1. bookVolume 61 (2021): Issue 2 (November 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Gender Differences in Attitudes of Students Attending Non-Inclusive School Towards Inclusive Physical Education

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 61 (2021) - Issue 2 (November 2021)
Page range: 156 - 171
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Summary

The objective of the study was to determine and compare the attitudes of high school students of the non-inclusive school towards inclusive physical education according to gender. This study deepened the knowledge about the students’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with physical and intellectual disabilities. The research sample comprised a total of 181 able-bodied high school students (56 boys and 125 girls) attending one non-inclusive high school in Bratislava, Slovakia. Modified Czech version of the CAIPE (Children’s Attitude toward Inclusive Physical Education) questionnaire was used as a primary research method. Girls presented higher levels of positive attitudes towards inclusive physical education (IPE) in goal achievement, motivation, and motor skills learning. Boys showed a higher level of positive attitudes in the self-confidence of students with disabilities through IPE. In the goal achievement, girls expressed a significantly higher positive attitude towards IPE in students with intellectual disabilities inclusion (U = 2817, p = 0.029, r = 0.168). The highest level of a positive attitude toward IPE declared both genders by society inclusion and the lowest level of positive attitude by motor skills acquisition. Slovak students of a non-inclusive high school showed a positive attitude toward IPE for the inclusion of pupils with physical as well as intellectual disabilities.

Keywords

1. BAILEY, R., 2005. Evaluating the relationship between physical education, sport and social inclusion. In: Educational Review. 57(1), pp. 71-90.10.1080/0013191042000274196 Search in Google Scholar

2. BENDÍKOVÁ, E., 2016. Curricular transformation of education on the field of physical and sport education in Slovakia. In: European Journal of Contemporary Education. 18(4), pp. 410-417.10.13187/ejced.2016.18.410 Search in Google Scholar

3. BENDÍKOVÁ, E. & B. DOBAY, 2017. Physical and Sport Education as a Tool for Development of a Positive Attitude toward Health and Physical Activity in Adulthood. In: European Journal of Contemporary Education. 6(1), pp. 14-21.10.13187/ejced.2017.1.14 Search in Google Scholar

4. BENDÍKOVÁ, E., M. MARKO & L. ŠMÍDA, 2018. Influence of Change in Content of Physical and Sport Education as Case Study on Level of Dynamic Function of Spine among Secondary School Female Students. In: European Journal of Contemporary Education. 7(4), pp. 633-641.10.13187/ejced.2018.4.633 Search in Google Scholar

5. BERTILLS, K., M. GRANLUND & L. AUGUSTINE, 2019. Inclusive teaching skills and student engagement in physical education. In: Frontiers in Education. 4(74), pp. 1-13.10.3389/feduc.2019.00074 Search in Google Scholar

6. BLOCK, M.E., 1995. Development and validation of children’s attitudes toward integrated physical education-revised (CAIPE-R) inventory. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 12(1), pp. 60–77.10.1123/apaq.12.1.60 Search in Google Scholar

7. BLOCK, M.E., 2016. A Teacher’s Guide to Adapted Physical Education: Including Students with Disabilities in Sports and Recreation. London: Brookes Publishing. Search in Google Scholar

8. BOOTH, T. & M. AINSCOW, 2011. Index for Inclusion: developing learning and participation in schools. Bristol: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education. Search in Google Scholar

9. BURTON, A.W. & DAVIS, W.E., 1996. Ecological task analysis utilizing intrinsic measures in research and practice. In: Human Movement Science. 15(2), pp. 285-314.10.1016/0167-9457(95)00047-X Search in Google Scholar

10. DAVIS, W.E. & A.W. BURTON, 1991. Ecological Task Analysis: Translating Movement Behavior Theory into Practice. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 8(2), pp. 154–177.10.1123/apaq.8.2.154 Search in Google Scholar

11. DeBOER, A., S.J. PIJL, W. POST & A. MINNAERT, 2012. Peer Acceptance and Friendships of Students with Disabilities in General Education: The Role of Child, Peer, and Classroom Variables. In: Social Development. 35(3), pp. 831–844.10.1111/j.1467-9507.2012.00670.x Search in Google Scholar

