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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
ISSN
0042-790X
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 61 (2013): Edition 4 (December 2013)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
ISSN
0042-790X
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

11 Articles
access type Accès libre

Runoff and inter-rill erosion in a Maritime Pine and a Eucalypt plantation following wildfire and terracing in north-central Portugal

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 261 - 268

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess how terracing affected overland flow and associated sediment losses, at the micro-plot scale (0.25 m2), in recently burnt stands of the two principal forest types in north-central Portugal, i.e. mono-specific stands of Maritime Pine and Eucalypt. Terracing is an increasingly common practice of slope engineering in the study region but its impacts on runoff and erosion are poorly studied. Non-terraced plots at the Eucalypt and the Pine site revealed similar median runoff coefficients (rc: 20-30%) as well as comparable median sediment losses (15-25 g m-2) during the first seven months following wildfire. During the ensuing, slightly wetter 18-month period, however, non-terraced plots at the Pine site lost noticeably more sediments (in median, 90 vs. 18 g m-2), in spite the runoff response had remained basically the same (median rc: 33 vs. 28%). By contrast, terraced plots at the same Pine site lost hugely more sediments (in median, 1,200 g m-2) during this 18-month period. Terraced plots at the Eucalypt site even lost three times more sediments (in median, 3,600 g m-2). Ground cover and resistance to shear stress seemed to be key factors in the observed/inferred impacts of terracing.

Mots clés

  • Wildfire
  • Terracing
  • Eucalypt
  • Pine
  • Overland flow
  • Erosion
access type Accès libre

Time of concentration of surface flow in complex hillslopes

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 269 - 277

Résumé

Abstract

Time of concentration (TC) of surface flow in watersheds depends on the coupled response of hillslopes and stream networks. The important point in this background is to study the effects of the geometry and the shape of complex hillslopes on the time of concentration considering the degree of flow convergence (convergent, parallel or divergent) as well as the profile curvature (concave, straight or convex). In this research, the shape factor of complex hillslopes as introduced by Agnese et al. (2007) is generalized and linked to the TC. A new model for calculating TC of complex hillslopes is presented, which depends on the plan shape, the type and degree of profile curvature, the Manning roughness coefficient, the flow regime, the length, the average slope, and the excess rainfall intensity. The presented model was compared to that proposed by Singh and Agiralioglu (1981a,b) and Agiralioglu (1985). Moreover, the results of laboratory experiments on the travel time of surface flow of complex hillslopes were used to calibrate the model. The results showed that TC for convergent hillslopes is nearly double those of parallel and divergent ones. TC in convex hillslopes was very close to that in straight and concave hillslopes. While the effect of convergence on TC is considerable, the curvature effect confirmed insignificant. Finally, in convergent hillslopes, TC increases with the degree of convergence, but in divergent hillslopes, it decreases as degree of divergence increases.

Keywords

  • Complex hillslopes
  • Time of concentration
  • Surface flow
access type Accès libre

The influence of large-scale climatic patterns on precipitation, temperature, and discharge in Czech river basins

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 278 - 285

Résumé

Abstract

The present study focuses on the possible influence of large-scale climatic patterns on precipitation, temperature, and discharge in two distinct river basins in the Czech Republic. The first one is a flat lowland basin of the Cidlina River and the second one represents a more mountainous type of climate (the Blanice River). The large-scale climatic patterns used comprise monthly averages of teleconnection patterns, sea level pressure values, and two geopotential heights (850 hPa and 500 hPa). The correlations for corresponding months and also up to a three months lead time were investigated. The relations concerning the corresponding months proved to be most reliable in the winter period of the year. The behaviour of both selected river basins with respect to these predictors is rather similar in character. However, higher values of correlation coefficients are reached in the case of the Cidlina River basin. Considering the prediction abilities with a certain lead time, the results seem to be more promising for the winter and spring periods in both basins. In the Cidlina River basin, they are likely to be beneficial also for the late summer and autumn period.

