Social Support-Informal. As we see the types of commitment showed a clear association with SMS, however the commitment sources showed a complex relationship with self-determination, thus it is hard to separate them on the Self-determination continuum.

Keywords

  • enthusiastic commitment
  • constraints commitment
  • regression
  • athletes
  • motivation
Open Access

Gender Differences in Quality of Life and Physical Activity of High School Students

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 96 - 110

Abstract

Summary

This article demonstrates the gender differences between the physical activity (PA), the joy of physical activity (PACES) and quality of life areas of boys and girls from high schools with different sports level and in the different ages. In this survey participated 630 boys and 672 girls from high schools in the age from 16 to 19 years. The quality of life is measured by the SQUALA survey, joy of the movement by the PACES survey, and the level of physical activity per week in hours by PAQ survey. The level of sports performance is defined by levels (occasional, active and registered sportsman). The data are presented by descriptive characteristics (n, M, SD) and the significance of differences and the relations are measure by non-parametric methods (W, rs). Differences in the PA, PACES, SQUALA levels at the group of boys and girls in the different age and sports level are rare. Different load of physical activity relates to sport level. It was not proven that with the increasing sports level, the joy of the physical activity also rises. The interactions between indicators of PA, PACES, and SQUALA in boys and girls in the different age and sports level were proven sporadically with a predominance of negative correlations. In most cases, the positive interactions of PA with PACES and areas of physical well-being was not proven. The higher appearance of positive correlations of PA with areas of SQUALA prevails in 18-years old girls. Boys show the higher number of interactions of PACES with areas of SQUALA. The joy of the movement positively correlates with spiritual well-being in groups of 18-19 years old boys, which perform physical activities in all sports levels. The gender differences between monitored indicators show that the gender factor is very important in this study. The age and sport level factor contributed significantly in the differentiated results of high school boys and girls.

Keywords

  • quality of life
  • joy of the movement
  • physical activity
  • age
  • gender
  • sports level
Open Access

The Relationship Between Swimming Performance and Time Parameters of the Start and Turn

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 111 - 117

Abstract

Summary

The start and the turn are factors that influence performance in different swimming disciplines. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of selected time parameters of the start and the turn with sport performance of 100 m and 1 500 m freestyle finalists in the Olympic Games 2016. Monitored parameters of the start were the start reaction, time under water after the start, and time at a distance of 15 m after the start. The monitored parameters of the turn were the time of 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn, the time under water after the turn, and time reached at a distance of 15 m after the turn. There was any significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed start indicators. The significant correlation of the resulting time to 1 500 m and the observed turn indicators was time 5 m before the turn r = 0.952 (p = 0.000); the duration of the turn r = 0.830 (p = 0.011); time at a distance of 15 m after the turn r = 0.886 (p = 0.003). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed start indicators was time under water after the start r = −0.714 (p = 0.047). The significant correlation of the resulting time to 100 m and the observed turn indicators was the duration of the turn was r = 0.905 (p = 0.002). The results point out the existing relations between 100 m freestyle and time under water after start and duration of the turn. And for 1 500 m existing relations with time 5 m before the turn, the duration of the turn and time at a distance of 15 m after the turn. Therefore, our recommendations for sports practice include development of speed, power and coordination skills with technical execution of the start and the turn into regular swimming training.

Keywords

  • aquatic sport
  • freestyle
  • Olympic games
  • finalists
Open Access

The Effect of Biological Age in the Evaluation of Physical Indicators and the Changes in Selected Motoric Tests of Young Female Basketball Players

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 118 - 128

Abstract

Summary

Basketball is a complex team sport, which combines cyclic and acyclic motion structures consisting mainly of fast and dynamic moves with or without a ball. The puberty is characterized by considerable variability that may occur earlier (developmental acceleration, early maturing) or later (developmental retardation, late maturing): an example can be a 12-year-old girl whom biological age could range from 9.5 to 14.5 years. For this study we selected 6 girls-players from the whole team. Two players were according to the norms from the zone of developmental retardation (BioRet), two players whose decimal and biological age i.e. bone age was identical (DC = BV), and the other two were in the biological acceleration zone (BioAkc.). All players were 13-years old and competed in the U14 category. We have confirmed that there are great differences in biological age in a group of 13-years old girls – in our research it has shown almost four years difference. We did not confirm the author's conclusions that biologically accelerated individuals achieved better results than the retarded ones in the speed and strength tests.