12. DeLEEUW, R.R., A. DeBOER & A. MINNAERT, 2019. What do Dutch general education teachers do to facilitate the social participation of students with SEBD?” In: International Journal of Inclusive Education. 35(4), pp. 1–24.10.1080/13603116.2018.1514081 Search in Google Scholar

13. DOWNS, P. & T. WILLIAMS, 1994. Student attitudes toward integration of people with disabilities in activity settings: A European comparison. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 11(1), pp. 32–43.10.1123/apaq.11.1.32 Search in Google Scholar

14. FREDERICKSON, N.L. & A.F. FURNHAM, 1998. Sociometric-status-group classification of mainstreamed children who have moderate learning difficulties: An investigation of personal and environmental factors. In: Journal of Educational Psychology. 90(4), pp. 772–783.10.1037/0022-0663.90.4.772 Search in Google Scholar

15. FURRER, V., S. VALKANOVER, M. ECKHART & S. NAGEL, 2020. The role of teaching strategies in social acceptance and interactions; Considering students with intellectual disabilities in inclusive physical education. In: Frontiers in Education. 5, pp. 586960.10.3389/feduc.2020.586960 Search in Google Scholar

16. GARROTE, A., R. SERMIER DESSEMONTET & E. MOSER OPITZ, 2017. Facilitating the social participation of pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools: A review of school-based interventions. In: Educational Research and Reviews. 20(4), pp. 12–23.10.1016/j.edurev.2016.11.001 Search in Google Scholar

17. GASSER, L., J. GRÜTTER, L. TORCHETTI & A. BUHOLZER, 2017. Competitive classroom norms and exclusion of children with academic and behavior difficulties. In: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 49, pp. 1–11.10.1016/j.appdev.2016.12.002 Search in Google Scholar

18. GILBERT, E.N., 2019. Designing Inclusive Physical Education with Universal Design for Learning. In: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 90(7), pp. 15-21.10.1080/07303084.2019.1637305 Search in Google Scholar

19. GOODWIN, D.L., 2000. Inclusive physical education: ecological instruction approaches and the use of adaptation and modification. In: Journal CAHPERD. 66(1), pp. 12-13. Search in Google Scholar

20. GOODWIN, D.L., 2001. Meaning of help in PE: Perceptions of students with physical disabilities. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 18(3), pp. 189–303.10.1123/apaq.18.3.289 Search in Google Scholar

21. GOODWIN, D. & E. WATKINSON, 2000. Inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with physical disabilities. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 17(2), pp. 144–160.10.1123/apaq.17.2.144 Search in Google Scholar

22. GRÜTTER, J., B. MEYER & A. GLENZ, 2014. Sozialer Ausschluss in Integrationsklassen: Ansichtssache? In: Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht. 62(1), pp. 65–82.10.2378/peu2015.art05d Search in Google Scholar

23. HUBER, C., 2009. Soziale Ausgrenzung in der Integration von Schülern mit sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf: Zusammenhang von Persönlichkeit, Gruppenheterogenität und sozialer Ausgrenzung. In: Empirische Pädagogik. 23, pp. 170–190. Search in Google Scholar

24. HUNT, P. & J. McDONNELL, 2007. Inclusive Education. In: Odom SL, Horner RH, Snell ME, Blacher J, editors. Handbook of Developmental Disabilities. New York: The Guilford Press; 2007. pp. 269-291. Search in Google Scholar

25. HUTZLER, Y., 2012. Attitudes toward the participation of individuals with disabilities in physical activity: A review. In: Quest. 55(4), pp. 347–373.10.1080/00336297.2003.10491809 Search in Google Scholar

26. JANOŠKO, P., 2011. Inclusive education – Its benefits, perspectives and limits in the context of the Slovak Republic. In: e-Pedagogium. 11(3), pp. 97-104.10.5507/epd.2011.036 Search in Google Scholar

27. KART, A. & M. KART, 2021. Academic and social effects of inclusion on students without disabilities: A review of the literature. In: Education Sciences. 11(16), pp. 1-13.10.3390/educsci11010016 Search in Google Scholar

