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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 68 (2020): Edition 1 (March 2020)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Uptake, translocation and transformation of three pharmaceuticals in green pea plants

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 1 - 11

Résumé

Abstract

Treated water from wastewater treatment plants that is increasingly used for irrigation may contain pharmaceuticals and, thus, contaminate soils. Therefore, this study focused on the impact of soil conditions on the root uptake of selected pharmaceuticals and their transformation in a chosen soil–plant system. Green pea plants were planted in 3 soils. Plants were initially irrigated with tap water. Next, they were irrigated for 20 days with a solution of either atenolol (ATE), sulfamethoxazole (SUL), carbamazepine (CAR), or all of these three compounds. The concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites [atenolol acid (AAC), N1-acetyl sulfamethoxazole (N1AS), N4-acetyl sulfamethoxazole (N4AS), carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide (EPC), 10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (DHC), trans-10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxy carbamazepine (RTC), and oxcarbazepine (OXC)] in soils and plant tissues were evaluated after harvest. The study confirmed high (CAR), moderate (ATE, AAC, SUL), and minor (N4AC) root uptake of the studied compounds by the green pea plants, nonrestricted transfer of the CAR species into the different plant tissues, and a very high efficiency in metabolizing CAR in the stems and leaves. The results showed neither a synergic nor competitive influence of the application of all compounds in the solution on their uptake by plants. The statistical analysis proved the negative relationships between the CAR sorption coefficients and the concentrations of CAR, EPC, and OXC in the roots (R = –0.916, –0.932, and –0.925, respectively) and stems (R = –0.837, –0.844, and –0.847, respectively).

Mots clés

  • Atenolol
  • Carbamazepine
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Irrigation with contaminated water
  • Sorption in soils
  • Metabolites
access type Accès libre

Impact of secondary succession in abandoned fields on some properties of acidic sandy soils

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 12 - 18

Résumé

Abstract

Abandonment of agricultural lands in recent decades is occurring mainly in Europe, North America and Oceania, and changing the fate of landscapes as the ecosystem recovers during fallow stage. The objective of this study was to find the impact of secondary succession in abandoned fields on some parameters of acidic sandy soils in the Borská nížina lowland (southwestern Slovakia). We investigated soil chemical (pH and soil organic carbon content), hydrophysical (water sorptivity, and hydraulic conductivity), and water repellency (water drop penetration time, water repellency cessation time, repellency index, and modified repellency index) parameters, as well as the ethanol sorptivity of the studied soils. Both the hydrophysical and chemical parameters decreased significantly during abandonment of the three investigated agricultural fields. On the other hand, the water repellency parameters increased significantly, but the ethanol sorptivity did not change during abandonment. As the ethanol sorptivity depends mainly on soil pore size, the last finding could mean that the pore size of acidic sandy soils did not change during succession.

Mots clés

  • Water repellency
  • Acidic sandy soil
  • Land abandonment
  • Secondary succession
  • Soil properties
access type Accès libre

Are coastal deserts necessarily dew deserts? An example from the Tabernas Desert

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 19 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

Vapor condensation, whether due to dew or fog, may add a stable and important source of water to deserts. This was also extensively assessed in the Negev, regarded as a dew desert. Dew deserts necessitate a large reservoir of vapor, and are therefore confined to near oceans or seas. Yet, examples of such deserts are scarce. Here we try to assess whether the Tabernas Desert in SE Spain can be regarded as a dew desert, and may therefore facilitate the growth of certain organisms that otherwise would not survive the dry season. We analyze some of the abiotic conditions of four relatively dry months (June, July, August, September) in the Tabernas and Negev deserts (with the Negev taken as an example of a dew desert) during 2003–2012. The analysis showed substantially lower values of relative humidity (by 10–13%) in the Tabernas in comparison to the Negev, with RH ≥95% being on average only 0.9–1.1 days a month in the Tabernas in comparison to 9.7–13.9 days in the Negev. Our findings imply that the Tabernas Desert cannot be regarded as a dew desert, suggesting that rain will be the main factor responsible for the food web chain in the Tabernas.