Keywords

  • biological age
  • decimal age
  • young athlete
  • somatic and speed abilities
  • strength
Open Access

Motivation and Physical Education Learning Achievement among Students with Hearing Impairment

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 129 - 137

Abstract

Summary

Playing is a pleasure for every child with no exception to the children who have physical disorder and their capability of motion is limited. Children with hearing impairment need appropriate motivation for learning and performing physical activities. This motivation affects also their Physical Education. For students with the hearing impairment, the materials that are supposed to be taught during the physical education lessons are divided according to the level of disability. Under these circumstances, the research is conducted to determine the relationship between the motivation to learn during the Physical Education lessons and the academic achievement among students with hearing impairment. Researchers used traditional Quantitative methods of research with 40 Junior High School students with hearing impairment from Indonesia, Sekolah Menengah Pertama Luar Biasa (SMPLB), category B. We used the questionnaire dealing with learning motivation of children to collect the data. The data were processed using the SPSS and analyzed by descriptive quantitative operations. Results of the study showed, that there is a relationship between learning motivation of Physical Education and learning outcomes of Physical Education among students of Category B SMPLB, where the value of 0,000 is less than 0.05.

Keywords

  • learning motivation
  • Physical Education
  • academic achievement
  • deaf students
Open Access

Spinal Mobility in Women with Sedentary Job

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 138 - 147

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the paper is to provide insight into the spine mobility of a selected group of women. The task was to diagnose and evaluate spinal mobility in women aged 25 to 30, who are dominated by a sedentary way in workplace but also outside the work environment. Spinalmouse® technology was used for diagnostic purposes, which records the shape and mobility of the spine in the sagittal and frontal plane. Tests were performed in the sagittal and frontal plane of the baseline. The sm® software evaluated the measured data immediately. Based on the results of the measurements, we found different curves in specific spine sectors outside the standards. Changes in spine movement range were also noted. The research continues.

Keywords

  • intervention
  • Mobility
  • Movement
  • Spinal mouse
  • Scoliosis
  • Curvature
Open Access

The Effect of High-Intensity Exercise on Changes of Blood Concentration Components in Algerian National Judo Athletes

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 148 - 160

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the present study to verify the impact of judo competition on changes in the blood count of judo athletes during an official competition. Also to compare these results with the different weight category. Methods: fifteen youth trained athletes were included in the study were divided into three groups according to weight category (light, medial, and heavy) weight. All subjects performed a 5×4mn round of competition with 15mn of rest between rounds and Complete Blood Count (CBC) were collected before, immediately after the competition, Data are reported as mean and standard deviation. The Shapiro-Wilk test was performed to verify the normality of the data, and the significance level was set at P < 0.05. Blood sample count was tested by a paired Student’s t-test to compare the pre-test and post-test for the three groups. The results showed that blood cell count was significantly decreased immediately after judo competition (p < 0.05). However, red blood cell, White blood cell Blood platelets, Mean Cell Volume were significantly increased after the performance (p < 0.05). The current study showed that the judo competition (Rondori) effectively enhance some blood cell count; these changes are transient and probably due to the adaptation to efforts related to judo competition in highly-trained athletes.

Keywords

  • Randori
  • blood count
  • judo Athletes
Open Access

Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being of Healthy High-School Students

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 161 - 171

Abstract

Summary

The objective of this study was to analyse the level of subjective well-being (SWB) through five SWB dimensions and compare it between healthy male and healthy female high school students preferring sedentary leisure time activities. The research sample comprised of 90 male high school students (mean age 16.72 ± 1.33) and 126 female high school students (mean age 16.71 ± 1.36) who preferred sedentary types of leisure time activities with self-reported good health status. A standardized The Bern Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire for Adolescents (BFW) was used as a primary research method. We found significantly higher level of positive SWB dimension (U = 4281, p = 0.002, r = 172) and significantly lower level of negative SWB dimension (U = 2835, p = 0.000, r = 424) in the group of male high school students with self-reported good health status in comparison to female high school students. Parents should be involved in the selection of their children's leisure time activities, so it should not have only the sedentary character but also sport leisure time activities, mainly among young girls.

