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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 64 (2016): Edition 1 (March 2016)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Infiltration and water retention of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils of former open-cast lignite mining sites in Brandenburg, north-east Germany

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 1 - 11

Résumé

Abstract

Investigations were done on two former open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation, an artificial sand dune in Welzow Süd, and a forest plantation in Schlabendorf Süd (Brandenburg, Germany). The aim was to associate the topsoil hydrological characteristics of green algae dominated as well as moss and soil lichen dominated biological soil crusts during crustal succession with their water retention and the repellency index on sandy soils under temperate climate and different reliefs.

The investigation of the repellency index showed on the one hand an increase due to the cross-linking of sand particles by green algae which resulted in clogging of pores. On the other hand, the occurrence of moss plants led to a decrease of the repellency index due to absorption caused by bryophytes. The determination of the water retention curves showed an increase of the water holding capacity, especially in conjunction with the growth of green algae layer. The pore-related van Genuchten parameter indicate a clay-like behaviour of the developed soil crusts. Because of the inhomogeneous distribution of lichens and mosses as well as the varying thickness of green algae layers, the water retention differed between the study sites and between samples of similar developmental stages. However, similar tendencies of water retention and water repellency related to the soil crust formation were observed.

Biological soil crusts should be considered after disturbances in the context of reclamation measures, because the initial development of green algae biocrusts lead to an increasing repellency index, while the occurrence of mosses and a gain in organic matter enhance the water holding capacity. Thus, the succession of biocrusts and their small-scale succession promote the development of soil and ecosystem.

Mots clés

  • Repellency index
  • pF-curves
  • Water holding capacity
  • Biological soil crusts
access type Accès libre

Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 12 - 22

Résumé

Abstract

Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL) elevation, snow cover area (SCA) and depletion (SCD) in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians). Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005) and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005) with resolution 500 m are used.

The results indicate three groups of basins with similar variability in the SL elevation. The first includes basins with maximum elevations above 1500 m a.s.l. (Poprad, Upper Váh, Hron, Hornád). Winter median SL is equal or close to minimum basin elevation in snow rich winters in these basins. Even in snow poor winters is SL close to the basin mean. Second group consists of mid-altitude basins with maximum elevation around 1000 m a.s.l. (Slaná, Ipeľ, Nitra, Bodrog). Median SL varies between 150 and 550 m a.s.l. in January and February, which represents approximately 40–80% snow coverage. Median SL is near the maximum basin elevation during the snow poor winters. This means that basins are in such winters snow free approximately 50% of days in January and February. The third group includes the Rudava/Myjava and Lower Váh/Danube. These basins have their maximum altitude less than 700 m a.s.l. and only a small part of these basins is covered with snow even during the snow rich winters.

The evaluation of SCA shows that snow cover typically starts in December and last to February. In the highest basins (Poprad, Upper Váh), the snow season sometimes tends to start earlier (November) and lasts to March/April. The median of SCA is, however, less than 10% in these months. The median SCA of entire winter season is above 70% in the highest basins (Poprad, Upper Váh, Hron), ranges between 30–60% in the mid-altitude basins (Hornád, Slaná, Ipeľ, Nitra, Bodrog) and is less than 1% in the Myjava/Rudava and Lower Váh/Danube basins. However, there is a considerable variability in seasonal coverage between the years. Our results indicate that there is no significant trend in mean SCA in the period 2001–2014, but periods with larger and smaller SCA exist. Winters in the period 2002–2006 have noticeably larger mean SCA than those in the period 2007–2012.

Snow depletion curves (SDC) do not have a simple evolution in most winters. The snowmelt tends to start between early February and the end of March. The snowmelt lasts between 8 and 15 days on average in lowland and high mountain basins, respectively. Interestingly, the variability in SDC between the winters is much larger than between the basins.