Keywords

  • Macro-scale climatic patterns
  • Cidlina River
  • Blanice River
  • Hydrometeorology
access type Accès libre

On the applicability of minimum channel length criterion for roll-waves in mud-flows

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 286 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

The paper addresses the prediction of roll-waves occurrence in mud-flows. The spatial growth of a point-wise disturbance is analytically described, based on the linearized flow model of a Herschel and Bulkley fluid, in the neighborhood of an initial uniform base condition. The theoretical achievements allow to generalize to mud-flows the minimum channel criterion commonly used for the prediction of roll-waves in clear-water. The applicability of the criterion is discussed through the comparison with literature laboratory data concerning unstable flows without rollwaves.

Keywords

  • Herschel and Bulkley
  • Mud-flows
  • Stability analysis
  • Roll-waves
access type Accès libre

Characterizing sand ripples at equilibrium phases

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 293 - 298

Résumé

Abstract

Morphological characteristics of ripples are analyzed considering bed surfaces as two dimensional random fields of bed elevations. Two equilibrium phases are analyzed with respect to successive development of ripples based on digital elevation models. The key findings relate to the shape of the two dimensional second-order structure functions and multiscaling behavior revealed by higher-order structure functions. Our results suggest that (1) the two dimensional second-order structure functions can be used to differentiate the two equilibrium phases of ripples; and (2) in contrast to the elevational time series of ripples that exhibit significant multiscaling behavior, the DEMs of ripples at both equilibrium phases do not exhibit multiscaling behavior.

Keywords

  • DEMs
  • Equilibrium phases
  • Multiscaling
  • Wave spectra
access type Accès libre

Comparison of two methods to assess heterogeneity of water flow in soils

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 299 - 304

Résumé

Abstract

The heterogeneity of water flow and solute transport was assessed during radioactive tracer infiltration experiment in a black clay loam soil using modified methods to estimate the effective cross section (ECS) and the degree of preferential flow (DPF). The results of field and numerical experiments showed that these parameters characterized the heterogeneity of water flow in the soils unequivocally. The ECS decreases non-linearly and the DPF increases linearly with an increase of the bypassing ratio (ratio of macropore flow rate to total flow rate). The ECS decreased and the DPF increased with depth, which suggests an increase in the heterogeneity of water flow with depth. The plot of the DPF against ECS values calculated from the tracer experiment data was consistent with the relationship obtained by the numerical simulation assuming preferential flow in the neighbourhood of three probes.

Keywords

  • Degree of preferential flow
  • Effective cross section
  • Preferential flow in soil
  • Infiltration experiment
  • Radioactive tracer technique
access type Accès libre

Continuous field soil moisture content mapping by means of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measurement

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 305 - 312

Résumé

Abstract

A soil moisture content map is important for providing information about the distribution of moisture in a given area. Moisture content directly influences agricultural yield thus it is crucial to have accurate and reliable information about moisture distribution and content in the field. Since soil is a porous medium modified generalized Archie’s equation provides the basic formula to calculate moisture content data based on measured ECa. In this study we aimed to find a more accurate and cost effective method for measuring moisture content than manual field sampling. Locations of 25 sampling points were chosen from our research field as a reference. We assumed that soil moisture content could be calculated by measuring apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) using the Veris-3100 on-the-go soil mapping tool. Statistical analysis was carried out on the 10.791 ECa raw data in order to filter the outliers. The applied statistical method was ±1.5 interquartile (IRQ) distance approach. The visualization of soil moisture distribution within the experimental field was carried out by means of ArcGIS/ArcMAP using the inverse distance weighting interpolation method. In the investigated 25 sampling points, coefficient of determination between calculated volumetric moisture content data and measured ECa was R2 = 0.87. According to our results, volumetric moisture content can be mapped by applying ECa measurements in these particular soil types.