Keywords

  • positive and negative dimensions
  • male and female high school students
  • self-reported health status
  • sedentary types of leisure activities
Open Access

Changes of Body Posture in Elementary School Pupils by Applying Propriofoot Concept in P.E. Lessons

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 172 - 183

Abstract

Summary

Searching for active, effective intervention approaches, aimed to improving health protection, not only among children and youth, is an up-to-date research intention from a number of points of view. The reason is the prevalence of civilization diseases, in our case the muscular and skeletal system offers a number of issues of the prevention in relation to feet position and body posture. Based on the above, the aim of research was to identify change of body posture in elementary school pupil by applying Propriofoot Concept in physical and sport education. The monitored group (n = 1), within selected seventh year of Elementary School Radovan Kaufman in Partizánske, consisted of male pupil (n = 1) (12 years of age, 48 kg, 160 cm and 18.75 Bmi) in pubescence who underwent various data acquisition methods (plantogram and visual scale method, index method, method of evaluation body posture, evaluation of dynamic spine function), after and before applying Propriofoot Concept, within lessons of physical and sport education, as their processing and evaluation was realized with the help of clinical case reports. The analysis and synthesis, inductive and deductive approaches, comparisons and generalizations were used, as well as the primary statistics (arithmetic mean (±) and percentage frequency analysis (%). The obtained research results pointed to the positive changes in all of the above mentioned data acquisition methods, i.e. in the plantogram and visual scale method (from pes planus/1st pes planus to norm), index method (- 0.24), method of evaluation body posture (from bad to good posture) and dynamic spine function (tests of Schober - + 1.8, Stibor - + 3.1 and Otto - + .7, + .8). The applied six-week intervention physical program, in the form of Propriofoot Concept, and within the school lessons of physical and sport education changed the body posture in the elementary school pupil and therefore the Propriofoot Concept is considered as health tool in acting and changing the body posture through the foot proprioception. The mentioned concept is considered as diversification of school physical and sport education, in connection with the applying new variants of health tools and changing body postures of the elementary and high school pupils/students.

Keywords

  • Body posture
  • Foot
  • Muscular and skeletal system
  • Propriofoot Concept
  • Pupil
Open Access

The Effects of a 6-Week Strength and Endurance Circuit Training on Body Image of High School Girls

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 184 - 192

Abstract

Summary

The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge about the influence of strength and endurance circuit training intervention on body image of the female high school students. Our hypothesis was: The objectively and subjectively measured body image among the 16 – 17 years old females will be significantly improved after the participation in 6-week strength and endurance circuit training. We used experiment with 2 groups from 2nd class from the secondary school: experimental (intervention) group consists of 15 female students (age = 16.99 ± 0.29 years) and control group consists of 20 female students (age = 17.11 ± 0.36 years). The experimental factor was the strength and endurance circuit training, practicing during 6 weeks (twice a week), performed during the physical education lessons. The body image of the girl was measured using 2 methods: the objective one was the somatometry (body height, body weight and Body Mass Index), subjective measurements of the body image were the Silhouettes – Contour Drawing Rating Scale (Thomson & Gray 1995). After these 6 weeks we succeeded in every measurement of the body image – the significant effect was noticed in the experimental group in pre- and post-test on Body Mass Index (p = 0,003) and on Contour Drawing Rating Scale (p = 0,003). According to the received knowledge we suggest to integrate this movement program to the lessons of the physical and sport education for the female adolescents.

Keywords

  • body image
  • high school female students
  • strength and endurance
  • circuit training
Open Access

The Development of the Physiological Adjustment of Physical Loads and Its Impact on the Circulatory System and the Skills of Football Players

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 193 - 202

Abstract

Summary

This research was focused on the important question, what is the effect of the development of physiological adjustment of the physical load on the respiratory system and the performance of the skills of football players. In addition we tried to comfirm the relationship between the physical qualities and the performance of the skills. We have applied the experimental approach which best suits to this type of question. Proposing a program based on the physiological adjustment of the respiratory system, we applied the approach to a sample of twenty players (table 3), which were a deliberate sample divided into experimental and control, during the general physical preparation. The results confirmed that there are statistically significant differences between the pre-test and post-test of the experimental sample in both the respiratory system tests and the functional performance tests, in addition to statistical differences between the control and experimental groupe in the post-test.