Mots clés

  • Fog
  • Negev Desert
  • Relative humidity
  • Vapor condensation
  • Wind speed
access type Accès libre

Ski piste snow ablation versus potential infiltration (Veporic Unit, Western Carpathians)

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 28 - 37

Résumé

Abstract

Snow production results in high volume of snow that is remaining on the low-elevation ski pistes after snowmelt of natural snow on the off-piste sites. The aim of this study was to identify snow/ice depth, snow density, and snow water equivalent of remaining ski piste snowpack to calculate and to compare snow ablation water volume with potential infiltration on the ski piste area at South-Central Slovak ski center Košútka (Inner Western Carpathians; temperate zone). Snow ablation water volume was calculated from manual snow depth and density measurements, which were performed at the end of five winter seasons 2010–2011 to 2015–2016, except for season 2013–2014. The laser diffraction analyzes were carried out to identify soil grain size and subsequently the hydraulic conductivity of soil to calculate the infiltration. The average rate of water movement through soil was seven times as high as five seasons’ average ablation rate of ski piste snowpack; nevertheless, the ski piste area was potentially able to infiltrate only 47% of snow ablation water volume on average. Limitation for infiltration was frozen soil and ice layers below the ski piste snowpack and low snow-free area at the beginning of the studied ablation period.

Mots clés

  • Snow water equivalent
  • Snow density
  • Artificial snow
  • Snow ablation
  • Soil temperature
  • Hydraulic conductivity
access type Accès libre

The variability of ice phenomena on the rivers of the Baltic coastal zone in the Northern Poland

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 38 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

The main purpose of the research was to determine the conditions affecting ice phenomena, including the three-phase cycle of ice: expansion, retention and decay of the ice cover on selected rivers of the Baltic coastal zone in the Northern Poland (Przymorze region). The analysis has been elaborated for the years 1951–2010 against the backdrop of currently occurring climatic changes, with particular emphasis on the development and phase variability of the NAO. The article presents the impact of the variability in atmospheric circulation which has manifested in an increase in air temperature, over the last 20 years, on thermal conditions during winter periods in the South Baltic Coastal Strip. The increase in air temperature has contributed to an increase in the temperature of river waters, thus leading to a shortening of the duration of ice phenomena on rivers in the Przymorze region. The article also brings to light an increased occurrence of winter seasons classified as cool, and a disruption in the occurrence of periods classified as normal over the last 30 observed years. The research has demonstrated a significant dependence between the seasonal change in air temperature and the variability of thermal conditions of water, which has a direct impact on the variability of the icing cycle of rivers in the Przymorze region. The authors also show that the variability in forms of ice phenomena for individual river sections is determined by the local factors, i.e. anthropogenic activity, impact of urbanized areas or inflow of pollutants.

Mots clés

  • Ice phenomena
  • Rivers
  • Coastal zone
  • Air temperature
  • NAO
  • Water temperature
access type Accès libre

Equations for predicting interrill erosion on steep slopes in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 51 - 59

Résumé

Abstract

The Three Gorges Reservoir region suffers from severe soil erosion that leads to serious soil degradation and eutrophication. Interrill erosion models are commonly used in developing soil erosion control measures. Laboratory simulation experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between interrill erosion rate and three commonly hydraulic parameters (flow velocity V, shear stress τ and stream power W). The slope gradients ranged from 17.6% to 36.4%, and the rainfall intensities varied from 0.6 to 2.54 mm·min−1.