Keywords

  • Moisture content mapping
  • Apparent electrical conductivity
  • Data preparation and interpolation
  • Precision agriculture
access type Accès libre

Criteria for selecting fluorescent dye tracers for soil hydrological applications using Uranine as an example

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 313 - 325

Résumé

Abstract

Calibrating and verifying 2-D and 3-D vadose zone flow and transport models requires detailed information on water and solute redistribution. Among the different water flow and mass transfer determination methods, staining tracers have the best spatial resolution allowing visualization and quantification of fluid flow including preferential flow paths. Staining techniques have been used successfully for several decades; however, the hydrological community is still searching for an “ideal” vadose zone tracer regarding flow path visualization. To date, most research using staining dyes is carried out with Brilliant Blue FCF. Fluorescent dyes such as Uranine, however, have significant advantages over nonfluorescents which makes them a promising alternative. This paper presents the first analysis of key properties any fluorescent substance must possess to qualify as a staining fluorescent tracer in vadose zone hydrological applications. First, we summarize the main physico-chemical properties of Uranine and evaluate its staining tracer potential with conventional suitability indicators and visibility testing in a soil profile. Based on numerical analysis using the theory of fluorescence, we show that a low molar absorption coefficient is a crucial parameter to quantify concentration accurately. In addition, excitation of a tracer on wavelengths different from the maximum excitation wavelength can extend the linear range of the concentration-fluorescence relationship significantly. Finally, we develop criteria for evaluating the suitability of any potential fluorescent soil staining compound for soil hydrological applications: 1) high quantum yield, 2) low molar absorption coefficient, 3) fluorescence independent of temperature, 4) low photodecomposition rates, and 5) fluorescence stable across a wide range of pH values.

Keywords

  • Staining
  • Preferential flow paths visualization
  • Molar extinction coefficient
  • Tracer concentration quantification
  • Vadose zone hydrology
access type Accès libre

Historic flood marks and flood frequency analysis of the Danube River at Bratislava, Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 326 - 333

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper we focused on the history of floods and extreme flood frequency analysis of the upper Danube River at Bratislava. Firstly, we briefly describe the flood marks found on the Danube River in the region of Bratislava, Slovakia, and provide an account of the floods’ consequences. Secondly, we analyzed the annual maximum discharge series for the period 1876-2012, including the most recent flood of June 2013. Thirdly, we compare the values of T-year design discharge computed with and without incorporating the historic floods (floods of the years 1501, 1682, and 1787 into the 138-year series of annual discharge peaks). There are unfortunately only a few historic flood marks preserved in Bratislava, but there are very important and old marks in neighbouring Hainburg and other Austrian cities upstream to Passau. The calculated T-year maximum discharge of the Danube at Bratislava for the period 1876-2010 without and with historic flood values have been compared. Our analysis showed that without incorporating the historic floods from the years 1501, 1682, and 1787 the 1000-year discharge calculated only with data from the instrumented period 1876- 2013 is 14,188 m3 s-1, and it is lower compared to the 1000-year discharge of 14,803 m3 s-1 when the three historic floods are included. In general, the T-year discharge is higher throughout the whole spectrum of T-year discharges (10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500-year discharge) when the three historic floods are included. Incorporating historic floods into a time series of maximum annual discharge seems to exert a significant effect on the estimates of low probability floods. This has important implications for flood managements and estimation of flood design discharge.

Keywords

  • Historic floods
  • Extreme flood peak
  • Flood hazard
  • Danube River
  • Bratislava
access type Accès libre

Application of a hydrological-hydraulic modelling cascade in lowlands for investigating water and sediment fluxes in catchment, channel and reach

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 334 - 346

Résumé

Abstract

This study shows a comprehensive simulation of water and sediment fluxes from the catchment to the reach scale. We describe the application of a modelling cascade in a well researched study catchment through connecting stateof- the-art public domain models in ArcGIS. Three models are used consecutively: (1) the hydrological model SWAT to evaluate water balances, sediment input from fields and tile drains as a function of catchment characteristics; (2) the onedimensional hydraulic model HEC-RAS to depict channel erosion and sedimentation along a 9 km channel onedimensionally; and (3) the two-dimensional hydraulic model AdH for simulating detailed substrate changes in a 230 m long reach section over the course of one year. Model performance for the water fluxes is very good, sediment fluxes and substrate changes are simulated with good agreement to observed data. Improvement of tile drain sediment load, simulation of different substrate deposition events and carrying out data sensitivity tests are suggested as future work. Main advantages that can be deduced from this study are separate representation of field, drain and bank erosion processes; shown adaptability to lowland catchments and transferability to other catchments; usability of the model’s output for habitat assessments.