Keywords

  • physiological adjustment
  • physical loads
  • respiratory system
  • skill performance
Open Access

Swimming Performance to 25 Meters Backstroke Depends on Selected Factors of Explosive Strength of Lower Limbs

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 203 - 213

Abstract

Summary

The aim of our work was to analyze the partial shares of selected factors of explosive strength of lower limbs on the overall explanation of swimming performance to the 25 meters backstroke. 29 students of Physical Education took part in our research and completed 6 tests. These tests were realized on a dry-land and in the water and they consisted of swimming performance to 25 meters backstroke, swimming start speed to 4 meters, vertical jump with and without arm-swing, maximum and average velocity of take-off performance on dry land under the backstroke start conditions. The obtained data are described by descriptive statistics and all parameters were entered to the correlation analysis for their dependence evaluation. By the analysis, we found that all tests significantly correlated with each other (p < 0.01; p < 0.05) except for the start to 4 meters test and Tendo velocity average test. For the evaluation of factors that determine the swimming performance to 25 meters backstroke, we use the regression analysis of parameters where the regression model was reflected as statistically significant (R2 = 0.479 %; SEE = 3.396 %). Partial shares of individual tests, except for tests of maximal and average velocity on a dryland, showed up as statistically significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.01), with the highest share of swimming start to 4 meters performance (p < 0.01; r = 0.686). We used the regression step analysis in which we decrease the indicators to the three main factors of the strength of lower limbs model, which influence the swimming performance to the 25 meters backstroke significantly with large effect (R2 = 0.4787 %; f2 = 0.9183; F = 7.652; p < 0.01). Again, the highest and statistically significant (p < 0.01) share on the explanation of swimming performance had the start to 4 meters with 43.33 % percentage share. Besides the swimming start, the Countermovement Jump test was statistically significant too (p < 0.05) and statistically insignificant was test of maximum velocity on a dry-land. By this study we can evaluate how individual factors of strength of lower limbs influence the swimming performance and for the future it is necessary to complete them with the other factors for the better creation of the appropriate swimming training program.

Keywords

  • swimming
  • backstroke
  • lower limbs
  • performance
Open Access

Diagnostics of Didactic Competencies of Students of Faculty of Physical Education and Sport

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 214 - 223

Abstract

Summary

Physical education has been the subject of research for a long time. Research focuses most often on the use of time to get pupils to move actively or on their physical load during a lesson. The evaluation of the didactic interaction of the teaching student - pupil(s) is also an essential area of research. The aim of the paper is to introduce the MADI method and its subsequent use in the evaluation of didactic outputs of teaching students in subjects focused on the didactics of swimming. The method Analysis of Didactic Interaction (ADI) has been modified to assess didactic interactions between the teaching (student) - pupil(s). Modified Analysis of Didactic Interaction (MADI) was created by reducing the number of monitored categories and focusing attention on the activity of the student. The achieved results showed that the most frequent form of behaviour among the students was observation followed by instruction. This influenced both the form of their manifestations, dominated by silence, and the overall manifestation, which was neutral and mostly without material significance. In terms of activities that have been the subject of didactic interaction, students have been taught these activities. The results obtained show that the chosen method seems to be effective for evaluation of didactic output of teaching students. A deeper analysis of student didactic outcomes can contribute to influencing the quality of student didactic competencies. At the same time, it can also serve as a feedback tool on their didactic activities for their faculty teachers.

Keywords

  • didactic interaction
  • communication
  • didactic competence
  • modified analysis of didactic interaction
  • swimming
Open Access

Impact of Age and Agility Performance Level on the Disjunctive Reaction Time of Soccer Goalkeepers

Published Online: 21 Nov 2019
Page range: 224 - 238

Abstract

Summary

The soccer goalkeeper's reaction speed to stimulus is essential for the overall success rate of goalkeepers in soccer. Our research was aimed at finding out the impact of age and agility performance level on the length of the disjunctive reaction time of elite goalkeepers in Slovakia. The research group was comprised of 24 goalkeepers of two Slovak soccer clubs (in group A were elite players and in group B sub-elite players). To gain the research data, the disjunctive reaction time was measured using the Fitro Agility Check device. The acquired results were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U-Test and Cohen's “d”. The impact of age (n.s) and performance level (n.s) on the length of the disjunctive reaction time of goalkeepers was not statistically confirmed. However, the substantive and logical significance showed that the best goalkeepers achieved a considerably shorter time of disjunctive reaction time to the set stimulus (difference – 20 %).

Keywords

  • soccer
  • goalkeeper
  • disjunctive reaction time
  • age
  • agility performance level

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