Mots clés

  • MODIS
  • Snow line
  • Snow cover
  • Snow depletion curves
  • Slovakia
access type Accès libre

Uncertainty of Deardorff’s soil moisture model based on continuous TDR measurements for sandy loam soil

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 23 - 29

Résumé

Abstract

Knowledge on soil moisture is indispensable for a range of hydrological models, since it exerts a considerable influence on runoff conditions. Proper tools are nowadays applied in order to gain in-sight into soil moisture status, especially of uppermost soil layers, which are prone to weather changes and land use practices. In order to establish relationships between meteorological conditions and topsoil moisture, a simple model would be required, characterized by low computational effort, simple structure and low number of identified and calibrated parameters. We demonstrated, that existing model for shallow soils, considering mass exchange between two layers (the upper and the lower), as well as with the atmosphere and subsoil, worked well for sandy loam with deep ground water table in Warsaw conurbation. GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation) linked with GSA (Global Sensitivity Analysis) provided for final determination of parameter values and model confidence ranges. Including the uncertainty in a model structure, caused that the median soil moisture solution of the GLUE was shifted from the one optimal in deterministic sense. From the point of view of practical model application, the main shortcoming were the underestimated water exchange rates between the lower soil layer (ranging from the depth of 0.1 to 0.2 m below ground level) and subsoil. General model quality was found to be satisfactory and promising for its utilization for establishing measures to regain retention in urbanized conditions.

Mots clés

  • Soil moisture
  • Modelling
  • Parameters uncertainty
  • GSA-GLUE analysis
access type Accès libre

Bayesian estimation of the hydraulic and solute transport properties of a small-scale unsaturated soil column

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 30 - 44

Résumé

Abstract

In this study the hydraulic and solute transport properties of an unsaturated soil were estimated simultaneously from a relatively simple small-scale laboratory column infiltration/outflow experiment. As governing equations we used the Richards equation for variably saturated flow and a physical non-equilibrium dual-porosity type formulation for solute transport. A Bayesian parameter estimation approach was used in which the unknown parameters were estimated with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method through implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Sensitivity coefficients were examined in order to determine the most meaningful measurements for identifying the unknown hydraulic and transport parameters. Results obtained using the measured pressure head and solute concentration data collected during the unsaturated soil column experiment revealed the robustness of the proposed approach.

Mots clés

  • Markov Chain Monte Carlo method
  • Metropolis-Hastings algorithm
  • Hydraulic parameters
  • Transport parameters
  • Soil column experiment
access type Accès libre

Inlet effects on roll-wave development in shallow turbulent open-channel flows

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 45 - 55

Résumé

Abstract

The present work investigates the effect of the flow profile induced by an inlet condition on the roll-wave evolution in turbulent clear-water flows. The study employs theoretical and numerical analyses. Firstly, the influence of the inlet condition on the spatial evolution of a single perturbation in a hypercritical flow is examined through the expansion near a wavefront analysis. The results show that an accelerated unperturbed profile reduces the disturbance spatial growth. A decelerated profile causes an increase. The effect of the flow profile on the spatial evolution of roll-wave trains is then numerically investigated solving the Saint Venant equations with a second-order Runge-Kutta Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) Finite Volume scheme. The numerical simulations comply with the analytical results for the initial and transition phases of the roll-wave development. The unperturbed profile influences even the roll-waves statistical characteristics in the final stage, with a more evident effect in case of accelerated profiles. The influence of the flow profile should be therefore accounted for in the formulation of predictive criteria for roll-waves appearance based on the estimation of the disturbance spatial growth rate.

Mots clés

  • Open-channel flows
  • Roll-waves
  • Hypercritial flows
  • Numerical simulation
access type Accès libre

Floods effects on rivers morphological changes application to the Medjerda River in Tunisia

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 56 - 66

Résumé

Abstract

In Tunisia especially in the Medjerda watershed the recurring of floods becoming more remarkable. In order to limit this risk, several studies were performed to examine the Medjerda hydrodynamic. The analysis of results showed that the recurrences of floods at the Medjerda watershed is strongly related to the sediment transport phenomena. Initially, a one dimensional modelling was conducted in order to determine the sediment transport rate, and to visualize the river morphological changes during major floods. In continuity of this work, we will consider a two-dimensional model for predicting the amounts of materials transported by the Medjerda River. The goal is to visualize the Medjerda behaviour during extreme events and morphological changes occurred following the passage of the spectacular flood of January 2003. As a conclusion for this study, a comparative analysis was performed between 1D and 2D models results. The objective of these comparisons is to visualize the benefits and limitations of tested models. The analysis of the results demonstrate that 2D model is able to calculate the flow variation, sediment transport rates, and river morphological changes during extreme events for complicated natural domains with high accuracy comparing with 1D Model.