28. KUDLÁČEK, M., O. JEŠINA & J. WITTMANNOVÁ, 2011. Structure of a questionnaire on children’s attitudes towards inclusive physical education (CAIPE-CZ). In: Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica. 41(4), pp. 43-48.10.5507/ag.2011.025 Search in Google Scholar

29. KUDLÁČEK, M., H. VÁLKOVÁ, C. SHERRILL, B. MYERS & R. FRENCH, 2002. An inclusion instrument based on planned behavior theory for prospective Czech physical educators. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 19(3), pp. 280–299.10.1123/apaq.19.3.28028195764 Search in Google Scholar

30. KURKOVÁ, P. & D. NEMČEK, 2016. Attitudes of students with disabilities towards physical education lessons: Reasons for their indifference and preference for leisure time activities. In: Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 16(1), pp. 222-229. Search in Google Scholar

31. KURKOVÁ, P. & D. NEMČEK, 2018. Preferences and reasons for the lack of interest of Czech teenagers with sensory disability in physical education classes. In: Physical Activity Review. 6, pp. 171-180.10.16926/par.2018.06.22 Search in Google Scholar

32. KURKOVÁ, P. & N.A. SCHEETZ, 2016. Communication Strategies Used by Physical Education Teachers and Coaches in Residential Schools for the Deaf in the U.S. In: Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comanianae. 56(1), pp. 1-15.10.1515/afepuc-2016-0001 Search in Google Scholar

33. KURKOVÁ, P., 2018. Attitudes of Czech pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing toward physical education classes: A comparison of gender differences. In: Acta Gymnica. 48(2), pp. 83-90.10.5507/ag.2018.008 Search in Google Scholar

34. KURKOVÁ, P., 2019. Comparison of differences students’ viewing in the Czech elementary schools for the deaf in physical education classes with other studies. In: Physical Activity Review. 7, pp. 168-174.10.16926/par.2019.07.20 Search in Google Scholar

35. MEEGEAN, S. & A. MacPHAIL, 2006. Irish physical educators’ attitude toward teaching students with special educational needs. In: European Physical Education Review. 12(1), pp. 75–97.10.1177/1356336X06060213 Search in Google Scholar

36. NAVARRO-MATEU, D., J. FRANCO-OCHOA, S. VALERO-MORENO & V. PRADO-GASCÓ, 2020. Attitudes, Sentiments, and Concerns About Inclusive Education of Teachers and Teaching Students in Spain. In: Frontiers in Psychology. 11(521), pp. 1-11.10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00521715415832318002 Search in Google Scholar

37. NEMČEK, D. & P. BUMBERA, 2021. Názory žiakov druhého stupňa základných škôl na integrované vyučovanie telesnej a športovej výchovy [Opinions of second grade primary school pupils on integrated physical education]. In: Telesná výchova & šport. 31(2), pp. 34-39. Search in Google Scholar

38. OBRUSNÍKOVÁ, I., H. VÁLKOVÁ & M.E. BLOCK, 2003. Impact of inclusion in general physical education on students without disabilities. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 20(3), pp. 230–245.10.1123/apaq.20.3.230 Search in Google Scholar

39. PAN, C.Y., C.L. TSAI, CH. CHU & K.W. HSIEH, 2011. Physical activity and self-determined motivation of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders in inclusive physical education. In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 5(2), pp. 733-741.10.1016/j.rasd.2010.08.007 Search in Google Scholar

40. PARK, S.S., K.O.H. YOUNGHWAN & M.E. BLOCK, 2014. Contributing Factors for Successful Inclusive Physical Education. In: Palaestra. 28(1), pp. 42–49. Search in Google Scholar

41. PRŮŽEK, M., I. CIHOVÁ, D. NOVAK, X. WANG, J. VAŠÍČKOVÁ, Ľ. TOMÁNEK & B. ANTALA, 2020. Inclusion in physical education on the basis of opinions of high school female students from Slovakia, Czech Republic and Croatia. In: Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 20(3), pp. 1538-1542. Search in Google Scholar