Keywords

  • SWAT
  • HEC-RAS
  • AdH
  • SEDLIB
  • Hydrology
  • Sediment transport
  • Multiple scales
access type Accès libre

The use of sodium polytungstate as an X-ray contrast agent to reduce the beam hardening artifact in hydrological laboratory experiments

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 347 - 352

Résumé

Abstract

Iodine is conventionally used as a contrast agent in hydrological laboratory experiments using polychromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT) to monitor two-phase Darcy flow in porous geological media. Undesirable beam hardening artifacts, however, render the quantitative analysis of the obtained CT images difficult. CT imaging of porous sand/bead packs saturated with iodine and tungsten-bearing aqueous solutions, respectively, was performed using a medical CT scanner. We found that sodium polytungstate (Na6H2W12O40) significantly reduced the beam hardening compared with potassium iodide (KI). This result is attributable to the location of the K absorption edge of tungsten, which is nearer to the peak of the polychromatic X-ray source spectrum than that of iodine. As sodium polytungstate is chemically stable and less toxic than other heavy element bearing compounds, we recommend it as a promising contrast agent for hydrological CT experiments.

Mots clés

  • Beam hardening artifact
  • Contrast agent
  • Darcy flow
  • Porous media
  • Sodium polytungstate (SPT)
  • X-ray CT
11 Articles
access type Accès libre

Runoff and inter-rill erosion in a Maritime Pine and a Eucalypt plantation following wildfire and terracing in north-central Portugal

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 261 - 268

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess how terracing affected overland flow and associated sediment losses, at the micro-plot scale (0.25 m2), in recently burnt stands of the two principal forest types in north-central Portugal, i.e. mono-specific stands of Maritime Pine and Eucalypt. Terracing is an increasingly common practice of slope engineering in the study region but its impacts on runoff and erosion are poorly studied. Non-terraced plots at the Eucalypt and the Pine site revealed similar median runoff coefficients (rc: 20-30%) as well as comparable median sediment losses (15-25 g m-2) during the first seven months following wildfire. During the ensuing, slightly wetter 18-month period, however, non-terraced plots at the Pine site lost noticeably more sediments (in median, 90 vs. 18 g m-2), in spite the runoff response had remained basically the same (median rc: 33 vs. 28%). By contrast, terraced plots at the same Pine site lost hugely more sediments (in median, 1,200 g m-2) during this 18-month period. Terraced plots at the Eucalypt site even lost three times more sediments (in median, 3,600 g m-2). Ground cover and resistance to shear stress seemed to be key factors in the observed/inferred impacts of terracing.

Mots clés

  • Wildfire
  • Terracing
  • Eucalypt
  • Pine
  • Overland flow
  • Erosion
access type Accès libre

Time of concentration of surface flow in complex hillslopes

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 269 - 277

Résumé

Abstract

Time of concentration (TC) of surface flow in watersheds depends on the coupled response of hillslopes and stream networks. The important point in this background is to study the effects of the geometry and the shape of complex hillslopes on the time of concentration considering the degree of flow convergence (convergent, parallel or divergent) as well as the profile curvature (concave, straight or convex). In this research, the shape factor of complex hillslopes as introduced by Agnese et al. (2007) is generalized and linked to the TC. A new model for calculating TC of complex hillslopes is presented, which depends on the plan shape, the type and degree of profile curvature, the Manning roughness coefficient, the flow regime, the length, the average slope, and the excess rainfall intensity. The presented model was compared to that proposed by Singh and Agiralioglu (1981a,b) and Agiralioglu (1985). Moreover, the results of laboratory experiments on the travel time of surface flow of complex hillslopes were used to calibrate the model. The results showed that TC for convergent hillslopes is nearly double those of parallel and divergent ones. TC in convex hillslopes was very close to that in straight and concave hillslopes. While the effect of convergence on TC is considerable, the curvature effect confirmed insignificant. Finally, in convergent hillslopes, TC increases with the degree of convergence, but in divergent hillslopes, it decreases as degree of divergence increases.