Mots clés

  • Floods
  • Hydrodynamics
  • Sediment transport
  • Modelling
  • River morphology
access type Accès libre

Numerical and physical modeling of water flow over the ogee weir of the new Niedów barrage

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 67 - 74

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper, two- and three-dimensional numerical modeling is applied in order to simulate water flow behavior over the new Niedów barrage in South Poland. The draining capacity of one of the flood alleviation structures (ogee weir) for exploitation and catastrophic conditions was estimated. In addition, the output of the numerical models is compared with experimental data. The experiments demonstrated that the draining capacity of the barrage alleviation scheme is sufficiently designed for catastrophic scenarios if water is flowing under steady flow conditions. Nevertheless, the new cofferdam, which is part of the temporal reconstruction works, is affecting the draining capacity of the whole low-head barrage project.

Mots clés

  • Hydraulic similarity
  • Ogee weir
  • Discharge coefficient
  • Physical modeling
  • 2D and 3D numerical modeling
  • Cofferdam
access type Accès libre

The impact of bridge pier on ice jam evolution – an experimental study

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 75 - 82

Résumé

Abstract

The ice jam in a river can significantly change the flow field in winter and early spring. The presence of bridge piers further complicates the hydraulic process by interacting between the ice jam and bridge piers. Using the data collected from experiments in a laboratory flume, the evolution of an ice jam around bridge piers having three different diameters has been investigated in this study. Compared to results without-pier, it was found that the formation of an ice jam in the downstream of bridge pier is faster than that in the upstream. The thickness distribution of the ice jam shows clearly different characteristics in front and behind of bridge piers at different stages of the ice jam.

Mots clés

  • Boundary condition
  • Bridge pier
  • Ice jam
  • Ice accumulation
access type Accès libre

Assessment of 3D-RANS models for the simulation of topographically forced shallow flows

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 83 - 90

Résumé

Abstract

In this work the performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations to predict the flow structure developed by the presence of a sidewall obstacle in a uniform open-channel shallow flow is discussed. The tested geometry was selected due to its important role in several fluvial applications, such as the control of riverbank erosion and the creation of improved ecological conditions in river restoration applications. The results are compared against experimental laboratory velocity fields obtained after Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) measurements. It is shown that the length of reattachment of the separated shear layer generated by the obstacle is well predicted by a Reynolds Stress Model, while classical two-equation models show important limitations. All the performed RANS simulations are unable to properly predict the formation of a secondary gyre region, which develops immediately downstream the obstacle.

Mots clés

  • Shallow flow
  • RANS
  • SPIV
  • Side obstacle
  • Shear layer
  • Turbulence
access type Accès libre

A stochastic approach to the operative control of flood flows through a reservoir

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 91 - 96

Résumé

Abstract

The contribution focuses on the design of a control algorithm aimed at the operative control of runoff water from a reservoir during flood situations. Management is based on the stochastically specified forecast of water inflow into the reservoir. From a mathematical perspective, the solved task presents the control of a dynamic system whose predicted hydrological input (water inflow) is characterised by significant uncertainty. The algorithm uses a combination of simulation model data, in which the position of the bottom outlets is sought via nonlinear optimisation methods, and artificial intelligence methods (adaptation and fuzzy model). The task is written in the technical computing language MATLAB using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox.

Mots clés

  • Operative control of reservoir
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Fuzzy inference system
  • Neural networks
  • Stochastic forecast
  • Stochastic control of reservoir
  • Principle of adaptation
10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Infiltration and water retention of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils of former open-cast lignite mining sites in Brandenburg, north-east Germany

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 1 - 11

Résumé

Abstract

Investigations were done on two former open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation, an artificial sand dune in Welzow Süd, and a forest plantation in Schlabendorf Süd (Brandenburg, Germany). The aim was to associate the topsoil hydrological characteristics of green algae dominated as well as moss and soil lichen dominated biological soil crusts during crustal succession with their water retention and the repellency index on sandy soils under temperate climate and different reliefs.

The investigation of the repellency index showed on the one hand an increase due to the cross-linking of sand particles by green algae which resulted in clogging of pores. On the other hand, the occurrence of moss plants led to a decrease of the repellency index due to absorption caused by bryophytes. The determination of the water retention curves showed an increase of the water holding capacity, especially in conjunction with the growth of green algae layer. The pore-related van Genuchten parameter indicate a clay-like behaviour of the developed soil crusts. Because of the inhomogeneous distribution of lichens and mosses as well as the varying thickness of green algae layers, the water retention differed between the study sites and between samples of similar developmental stages. However, similar tendencies of water retention and water repellency related to the soil crust formation were observed.

Biological soil crusts should be considered after disturbances in the context of reclamation measures, because the initial development of green algae biocrusts lead to an increasing repellency index, while the occurrence of mosses and a gain in organic matter enhance the water holding capacity. Thus, the succession of biocrusts and their small-scale succession promote the development of soil and ecosystem.

Mots clés

  • Repellency index
  • pF-curves
  • Water holding capacity
  • Biological soil crusts
access type Accès libre

Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 12 - 22

Résumé

Abstract

Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL) elevation, snow cover area (SCA) and depletion (SCD) in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians). Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005) and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005) with resolution 500 m are used.

The results indicate three groups of basins with similar variability in the SL elevation. The first includes basins with maximum elevations above 1500 m a.s.l. (Poprad, Upper Váh, Hron, Hornád). Winter median SL is equal or close to minimum basin elevation in snow rich winters in these basins. Even in snow poor winters is SL close to the basin mean. Second group consists of mid-altitude basins with maximum elevation around 1000 m a.s.l. (Slaná, Ipeľ, Nitra, Bodrog). Median SL varies between 150 and 550 m a.s.l. in January and February, which represents approximately 40–80% snow coverage. Median SL is near the maximum basin elevation during the snow poor winters. This means that basins are in such winters snow free approximately 50% of days in January and February. The third group includes the Rudava/Myjava and Lower Váh/Danube. These basins have their maximum altitude less than 700 m a.s.l. and only a small part of these basins is covered with snow even during the snow rich winters.

The evaluation of SCA shows that snow cover typically starts in December and last to February. In the highest basins (Poprad, Upper Váh), the snow season sometimes tends to start earlier (November) and lasts to March/April. The median of SCA is, however, less than 10% in these months. The median SCA of entire winter season is above 70% in the highest basins (Poprad, Upper Váh, Hron), ranges between 30–60% in the mid-altitude basins (Hornád, Slaná, Ipeľ, Nitra, Bodrog) and is less than 1% in the Myjava/Rudava and Lower Váh/Danube basins. However, there is a considerable variability in seasonal coverage between the years. Our results indicate that there is no significant trend in mean SCA in the period 2001–2014, but periods with larger and smaller SCA exist. Winters in the period 2002–2006 have noticeably larger mean SCA than those in the period 2007–2012.

Snow depletion curves (SDC) do not have a simple evolution in most winters. The snowmelt tends to start between early February and the end of March. The snowmelt lasts between 8 and 15 days on average in lowland and high mountain basins, respectively. Interestingly, the variability in SDC between the winters is much larger than between the basins.

Mots clés

  • MODIS
  • Snow line
  • Snow cover
  • Snow depletion curves
  • Slovakia
access type Accès libre

Uncertainty of Deardorff’s soil moisture model based on continuous TDR measurements for sandy loam soil

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 23 - 29

Résumé

Abstract

Knowledge on soil moisture is indispensable for a range of hydrological models, since it exerts a considerable influence on runoff conditions. Proper tools are nowadays applied in order to gain in-sight into soil moisture status, especially of uppermost soil layers, which are prone to weather changes and land use practices. In order to establish relationships between meteorological conditions and topsoil moisture, a simple model would be required, characterized by low computational effort, simple structure and low number of identified and calibrated parameters. We demonstrated, that existing model for shallow soils, considering mass exchange between two layers (the upper and the lower), as well as with the atmosphere and subsoil, worked well for sandy loam with deep ground water table in Warsaw conurbation. GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation) linked with GSA (Global Sensitivity Analysis) provided for final determination of parameter values and model confidence ranges. Including the uncertainty in a model structure, caused that the median soil moisture solution of the GLUE was shifted from the one optimal in deterministic sense. From the point of view of practical model application, the main shortcoming were the underestimated water exchange rates between the lower soil layer (ranging from the depth of 0.1 to 0.2 m below ground level) and subsoil. General model quality was found to be satisfactory and promising for its utilization for establishing measures to regain retention in urbanized conditions.

Mots clés

  • Soil moisture
  • Modelling
  • Parameters uncertainty
  • GSA-GLUE analysis
access type Accès libre

Bayesian estimation of the hydraulic and solute transport properties of a small-scale unsaturated soil column

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 30 - 44

Résumé

Abstract

In this study the hydraulic and solute transport properties of an unsaturated soil were estimated simultaneously from a relatively simple small-scale laboratory column infiltration/outflow experiment. As governing equations we used the Richards equation for variably saturated flow and a physical non-equilibrium dual-porosity type formulation for solute transport. A Bayesian parameter estimation approach was used in which the unknown parameters were estimated with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method through implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Sensitivity coefficients were examined in order to determine the most meaningful measurements for identifying the unknown hydraulic and transport parameters. Results obtained using the measured pressure head and solute concentration data collected during the unsaturated soil column experiment revealed the robustness of the proposed approach.

Mots clés

  • Markov Chain Monte Carlo method
  • Metropolis-Hastings algorithm
  • Hydraulic parameters
  • Transport parameters
  • Soil column experiment
access type Accès libre

Inlet effects on roll-wave development in shallow turbulent open-channel flows

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 45 - 55

Résumé

Abstract

The present work investigates the effect of the flow profile induced by an inlet condition on the roll-wave evolution in turbulent clear-water flows. The study employs theoretical and numerical analyses. Firstly, the influence of the inlet condition on the spatial evolution of a single perturbation in a hypercritical flow is examined through the expansion near a wavefront analysis. The results show that an accelerated unperturbed profile reduces the disturbance spatial growth. A decelerated profile causes an increase. The effect of the flow profile on the spatial evolution of roll-wave trains is then numerically investigated solving the Saint Venant equations with a second-order Runge-Kutta Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) Finite Volume scheme. The numerical simulations comply with the analytical results for the initial and transition phases of the roll-wave development. The unperturbed profile influences even the roll-waves statistical characteristics in the final stage, with a more evident effect in case of accelerated profiles. The influence of the flow profile should be therefore accounted for in the formulation of predictive criteria for roll-waves appearance based on the estimation of the disturbance spatial growth rate.

Mots clés

  • Open-channel flows
  • Roll-waves
  • Hypercritial flows
  • Numerical simulation
access type Accès libre

Floods effects on rivers morphological changes application to the Medjerda River in Tunisia

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 56 - 66

Résumé

Abstract

In Tunisia especially in the Medjerda watershed the recurring of floods becoming more remarkable. In order to limit this risk, several studies were performed to examine the Medjerda hydrodynamic. The analysis of results showed that the recurrences of floods at the Medjerda watershed is strongly related to the sediment transport phenomena. Initially, a one dimensional modelling was conducted in order to determine the sediment transport rate, and to visualize the river morphological changes during major floods. In continuity of this work, we will consider a two-dimensional model for predicting the amounts of materials transported by the Medjerda River. The goal is to visualize the Medjerda behaviour during extreme events and morphological changes occurred following the passage of the spectacular flood of January 2003. As a conclusion for this study, a comparative analysis was performed between 1D and 2D models results. The objective of these comparisons is to visualize the benefits and limitations of tested models. The analysis of the results demonstrate that 2D model is able to calculate the flow variation, sediment transport rates, and river morphological changes during extreme events for complicated natural domains with high accuracy comparing with 1D Model.

Mots clés

  • Floods
  • Hydrodynamics
  • Sediment transport
  • Modelling
  • River morphology
access type Accès libre

Numerical and physical modeling of water flow over the ogee weir of the new Niedów barrage

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 67 - 74

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper, two- and three-dimensional numerical modeling is applied in order to simulate water flow behavior over the new Niedów barrage in South Poland. The draining capacity of one of the flood alleviation structures (ogee weir) for exploitation and catastrophic conditions was estimated. In addition, the output of the numerical models is compared with experimental data. The experiments demonstrated that the draining capacity of the barrage alleviation scheme is sufficiently designed for catastrophic scenarios if water is flowing under steady flow conditions. Nevertheless, the new cofferdam, which is part of the temporal reconstruction works, is affecting the draining capacity of the whole low-head barrage project.

Mots clés

  • Hydraulic similarity
  • Ogee weir
  • Discharge coefficient
  • Physical modeling
  • 2D and 3D numerical modeling
  • Cofferdam
access type Accès libre

The impact of bridge pier on ice jam evolution – an experimental study

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 75 - 82

Résumé

Abstract

The ice jam in a river can significantly change the flow field in winter and early spring. The presence of bridge piers further complicates the hydraulic process by interacting between the ice jam and bridge piers. Using the data collected from experiments in a laboratory flume, the evolution of an ice jam around bridge piers having three different diameters has been investigated in this study. Compared to results without-pier, it was found that the formation of an ice jam in the downstream of bridge pier is faster than that in the upstream. The thickness distribution of the ice jam shows clearly different characteristics in front and behind of bridge piers at different stages of the ice jam.

Mots clés

  • Boundary condition
  • Bridge pier
  • Ice jam
  • Ice accumulation
access type Accès libre

Assessment of 3D-RANS models for the simulation of topographically forced shallow flows

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 83 - 90

Résumé

Abstract

In this work the performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations to predict the flow structure developed by the presence of a sidewall obstacle in a uniform open-channel shallow flow is discussed. The tested geometry was selected due to its important role in several fluvial applications, such as the control of riverbank erosion and the creation of improved ecological conditions in river restoration applications. The results are compared against experimental laboratory velocity fields obtained after Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) measurements. It is shown that the length of reattachment of the separated shear layer generated by the obstacle is well predicted by a Reynolds Stress Model, while classical two-equation models show important limitations. All the performed RANS simulations are unable to properly predict the formation of a secondary gyre region, which develops immediately downstream the obstacle.

Mots clés

  • Shallow flow
  • RANS
  • SPIV
  • Side obstacle
  • Shear layer
  • Turbulence
access type Accès libre

A stochastic approach to the operative control of flood flows through a reservoir

Publié en ligne: 26 Jan 2016
Pages: 91 - 96

Résumé

Abstract

The contribution focuses on the design of a control algorithm aimed at the operative control of runoff water from a reservoir during flood situations. Management is based on the stochastically specified forecast of water inflow into the reservoir. From a mathematical perspective, the solved task presents the control of a dynamic system whose predicted hydrological input (water inflow) is characterised by significant uncertainty. The algorithm uses a combination of simulation model data, in which the position of the bottom outlets is sought via nonlinear optimisation methods, and artificial intelligence methods (adaptation and fuzzy model). The task is written in the technical computing language MATLAB using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox.

Mots clés

  • Operative control of reservoir
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Fuzzy inference system
  • Neural networks
  • Stochastic forecast
  • Stochastic control of reservoir
  • Principle of adaptation

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