The results showed that surface runoff volume and soil loss rates varied greatly with the change of slope and rainfall intensity. Surface runoff accounted for 67.2–85.4% of the precipitation on average. Soil loss rates increased with increases of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, Regression analysis showed that interrill erosion rate could be calculated by a linear function of V and W. Predictions based on V (R2 = 0.843, ME = 0.843) and W (R2 = 0.862, ME = 0.862) were powerful. τ (R2 = 0.721, ME = 0.721) did not seem to be a good predictor for interrill erosion rates. Five ordinarily interrill erosion models were analyzed, the accuracy of the models in predicting soil loss rate was: Model 3 (ME = 0.977) > Model 4 (ME = 0.966) > Model 5 (ME = 0.963) > Model 2 (ME = 0.923) > Model 1 (ME = 0.852). The interrill erodibility used in the model 3 (WEPP) was calculated as 0.332×106 kg·s·m−4. The results can improve the precision of interrill erosion estimation on purple soil slopes in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.

Mots clés

  • Purple soil
  • Interrill erosion rate
  • Rainfall intensity
  • Slope gradient
  • Hydraulic parameter
access type Accès libre

Collisional transport model for intense bed load

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 60 - 69

Résumé

Abstract

In an open channel with a mobile bed, intense transport of bed load is associated with high-concentrated sediment-laden flow over a plane surface of the eroded bed due to high bed shear. Typically, the flow exhibits a layered internal structure in which virtually all sediment grains are transported through a collisional layer above the bed. Our investigation focuses on steady uniform turbulent open-channel flow with a developed collisional transport layer and combines modelling and experiment to relate integral quantities, as the discharge of solids, discharge of mixture, and flow depth with the longitudinal slope of the bed and the internal structure of the flow above the bed.

A transport model is presented which considers flow with the internal structure described by linear vertical distributions of granular velocity and concentration across the collisional layer. The model employs constitutive relations based on the classical kinetic theory of granular flows selected by our previous experimental testing as appropriate for the flow and transport conditions under consideration. For given slope and depth of the flow, the model predicts the total discharge and the discharge of sediment. The model also predicts the layered structure of the flow, giving the thickness of the dense layer, collisional layer, and water layer. Model predictions are compared with results of intense bed-load experiment carried out for lightweight sediment in our laboratory tilting flume.

Mots clés

  • Granular flow
  • Sheet flow
  • Sediment transport
  • Grain collision
  • Tilting flume experiment
  • Kinetic theory
access type Accès libre

Velocity profiles and turbulence intensities around side-by-side bridge piers under ice-covered flow condition

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 70 - 82

Résumé

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that the presence of ice cover leads to an intensified local scour pattern in the vicinity of bridge piers. To investigate the local scour pattern in the vicinity of bridge pier under ice-covered flow condition comparing to that under open channel flow condition, it is essential to examine flow field around bridge piers under different flow conditions. In order to do so, after creation of smooth and rough ice covers, three-dimensional timeaveraged velocity components around four pairs of bridge piers were measured using an Acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV). The ADV measured velocity profiles describe the difference between the velocity distributions in the vicinity of bridge piers under different covered conditions. Experimental results show that the vertical velocity distribution which represents the strength of downfall velocity is the greatest under rough covered condition which leads to a greater scour depth. Besides, results show that the turbulent intensity increases with pier size regardless of flow cover, which implies that larger scour depth occurs around piers with larger diameter.

Mots clés

  • Bridge pier
  • Ice cover
  • Local scour
  • Acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV)
  • Horseshoe vortex
access type Accès libre

Concentration distribution and deposition limit of medium-coarse sand-water slurry in inclined pipe

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 83 - 91

Résumé

Abstract

Sand-water slurry was investigated on an experimental pipe loop of inner diameter D = 100 mm with the horizontal, inclined, and vertical smooth pipe sections. A narrow particle size distribution silica sand of mean diameter 0.87 mm was used. The experimental investigation focused on the effects of pipe inclination, overall slurry concentration, and mean velocity on concentration distribution and deposition limit velocity. The measured concentration profiles showed different degrees of stratification for the positive and negative pipe inclinations. The degree of stratification depended on the pipe inclination and on overall slurry concentration and velocity. The ascending flow was less stratified than the corresponding descending flow, the difference increasing from horizontal flow up to an inclination angle of about +30°. The deposition limit velocity was sensitive to the pipe inclination, reaching higher values in the ascending than in the horizontal pipe. The maximum deposition limit value was reached for an inclination angle of about +25°, and the limit remained practically constant in value, about 1.25 times higher than that in the horizontal pipe. Conversely, in the descending pipe, the deposition limit decreased significantly with the negative slopes and tended to be zero for an inclination angle of about −30°, where no stationary bed was observed.