42. RIZZO, T.L. & D.R. KIRKENDALL, 1995. Teaching Students with Mild Disabilities: What Affects Attitudes of Future Physical Educators? In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 12(3), pp. 205–216.10.1123/apaq.12.3.205 Search in Google Scholar

43. RIZZO, T.L., 1984. Attitudes of physical educators toward teaching handicapped pupils. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 1(4), pp. 267–274.10.1123/apaq.1.4.267 Search in Google Scholar

44. RUIJS, N.M. & T. PEETSMA, 2009. Effect of inclusion on students with and without special educational needs. In: Educational Research Review. 4(2), pp. 67-79.10.1016/j.edurev.2009.02.002 Search in Google Scholar

45. RUIZ-PÉREZ, L.M., M. PALOMO-NIETO, M.A. GÓMEZ-RUANO & J.A. NAVIA-MANZANO, 2018. When We Were Clumsy: Some Memories of Adults who were Low Skilled in Physical Education at School. In: Journal of Physical Education Sports Management. 5(1), pp. 30–36. Search in Google Scholar

46. SANSI, A., S. NALBANT & D. OZER, 2021. Effects of an Inclusive Physical Activity Program on the Motor Skills, Social Skills and Attitudes of Students with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder. In: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 51, pp. 2254-2270.10.1007/s10803-020-04693-z32940823 Search in Google Scholar

47. SCHULTZ, J.L., L.J. LIEBERMAN, M.K. ELLIS & L.C. HILGENBRINCK, 20113. Ensuring the Success of Deaf Students in Inclusive Physical Education. In: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 2013; 84(5): 51-56.10.1080/07303084.2013.779535 Search in Google Scholar

48. SCHWAB, S., M. GEBHARDT, M. KRAMMER & B. GASTEIGER-KLICPERA, 2014. Linking self-rated social inclusion to social behaviour. An empirical study of students with and without special education needs in secondary schools. In: European Journal of Special Needs Education. 30(1), pp. 1–14.10.1080/08856257.2014.933550 Search in Google Scholar

49. SEYMOUR, H., G. REID & G.A. BLOOM, 2021. Friendship in inclusive physical education. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 26(3), pp. 201–219.10.1123/apaq.26.3.20119799094 Search in Google Scholar

50. SHERRILL, C., 2004. Adapted physical activity, recreation and sport: Cross-disciplinary and lifespan. 6th ed. Boston: Mc Graw-Hill. Search in Google Scholar

51. SLININGER, D., C. SHERRILL & C.M. JANKOWSKI, 2000. Children’s Attitudes Toward Peers with Severe Disabilities: Revisiting Contact Theory. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 17(2), pp. 176–196.10.1123/apaq.17.2.176 Search in Google Scholar

52. TALBOT, M., 2001. The case for physical education. In: Doll-Tepper G, Scoretz D, editors. World Summit on Physical Education. Germany, Berlin: ICSSPE, pp. 39-50. Search in Google Scholar

53. TODOROVICH, J., 2013. Chinese teachers’ beliefs about inclusive physical education. In: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 84(2), 13.10.1080/07303084.2013.757178 Search in Google Scholar

54. TRISTANI, L., J. TOMASONE, H. GAINFORTH & R. BASSETT-GUNTER, 2021. Taking steps to inclusion: A content analysis of a resource aimed to support teachers in delivering inclusive physical education. In: International Journal of Disability, Development and Education. 68(1), pp. 116-135.10.1080/1034912X.2019.1662890 Search in Google Scholar

55. UNESCO, 2017. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. Search in Google Scholar

56. VOGLER, E.W., P. KORANDA & T. ROMANCE, 2021. Including a child of severe cerebral palsy in physical education: A case study. In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 17(2), pp. 161–175.10.1123/apaq.17.2.161 Search in Google Scholar

57. WILHITE, B., G. BIREN & L. SPENCER, 2012. Fitness Intervention for Adults with Developmental Disabilities and their Caregivers. In: Therapeutic Recreation Journal. 46(4), pp. 245-267. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo