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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 68 (2020): Edition 3 (September 2020)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Three-dimensional numerical study of submerged spatial hydraulic jumps

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 211 - 222

Résumé

Abstract

A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate submerged spatial hydraulic jumps (SSHJ) downstream of a symmetric vent that discharges into a wider channel. Simulations were carried out for different aspect ratios of the vent, expansion ratios of vent width to downstream channel width, tailwater depth, and inlet Froude number. Depending on these factors, simulations indicated the formation of steady asymmetric SSHJ, oscillatory asymmetric SSHJ, and steady symmetric SSHJ, consistent with results of previous experimental studies. The model reproduced observed depth downstream of vent, jump length, and velocity profiles along channel centerline for steady symmetric SSHJ. For oscillatory asymmetric SSHJ, simulated oscillation frequencies had Strouhal numbers that varied with expansion ratio and ranged between 0.003 and 0.015. With piers downstream of the vent, oscillatory SSHJ continued to exhibit jet deflections when pier length was relatively short ( ≲ 0.2 of jump length) but became steady asymmetric for longer piers.

Mots clés

  • Abrupt channel expansion
  • Submerged spatial hydraulic jump
  • Asymmetric jump
  • Oscillatory jump
  • Computational fluid dynamics
access type Accès libre

A modification of predictive three-component model for turbulent flows of complex slurries in pipelines based on experimental results

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 223 - 230

Résumé

Abstract

The paper describes a mathematical and physical modelling of flow of complex slurries in pipelines, i.e. a flow of slurries composed of solids covering a very broad range of particle sizes that overlaps more than one flow patterns – non-Newtonian, pseudohomogeneous, heterogeneous and fully-stratified. A typical examples are residual products (“tailings”) from mining industry with normal average particle sizes of 20 to 100 μm or more. Experimental results of flows of complex slurries composing of non-Newtonian carrier fluid and three fractions of glass particles in 50 mm pipe are presented. Depending on the particle size, particles show different flow patterns and therefore considerable differences in pressure drops. Fine particles tend behave as a homogeneous matter, while coarser particles exhibit heterogeneous behaviour and even coarser particles form a sliding bed. A mathematical 3-component predictive model for turbulent flow of complex slurries is presented based on well-established semi-empirical formulae developed originally for flows with Newtonian carrier. The predicted values of pressure drops show very reasonable agreement with experimental results and indicate suitability of the model for engineering practice.

Mots clés

  • Non-Newtonian
  • Suspension
  • Turbulence
  • Complex slurries
  • Tailings
  • Heterogeneous
access type Accès libre

Experimental investigation of the effect of vegetation on dam break flood waves

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 231 - 241

Résumé

Abstract

Dams have an important role in the industrial development of countries. Irrespective of the reason for dam break, the flood can cause devastating disasters with loss of life and property especially in densely populated areas. In this study, the effects of the vegetation on the flood wave propagation in case of dam break were investigated experimentally by using the distorted physical model of Ürkmez Dam. The horizontal and vertical scales of the distorted physical model are 1/150 and 1/30, respectively. The dam break scenarios were achieved by means of a gate of rectangular and triangular shape. The results obtained from experiments performed with vegetation were compared and interpreted with those obtained from experiments at which the vegetation configuration was absent. The analysis of the experimental data showed that the presence of vegetation causes a significant decrease in water depths as the flood wave propagates to the downstream and greatly reduces its impact on the settlements. It is also revealed that dam break shape plays an important role in temporal variation of flood wave.

Mots clés

  • Dam break
  • Flood wave
  • Physical model
  • Urkmez Dam
  • Vegetation effect
access type Accès libre

A new method for extracting spanwise vortex from 2D particle image velocimetry data in open-channel flow

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 242 - 248

Résumé

Abstract

The two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) data are inevitably contaminated by noise due to various imperfections in instrumentation or algorithm, based on which the well-established vortex identification methods often yield noise or incomplete vortex structure with a jagged boundary. To make up this deficiency, a novel method was proposed in this paper and the efficiency of the new method was demonstrated by its applications in extracting the two-dimensional spanwise vortex structures from 2D PIV data in open-channel flows. The new method takes up a single vortex structure by combining model matching and vorticity filtering, and successfully locates the vortex core and draws a streamlined vortex boundary. The new method shows promise as being more effective than commonly used schemes in open-channel flow applications.

Mots clés

  • Vortex identification
  • Spanwise vortex
  • Vorticity filtering
  • Open-channel flow
access type Accès libre

Integrated assessment of climate and human contributions to variations in streamflow in the Ten Great Gullies Basin of the Upper Yellow River, China

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 249 - 259

Résumé

Abstract

Climate change and human activity are two linked factors that alter the spatiotemporal distribution of the available water. Assessing the relative contribution of the two factors on runoff changes can help the planners and managers to better formulate strategies and policies regarding regional water resources. In this work, using two typical sub-basins of the Yellow River as the study area, we first detected the trend and the breakpoint in the annual streamflow data with the Pettitt test during the period 1964–2011. Next, a Budyko-based climate elasticity model and a monthly hydrological model were employed as an integrated method to distinguish the relative contributions of climate change and human activities to the long-term changes in runoff. The results showed that a significant decline in the annual runoff occurred in the two sub-basins during the study period, and the abrupt change point in the annual runoff at the two sub-basins both occurred in 1997. The conceptual hydrological model performed well in reproducing monthly runoff time series at the two sub-basins. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) between observed and simulated runoff during the validation period exceeds 0.83 for the two sub-basins. Climate elasticity method and hydrological model give consistent attribution results: human activities are the major drivers responsible for the decreased annual runoff in the Ten Great Gullies Basin. The relative contributions of climate change and human activities to the changes in the annual runoff were 22–32% and 68–78%, respectively.

Mots clés

  • Climate variability
  • Human activity
  • Quantitative method
  • Streamflow change
  • Ten Great Gullies Basin
access type Accès libre

Effect of climate warming on a change in thermal and ice conditions in the largest lake in Poland – Lake Śniardwy

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 260 - 270

Résumé

Abstract

Lake Śniardwy is the largest among more than 7000 Polish lakes. So far, it has not been a subject of detailed investigations concerning long-term changes in water temperature or ice regime. A considerable change in thermal and ice conditions has been observed in the period 1972–2019. Mean annual water temperature increased by 0.44°C dec−1 on average, and was higher than an increase in air temperature (0.33°C dec−1). In the monthly cycle, the most dynamic changes occurred in April (0.77°C dec−1). In the case of ice cover, it appeared increasingly later (5.3 days dec−1), and disappeared earlier (3.0 days dec−1). The thickness of ice cover also decreased (2.4 cm dec−1). Statistical analysis by means of a Pettitt test showed that the critical moment for the transformations of the thermal and ice regime was the end of the 1980’s. In addition to the obvious relations with air temperature for both characteristics, it was evidenced that the occurrence of ice cover depended on wind speed and snow cover. The recorded changes in the case of Lake Śniardwy are considered unfavourable, and their consequences will affect the course of physical, chemical, and biological processes in the largest lake in Poland.

Mots clés

  • Lakes
  • Water temperature
  • Air temperature
  • Ice cover
  • Climate change
  • Central Europe
access type Accès libre

Changes in direct CO2 and N2O emissions from a loam Haplic Luvisol under conventional moldboard and reduced tillage during growing season and post-harvest period of red clover

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 271 - 278

Résumé

Abstract

The objectives of the study were to: (1) assess the strength of associations of direct CO2 and N2O emissions with the seasonal variations in the relevant soil properties under both tillage systems; 2) evaluate how CT and RT affect magnitudes of seasonal CO2 and N2O fluxes from soil. Field studies were carried out on plots for conventional tillage (up to 0.22–0.25 m) and reduced tillage (up to 0.10–0.12 m) during the growing season and post-harvest period of red clover. The results showed that daily CO2 emissions significantly correlated only with soil temperature during the growing season under conventional and reduced tillage. Soil temperature demonstrated its highest influence on daily N2O emissions only at the beginning of the growing season in both tillage systems. There were no significant inter-system differences in daily CO2 and N2O emissions from soil during the entire period of observations. Over the duration of post-harvest period, water-filled pore space was a better predictor of daily CO2 emissions from soils under CT and RT. The conventional and reduced tillage did not cause significant differences in cumulative N2O and CO2 fluxes from soil.

Mots clés

  • Tillage systems
  • Soil organic matter
  • Temperature
  • Moisture content
  • Water-filled pore space
  • CO and NO emissions
access type Accès libre

Effect of sand burial on the subcritical water repellency of a dominant moss crust in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, Northern China

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 279 - 284

Résumé

Abstract

Sand burial is a ubiquitous disturbance that influences the ecological and hydrological properties of moss crusts in many sandy desert areas. There is little available information regarding the effect of sand burial on the water repellency (WR) of moss crusts in desert areas. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of sand burial (sand depths of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 10 mm) followed by three simulated precipitation regimes (through applying 4 and 6 mm, 2 and 3 mm, and 1 and 1.5 mm of distilled water at 8-day intervals in spring and autumn, respectively) on the WR of a widespread moss crust dominated by Bryum argenteum Hedw. in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, China. The results showed moss crust WR remained subcritical during the whole experiment, and that it considerably decreased immediately after sand burial, even though the values of WR were significantly higher in autumn than those in spring under the same treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the depth threshold (TD) values for sand burials that reduced WR to zero were 1 and 2 mm in spring and autumn, respectively. After a recovery period of nearly one-season (72 days), the WR of the moss crust significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, sand burial had two separate effects on moss crust WR. Specifically, shallower sand burial (burial depth less than 0.5 mm) increased moss crust WR, whereas deeper sand burial (burial depth exceeds 0.5 mm) decreased it. The TD values also significantly increased to 2 and 4 mm in spring and autumn, respectively. These findings about the effects of sand burial on moss crust WR provide additional information that can be used to better understand the influence of sand burial on moss crust colonization and maintenance in arid sand-burial-stressed ecosystems, and to help explain why there are some contrasting viewpoints on biocrust WR.

Mots clés

  • Water repellency
  • Sand burial
  • Moss crust
  • Precipitation
access type Accès libre

Risk assessment of forest decline by application of geostatistics and multi-criteria analysis

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 285 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper, the risk zone mapping of declining lowland forests belonging to „Morović“, management unit „Varadin-Županja“ (northern Serbia) is performed using geostatistics analysis. Based on the monitoring of groundwater level, the Kriging method has been performed for the spatial distribution of groundwater level for a multiyear period (2010–2013) – reference level and characteristic levels for the wettest and the driest year during the analyzed period. Risk assessment was determined by the variance of characteristics compared to reference levels. Then, multi-criteria decision analysis methods (AHP, PROMETHEE II) were applied to define the rank of each department (smaller forest management units) located in the research area. These analyses are very important because they enable to locate of the area with a high risk of forest decline and to rank departments using criteria: deviation from water level recorded during dry periods, species demand for water, conservation status and purpose of the unit (seed stands or technical wood). The proposed methodology is usable for the determination of the primary localities for the application of management measures conducting on the level of lower planned units (departments) and thus lead to the successful planning and more efficient forest management. Obtained results at the researched area showed that a negative influence on the watering regime has groundwater level decreasing compared to the reference level because it directly affects available water for the plants. Based on multicriteria analysis methods, it was deduced that the most endangered parts are located at the edge, while this risk is much lower in the central part of the management unit. A combination of applied methods (geostatistics and multicriteria analysis) is of great importance for forestry management.

Mots clés

  • The risk from forest decline
  • Groundwater monitoring
  • Geostatistics analysis
  • Multi-criteria analysis
access type Accès libre

Lithobiont-dependent ionic composition in runoff water

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 293 - 301

Résumé

Abstract

Rock dwelling organisms (lithobionts) such as cyanobacteria (prokaryotes) and chlorolichens (eukaryotes) abound in the Negev Desert, where they cover almost all calcareous bedrocks and rock particles (cobbles, boulders). In a small limestone watershed in the Negev Highlands, cyanobacteria inhabit the south-facing (SF) bedrocks, epilithic lichens (accompanied by endolithic lichens) inhabit the north-facing (NF) bedrocks, while endolithic lichens cover most of the cobbles and boulders in both aspects. In order to study their contribution to runoff water, a pair of runoff plots was established on habitats with cyanobacteria, endolithic lichens, and epilithic lichens. Rain and runoff were collected during the hydrological year 2006/07, and the chemical composition (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, HCO3, Si) of the rain and runoff water was analyzed. Several patterns were observed: (a) as indicated by Si, more dust accumulated on the bedrocks; (b) all substrates exhibited high amounts of Ca, and HCO3; (c) while SF-bedrocks showed enrichment in K, both bedrocks (and especially the NF bedrocks), as well as the NF boulders showed an enrichment in Mg. While the enrichment in Ca and HCO3 can be explained by the contribution of the limestone parent material, the enrichment in K and Mg can be explained by the contribution of the living lithobionts, with K being mainly contributed by the cyanobacteria and Mg mainly by the epilithic lichens. Ion enrichment may therefore be aspect-dependent, reflecting the lithobiont distribution within the drainage basin, partially explaining the enrichment in K and Mg previously recorded in runoff water from the Negev.

Mots clés

  • Cyanobacteria
  • Dew
  • Lichens
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Negev Desert
10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Three-dimensional numerical study of submerged spatial hydraulic jumps

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 211 - 222

Résumé

Abstract

A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate submerged spatial hydraulic jumps (SSHJ) downstream of a symmetric vent that discharges into a wider channel. Simulations were carried out for different aspect ratios of the vent, expansion ratios of vent width to downstream channel width, tailwater depth, and inlet Froude number. Depending on these factors, simulations indicated the formation of steady asymmetric SSHJ, oscillatory asymmetric SSHJ, and steady symmetric SSHJ, consistent with results of previous experimental studies. The model reproduced observed depth downstream of vent, jump length, and velocity profiles along channel centerline for steady symmetric SSHJ. For oscillatory asymmetric SSHJ, simulated oscillation frequencies had Strouhal numbers that varied with expansion ratio and ranged between 0.003 and 0.015. With piers downstream of the vent, oscillatory SSHJ continued to exhibit jet deflections when pier length was relatively short ( ≲ 0.2 of jump length) but became steady asymmetric for longer piers.

Mots clés

  • Abrupt channel expansion
  • Submerged spatial hydraulic jump
  • Asymmetric jump
  • Oscillatory jump
  • Computational fluid dynamics
access type Accès libre

A modification of predictive three-component model for turbulent flows of complex slurries in pipelines based on experimental results

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 223 - 230

Résumé

Abstract

The paper describes a mathematical and physical modelling of flow of complex slurries in pipelines, i.e. a flow of slurries composed of solids covering a very broad range of particle sizes that overlaps more than one flow patterns – non-Newtonian, pseudohomogeneous, heterogeneous and fully-stratified. A typical examples are residual products (“tailings”) from mining industry with normal average particle sizes of 20 to 100 μm or more. Experimental results of flows of complex slurries composing of non-Newtonian carrier fluid and three fractions of glass particles in 50 mm pipe are presented. Depending on the particle size, particles show different flow patterns and therefore considerable differences in pressure drops. Fine particles tend behave as a homogeneous matter, while coarser particles exhibit heterogeneous behaviour and even coarser particles form a sliding bed. A mathematical 3-component predictive model for turbulent flow of complex slurries is presented based on well-established semi-empirical formulae developed originally for flows with Newtonian carrier. The predicted values of pressure drops show very reasonable agreement with experimental results and indicate suitability of the model for engineering practice.

Mots clés

  • Non-Newtonian
  • Suspension
  • Turbulence
  • Complex slurries
  • Tailings
  • Heterogeneous
access type Accès libre

Experimental investigation of the effect of vegetation on dam break flood waves

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 231 - 241

Résumé

Abstract

Dams have an important role in the industrial development of countries. Irrespective of the reason for dam break, the flood can cause devastating disasters with loss of life and property especially in densely populated areas. In this study, the effects of the vegetation on the flood wave propagation in case of dam break were investigated experimentally by using the distorted physical model of Ürkmez Dam. The horizontal and vertical scales of the distorted physical model are 1/150 and 1/30, respectively. The dam break scenarios were achieved by means of a gate of rectangular and triangular shape. The results obtained from experiments performed with vegetation were compared and interpreted with those obtained from experiments at which the vegetation configuration was absent. The analysis of the experimental data showed that the presence of vegetation causes a significant decrease in water depths as the flood wave propagates to the downstream and greatly reduces its impact on the settlements. It is also revealed that dam break shape plays an important role in temporal variation of flood wave.

Mots clés

  • Dam break
  • Flood wave
  • Physical model
  • Urkmez Dam
  • Vegetation effect
access type Accès libre

A new method for extracting spanwise vortex from 2D particle image velocimetry data in open-channel flow

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 242 - 248

Résumé

Abstract

The two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) data are inevitably contaminated by noise due to various imperfections in instrumentation or algorithm, based on which the well-established vortex identification methods often yield noise or incomplete vortex structure with a jagged boundary. To make up this deficiency, a novel method was proposed in this paper and the efficiency of the new method was demonstrated by its applications in extracting the two-dimensional spanwise vortex structures from 2D PIV data in open-channel flows. The new method takes up a single vortex structure by combining model matching and vorticity filtering, and successfully locates the vortex core and draws a streamlined vortex boundary. The new method shows promise as being more effective than commonly used schemes in open-channel flow applications.

Mots clés

  • Vortex identification
  • Spanwise vortex
  • Vorticity filtering
  • Open-channel flow
access type Accès libre

Integrated assessment of climate and human contributions to variations in streamflow in the Ten Great Gullies Basin of the Upper Yellow River, China

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 249 - 259

Résumé

Abstract

Climate change and human activity are two linked factors that alter the spatiotemporal distribution of the available water. Assessing the relative contribution of the two factors on runoff changes can help the planners and managers to better formulate strategies and policies regarding regional water resources. In this work, using two typical sub-basins of the Yellow River as the study area, we first detected the trend and the breakpoint in the annual streamflow data with the Pettitt test during the period 1964–2011. Next, a Budyko-based climate elasticity model and a monthly hydrological model were employed as an integrated method to distinguish the relative contributions of climate change and human activities to the long-term changes in runoff. The results showed that a significant decline in the annual runoff occurred in the two sub-basins during the study period, and the abrupt change point in the annual runoff at the two sub-basins both occurred in 1997. The conceptual hydrological model performed well in reproducing monthly runoff time series at the two sub-basins. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) between observed and simulated runoff during the validation period exceeds 0.83 for the two sub-basins. Climate elasticity method and hydrological model give consistent attribution results: human activities are the major drivers responsible for the decreased annual runoff in the Ten Great Gullies Basin. The relative contributions of climate change and human activities to the changes in the annual runoff were 22–32% and 68–78%, respectively.

Mots clés

  • Climate variability
  • Human activity
  • Quantitative method
  • Streamflow change
  • Ten Great Gullies Basin
access type Accès libre

Effect of climate warming on a change in thermal and ice conditions in the largest lake in Poland – Lake Śniardwy

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 260 - 270

Résumé

Abstract

Lake Śniardwy is the largest among more than 7000 Polish lakes. So far, it has not been a subject of detailed investigations concerning long-term changes in water temperature or ice regime. A considerable change in thermal and ice conditions has been observed in the period 1972–2019. Mean annual water temperature increased by 0.44°C dec−1 on average, and was higher than an increase in air temperature (0.33°C dec−1). In the monthly cycle, the most dynamic changes occurred in April (0.77°C dec−1). In the case of ice cover, it appeared increasingly later (5.3 days dec−1), and disappeared earlier (3.0 days dec−1). The thickness of ice cover also decreased (2.4 cm dec−1). Statistical analysis by means of a Pettitt test showed that the critical moment for the transformations of the thermal and ice regime was the end of the 1980’s. In addition to the obvious relations with air temperature for both characteristics, it was evidenced that the occurrence of ice cover depended on wind speed and snow cover. The recorded changes in the case of Lake Śniardwy are considered unfavourable, and their consequences will affect the course of physical, chemical, and biological processes in the largest lake in Poland.

Mots clés

  • Lakes
  • Water temperature
  • Air temperature
  • Ice cover
  • Climate change
  • Central Europe
access type Accès libre

Changes in direct CO2 and N2O emissions from a loam Haplic Luvisol under conventional moldboard and reduced tillage during growing season and post-harvest period of red clover

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 271 - 278

Résumé

Abstract

The objectives of the study were to: (1) assess the strength of associations of direct CO2 and N2O emissions with the seasonal variations in the relevant soil properties under both tillage systems; 2) evaluate how CT and RT affect magnitudes of seasonal CO2 and N2O fluxes from soil. Field studies were carried out on plots for conventional tillage (up to 0.22–0.25 m) and reduced tillage (up to 0.10–0.12 m) during the growing season and post-harvest period of red clover. The results showed that daily CO2 emissions significantly correlated only with soil temperature during the growing season under conventional and reduced tillage. Soil temperature demonstrated its highest influence on daily N2O emissions only at the beginning of the growing season in both tillage systems. There were no significant inter-system differences in daily CO2 and N2O emissions from soil during the entire period of observations. Over the duration of post-harvest period, water-filled pore space was a better predictor of daily CO2 emissions from soils under CT and RT. The conventional and reduced tillage did not cause significant differences in cumulative N2O and CO2 fluxes from soil.

Mots clés

  • Tillage systems
  • Soil organic matter
  • Temperature
  • Moisture content
  • Water-filled pore space
  • CO and NO emissions
access type Accès libre

Effect of sand burial on the subcritical water repellency of a dominant moss crust in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, Northern China

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 279 - 284

Résumé

Abstract

Sand burial is a ubiquitous disturbance that influences the ecological and hydrological properties of moss crusts in many sandy desert areas. There is little available information regarding the effect of sand burial on the water repellency (WR) of moss crusts in desert areas. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of sand burial (sand depths of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 10 mm) followed by three simulated precipitation regimes (through applying 4 and 6 mm, 2 and 3 mm, and 1 and 1.5 mm of distilled water at 8-day intervals in spring and autumn, respectively) on the WR of a widespread moss crust dominated by Bryum argenteum Hedw. in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, China. The results showed moss crust WR remained subcritical during the whole experiment, and that it considerably decreased immediately after sand burial, even though the values of WR were significantly higher in autumn than those in spring under the same treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the depth threshold (TD) values for sand burials that reduced WR to zero were 1 and 2 mm in spring and autumn, respectively. After a recovery period of nearly one-season (72 days), the WR of the moss crust significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, sand burial had two separate effects on moss crust WR. Specifically, shallower sand burial (burial depth less than 0.5 mm) increased moss crust WR, whereas deeper sand burial (burial depth exceeds 0.5 mm) decreased it. The TD values also significantly increased to 2 and 4 mm in spring and autumn, respectively. These findings about the effects of sand burial on moss crust WR provide additional information that can be used to better understand the influence of sand burial on moss crust colonization and maintenance in arid sand-burial-stressed ecosystems, and to help explain why there are some contrasting viewpoints on biocrust WR.

Mots clés

  • Water repellency
  • Sand burial
  • Moss crust
  • Precipitation
access type Accès libre

Risk assessment of forest decline by application of geostatistics and multi-criteria analysis

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 285 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper, the risk zone mapping of declining lowland forests belonging to „Morović“, management unit „Varadin-Županja“ (northern Serbia) is performed using geostatistics analysis. Based on the monitoring of groundwater level, the Kriging method has been performed for the spatial distribution of groundwater level for a multiyear period (2010–2013) – reference level and characteristic levels for the wettest and the driest year during the analyzed period. Risk assessment was determined by the variance of characteristics compared to reference levels. Then, multi-criteria decision analysis methods (AHP, PROMETHEE II) were applied to define the rank of each department (smaller forest management units) located in the research area. These analyses are very important because they enable to locate of the area with a high risk of forest decline and to rank departments using criteria: deviation from water level recorded during dry periods, species demand for water, conservation status and purpose of the unit (seed stands or technical wood). The proposed methodology is usable for the determination of the primary localities for the application of management measures conducting on the level of lower planned units (departments) and thus lead to the successful planning and more efficient forest management. Obtained results at the researched area showed that a negative influence on the watering regime has groundwater level decreasing compared to the reference level because it directly affects available water for the plants. Based on multicriteria analysis methods, it was deduced that the most endangered parts are located at the edge, while this risk is much lower in the central part of the management unit. A combination of applied methods (geostatistics and multicriteria analysis) is of great importance for forestry management.

Mots clés

  • The risk from forest decline
  • Groundwater monitoring
  • Geostatistics analysis
  • Multi-criteria analysis
access type Accès libre

Lithobiont-dependent ionic composition in runoff water

Publié en ligne: 10 Aug 2020
Pages: 293 - 301

Résumé

Abstract

Rock dwelling organisms (lithobionts) such as cyanobacteria (prokaryotes) and chlorolichens (eukaryotes) abound in the Negev Desert, where they cover almost all calcareous bedrocks and rock particles (cobbles, boulders). In a small limestone watershed in the Negev Highlands, cyanobacteria inhabit the south-facing (SF) bedrocks, epilithic lichens (accompanied by endolithic lichens) inhabit the north-facing (NF) bedrocks, while endolithic lichens cover most of the cobbles and boulders in both aspects. In order to study their contribution to runoff water, a pair of runoff plots was established on habitats with cyanobacteria, endolithic lichens, and epilithic lichens. Rain and runoff were collected during the hydrological year 2006/07, and the chemical composition (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, HCO3, Si) of the rain and runoff water was analyzed. Several patterns were observed: (a) as indicated by Si, more dust accumulated on the bedrocks; (b) all substrates exhibited high amounts of Ca, and HCO3; (c) while SF-bedrocks showed enrichment in K, both bedrocks (and especially the NF bedrocks), as well as the NF boulders showed an enrichment in Mg. While the enrichment in Ca and HCO3 can be explained by the contribution of the limestone parent material, the enrichment in K and Mg can be explained by the contribution of the living lithobionts, with K being mainly contributed by the cyanobacteria and Mg mainly by the epilithic lichens. Ion enrichment may therefore be aspect-dependent, reflecting the lithobiont distribution within the drainage basin, partially explaining the enrichment in K and Mg previously recorded in runoff water from the Negev.

Mots clés

  • Cyanobacteria
  • Dew
  • Lichens
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Negev Desert

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