Mots clés

  • Sand-water slurry
  • Pipe inclination
  • Concentration distribution
  • Deposition limit
  • Gamma-ray radiometry
access type Accès libre

Vertical sorting in collisional layer of bimodal sediment transport

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 92 - 98

Résumé

Abstract

Intense collisional transport of bimodal sediment mixture in open-channel turbulent flow with water as carrying liquid is studied. The study focusses on steep inclined flows transporting solids of spherical shape and differing in either size or mass. A process of vertical sorting (segregation) of the two different solids fractions during the transport is analyzed and modelled. A segregation model is presented which is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows and builds on the Larcher-Jenkins segregation model for dry bimodal mixtures. Main modifications of the original model are the carrying medium (water instead of air) and a presence of a non-uniform distribution of sediment across the flow depth. Testing of the modified model reveals that the model is applicable to flow inclination slopes from 20 to 30 degrees approximately, making it appropriate for debris flow conditions. Changing the slope outside the specified range leads to numerical instability of the solution. A use of the bimodal mixture model is restricted to the grain size ratio 1.4 and no restriction is found for the grain mass ratio in a realistic range applicable to natural conditions. The model reveals trends in the vertical sorting under variable conditions showing that the sorting is more intense if flow is steeper and/or the difference in size or mass is bigger between the two sediment fractions in a bimodal mixture.

Mots clés

  • Grain segregation
  • Bimodal mixture
  • Granular flow
  • Sheet flow
  • Sediment transport
10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Uptake, translocation and transformation of three pharmaceuticals in green pea plants

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 1 - 11

Résumé

Abstract

Treated water from wastewater treatment plants that is increasingly used for irrigation may contain pharmaceuticals and, thus, contaminate soils. Therefore, this study focused on the impact of soil conditions on the root uptake of selected pharmaceuticals and their transformation in a chosen soil–plant system. Green pea plants were planted in 3 soils. Plants were initially irrigated with tap water. Next, they were irrigated for 20 days with a solution of either atenolol (ATE), sulfamethoxazole (SUL), carbamazepine (CAR), or all of these three compounds. The concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites [atenolol acid (AAC), N1-acetyl sulfamethoxazole (N1AS), N4-acetyl sulfamethoxazole (N4AS), carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide (EPC), 10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (DHC), trans-10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxy carbamazepine (RTC), and oxcarbazepine (OXC)] in soils and plant tissues were evaluated after harvest. The study confirmed high (CAR), moderate (ATE, AAC, SUL), and minor (N4AC) root uptake of the studied compounds by the green pea plants, nonrestricted transfer of the CAR species into the different plant tissues, and a very high efficiency in metabolizing CAR in the stems and leaves. The results showed neither a synergic nor competitive influence of the application of all compounds in the solution on their uptake by plants. The statistical analysis proved the negative relationships between the CAR sorption coefficients and the concentrations of CAR, EPC, and OXC in the roots (R = –0.916, –0.932, and –0.925, respectively) and stems (R = –0.837, –0.844, and –0.847, respectively).

Mots clés

  • Atenolol
  • Carbamazepine
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Irrigation with contaminated water
  • Sorption in soils
  • Metabolites
access type Accès libre

Impact of secondary succession in abandoned fields on some properties of acidic sandy soils

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 12 - 18

Résumé

Abstract

Abandonment of agricultural lands in recent decades is occurring mainly in Europe, North America and Oceania, and changing the fate of landscapes as the ecosystem recovers during fallow stage. The objective of this study was to find the impact of secondary succession in abandoned fields on some parameters of acidic sandy soils in the Borská nížina lowland (southwestern Slovakia). We investigated soil chemical (pH and soil organic carbon content), hydrophysical (water sorptivity, and hydraulic conductivity), and water repellency (water drop penetration time, water repellency cessation time, repellency index, and modified repellency index) parameters, as well as the ethanol sorptivity of the studied soils. Both the hydrophysical and chemical parameters decreased significantly during abandonment of the three investigated agricultural fields. On the other hand, the water repellency parameters increased significantly, but the ethanol sorptivity did not change during abandonment. As the ethanol sorptivity depends mainly on soil pore size, the last finding could mean that the pore size of acidic sandy soils did not change during succession.

Mots clés

  • Water repellency
  • Acidic sandy soil
  • Land abandonment
  • Secondary succession
  • Soil properties
access type Accès libre

Are coastal deserts necessarily dew deserts? An example from the Tabernas Desert

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 19 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

Vapor condensation, whether due to dew or fog, may add a stable and important source of water to deserts. This was also extensively assessed in the Negev, regarded as a dew desert. Dew deserts necessitate a large reservoir of vapor, and are therefore confined to near oceans or seas. Yet, examples of such deserts are scarce. Here we try to assess whether the Tabernas Desert in SE Spain can be regarded as a dew desert, and may therefore facilitate the growth of certain organisms that otherwise would not survive the dry season. We analyze some of the abiotic conditions of four relatively dry months (June, July, August, September) in the Tabernas and Negev deserts (with the Negev taken as an example of a dew desert) during 2003–2012. The analysis showed substantially lower values of relative humidity (by 10–13%) in the Tabernas in comparison to the Negev, with RH ≥95% being on average only 0.9–1.1 days a month in the Tabernas in comparison to 9.7–13.9 days in the Negev. Our findings imply that the Tabernas Desert cannot be regarded as a dew desert, suggesting that rain will be the main factor responsible for the food web chain in the Tabernas.

Mots clés

  • Fog
  • Negev Desert
  • Relative humidity
  • Vapor condensation
  • Wind speed
access type Accès libre

Ski piste snow ablation versus potential infiltration (Veporic Unit, Western Carpathians)

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 28 - 37

Résumé

Abstract

Snow production results in high volume of snow that is remaining on the low-elevation ski pistes after snowmelt of natural snow on the off-piste sites. The aim of this study was to identify snow/ice depth, snow density, and snow water equivalent of remaining ski piste snowpack to calculate and to compare snow ablation water volume with potential infiltration on the ski piste area at South-Central Slovak ski center Košútka (Inner Western Carpathians; temperate zone). Snow ablation water volume was calculated from manual snow depth and density measurements, which were performed at the end of five winter seasons 2010–2011 to 2015–2016, except for season 2013–2014. The laser diffraction analyzes were carried out to identify soil grain size and subsequently the hydraulic conductivity of soil to calculate the infiltration. The average rate of water movement through soil was seven times as high as five seasons’ average ablation rate of ski piste snowpack; nevertheless, the ski piste area was potentially able to infiltrate only 47% of snow ablation water volume on average. Limitation for infiltration was frozen soil and ice layers below the ski piste snowpack and low snow-free area at the beginning of the studied ablation period.

Mots clés

  • Snow water equivalent
  • Snow density
  • Artificial snow
  • Snow ablation
  • Soil temperature
  • Hydraulic conductivity
access type Accès libre

The variability of ice phenomena on the rivers of the Baltic coastal zone in the Northern Poland

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 38 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

The main purpose of the research was to determine the conditions affecting ice phenomena, including the three-phase cycle of ice: expansion, retention and decay of the ice cover on selected rivers of the Baltic coastal zone in the Northern Poland (Przymorze region). The analysis has been elaborated for the years 1951–2010 against the backdrop of currently occurring climatic changes, with particular emphasis on the development and phase variability of the NAO. The article presents the impact of the variability in atmospheric circulation which has manifested in an increase in air temperature, over the last 20 years, on thermal conditions during winter periods in the South Baltic Coastal Strip. The increase in air temperature has contributed to an increase in the temperature of river waters, thus leading to a shortening of the duration of ice phenomena on rivers in the Przymorze region. The article also brings to light an increased occurrence of winter seasons classified as cool, and a disruption in the occurrence of periods classified as normal over the last 30 observed years. The research has demonstrated a significant dependence between the seasonal change in air temperature and the variability of thermal conditions of water, which has a direct impact on the variability of the icing cycle of rivers in the Przymorze region. The authors also show that the variability in forms of ice phenomena for individual river sections is determined by the local factors, i.e. anthropogenic activity, impact of urbanized areas or inflow of pollutants.

Mots clés

  • Ice phenomena
  • Rivers
  • Coastal zone
  • Air temperature
  • NAO
  • Water temperature
access type Accès libre

Equations for predicting interrill erosion on steep slopes in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 51 - 59

Résumé

Abstract

The Three Gorges Reservoir region suffers from severe soil erosion that leads to serious soil degradation and eutrophication. Interrill erosion models are commonly used in developing soil erosion control measures. Laboratory simulation experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between interrill erosion rate and three commonly hydraulic parameters (flow velocity V, shear stress τ and stream power W). The slope gradients ranged from 17.6% to 36.4%, and the rainfall intensities varied from 0.6 to 2.54 mm·min−1.

The results showed that surface runoff volume and soil loss rates varied greatly with the change of slope and rainfall intensity. Surface runoff accounted for 67.2–85.4% of the precipitation on average. Soil loss rates increased with increases of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, Regression analysis showed that interrill erosion rate could be calculated by a linear function of V and W. Predictions based on V (R2 = 0.843, ME = 0.843) and W (R2 = 0.862, ME = 0.862) were powerful. τ (R2 = 0.721, ME = 0.721) did not seem to be a good predictor for interrill erosion rates. Five ordinarily interrill erosion models were analyzed, the accuracy of the models in predicting soil loss rate was: Model 3 (ME = 0.977) > Model 4 (ME = 0.966) > Model 5 (ME = 0.963) > Model 2 (ME = 0.923) > Model 1 (ME = 0.852). The interrill erodibility used in the model 3 (WEPP) was calculated as 0.332×106 kg·s·m−4. The results can improve the precision of interrill erosion estimation on purple soil slopes in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.

Mots clés

  • Purple soil
  • Interrill erosion rate
  • Rainfall intensity
  • Slope gradient
  • Hydraulic parameter
access type Accès libre

Collisional transport model for intense bed load

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 60 - 69

Résumé

Abstract

In an open channel with a mobile bed, intense transport of bed load is associated with high-concentrated sediment-laden flow over a plane surface of the eroded bed due to high bed shear. Typically, the flow exhibits a layered internal structure in which virtually all sediment grains are transported through a collisional layer above the bed. Our investigation focuses on steady uniform turbulent open-channel flow with a developed collisional transport layer and combines modelling and experiment to relate integral quantities, as the discharge of solids, discharge of mixture, and flow depth with the longitudinal slope of the bed and the internal structure of the flow above the bed.

A transport model is presented which considers flow with the internal structure described by linear vertical distributions of granular velocity and concentration across the collisional layer. The model employs constitutive relations based on the classical kinetic theory of granular flows selected by our previous experimental testing as appropriate for the flow and transport conditions under consideration. For given slope and depth of the flow, the model predicts the total discharge and the discharge of sediment. The model also predicts the layered structure of the flow, giving the thickness of the dense layer, collisional layer, and water layer. Model predictions are compared with results of intense bed-load experiment carried out for lightweight sediment in our laboratory tilting flume.

Mots clés

  • Granular flow
  • Sheet flow
  • Sediment transport
  • Grain collision
  • Tilting flume experiment
  • Kinetic theory
access type Accès libre

Velocity profiles and turbulence intensities around side-by-side bridge piers under ice-covered flow condition

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 70 - 82

Résumé

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that the presence of ice cover leads to an intensified local scour pattern in the vicinity of bridge piers. To investigate the local scour pattern in the vicinity of bridge pier under ice-covered flow condition comparing to that under open channel flow condition, it is essential to examine flow field around bridge piers under different flow conditions. In order to do so, after creation of smooth and rough ice covers, three-dimensional timeaveraged velocity components around four pairs of bridge piers were measured using an Acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV). The ADV measured velocity profiles describe the difference between the velocity distributions in the vicinity of bridge piers under different covered conditions. Experimental results show that the vertical velocity distribution which represents the strength of downfall velocity is the greatest under rough covered condition which leads to a greater scour depth. Besides, results show that the turbulent intensity increases with pier size regardless of flow cover, which implies that larger scour depth occurs around piers with larger diameter.

Mots clés

  • Bridge pier
  • Ice cover
  • Local scour
  • Acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV)
  • Horseshoe vortex
access type Accès libre

Concentration distribution and deposition limit of medium-coarse sand-water slurry in inclined pipe

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 83 - 91

Résumé

Abstract

Sand-water slurry was investigated on an experimental pipe loop of inner diameter D = 100 mm with the horizontal, inclined, and vertical smooth pipe sections. A narrow particle size distribution silica sand of mean diameter 0.87 mm was used. The experimental investigation focused on the effects of pipe inclination, overall slurry concentration, and mean velocity on concentration distribution and deposition limit velocity. The measured concentration profiles showed different degrees of stratification for the positive and negative pipe inclinations. The degree of stratification depended on the pipe inclination and on overall slurry concentration and velocity. The ascending flow was less stratified than the corresponding descending flow, the difference increasing from horizontal flow up to an inclination angle of about +30°. The deposition limit velocity was sensitive to the pipe inclination, reaching higher values in the ascending than in the horizontal pipe. The maximum deposition limit value was reached for an inclination angle of about +25°, and the limit remained practically constant in value, about 1.25 times higher than that in the horizontal pipe. Conversely, in the descending pipe, the deposition limit decreased significantly with the negative slopes and tended to be zero for an inclination angle of about −30°, where no stationary bed was observed.

Mots clés

  • Sand-water slurry
  • Pipe inclination
  • Concentration distribution
  • Deposition limit
  • Gamma-ray radiometry
access type Accès libre

Vertical sorting in collisional layer of bimodal sediment transport

Publié en ligne: 13 Feb 2020
Pages: 92 - 98

Résumé

Abstract

Intense collisional transport of bimodal sediment mixture in open-channel turbulent flow with water as carrying liquid is studied. The study focusses on steep inclined flows transporting solids of spherical shape and differing in either size or mass. A process of vertical sorting (segregation) of the two different solids fractions during the transport is analyzed and modelled. A segregation model is presented which is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows and builds on the Larcher-Jenkins segregation model for dry bimodal mixtures. Main modifications of the original model are the carrying medium (water instead of air) and a presence of a non-uniform distribution of sediment across the flow depth. Testing of the modified model reveals that the model is applicable to flow inclination slopes from 20 to 30 degrees approximately, making it appropriate for debris flow conditions. Changing the slope outside the specified range leads to numerical instability of the solution. A use of the bimodal mixture model is restricted to the grain size ratio 1.4 and no restriction is found for the grain mass ratio in a realistic range applicable to natural conditions. The model reveals trends in the vertical sorting under variable conditions showing that the sorting is more intense if flow is steeper and/or the difference in size or mass is bigger between the two sediment fractions in a bimodal mixture.

Mots clés

  • Grain segregation
  • Bimodal mixture
  • Granular flow
  • Sheet flow
  • Sediment transport

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