Keywords

  • Complex hillslopes
  • Time of concentration
  • Surface flow
access type Accès libre

The influence of large-scale climatic patterns on precipitation, temperature, and discharge in Czech river basins

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 278 - 285

Résumé

Abstract

The present study focuses on the possible influence of large-scale climatic patterns on precipitation, temperature, and discharge in two distinct river basins in the Czech Republic. The first one is a flat lowland basin of the Cidlina River and the second one represents a more mountainous type of climate (the Blanice River). The large-scale climatic patterns used comprise monthly averages of teleconnection patterns, sea level pressure values, and two geopotential heights (850 hPa and 500 hPa). The correlations for corresponding months and also up to a three months lead time were investigated. The relations concerning the corresponding months proved to be most reliable in the winter period of the year. The behaviour of both selected river basins with respect to these predictors is rather similar in character. However, higher values of correlation coefficients are reached in the case of the Cidlina River basin. Considering the prediction abilities with a certain lead time, the results seem to be more promising for the winter and spring periods in both basins. In the Cidlina River basin, they are likely to be beneficial also for the late summer and autumn period.

Keywords

  • Macro-scale climatic patterns
  • Cidlina River
  • Blanice River
  • Hydrometeorology
access type Accès libre

On the applicability of minimum channel length criterion for roll-waves in mud-flows

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 286 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

The paper addresses the prediction of roll-waves occurrence in mud-flows. The spatial growth of a point-wise disturbance is analytically described, based on the linearized flow model of a Herschel and Bulkley fluid, in the neighborhood of an initial uniform base condition. The theoretical achievements allow to generalize to mud-flows the minimum channel criterion commonly used for the prediction of roll-waves in clear-water. The applicability of the criterion is discussed through the comparison with literature laboratory data concerning unstable flows without rollwaves.

Keywords

  • Herschel and Bulkley
  • Mud-flows
  • Stability analysis
  • Roll-waves
access type Accès libre

Characterizing sand ripples at equilibrium phases

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 293 - 298

Résumé

Abstract

Morphological characteristics of ripples are analyzed considering bed surfaces as two dimensional random fields of bed elevations. Two equilibrium phases are analyzed with respect to successive development of ripples based on digital elevation models. The key findings relate to the shape of the two dimensional second-order structure functions and multiscaling behavior revealed by higher-order structure functions. Our results suggest that (1) the two dimensional second-order structure functions can be used to differentiate the two equilibrium phases of ripples; and (2) in contrast to the elevational time series of ripples that exhibit significant multiscaling behavior, the DEMs of ripples at both equilibrium phases do not exhibit multiscaling behavior.

Keywords

  • DEMs
  • Equilibrium phases
  • Multiscaling
  • Wave spectra
access type Accès libre

Comparison of two methods to assess heterogeneity of water flow in soils

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 299 - 304

Résumé

Abstract

The heterogeneity of water flow and solute transport was assessed during radioactive tracer infiltration experiment in a black clay loam soil using modified methods to estimate the effective cross section (ECS) and the degree of preferential flow (DPF). The results of field and numerical experiments showed that these parameters characterized the heterogeneity of water flow in the soils unequivocally. The ECS decreases non-linearly and the DPF increases linearly with an increase of the bypassing ratio (ratio of macropore flow rate to total flow rate). The ECS decreased and the DPF increased with depth, which suggests an increase in the heterogeneity of water flow with depth. The plot of the DPF against ECS values calculated from the tracer experiment data was consistent with the relationship obtained by the numerical simulation assuming preferential flow in the neighbourhood of three probes.

Keywords

  • Degree of preferential flow
  • Effective cross section
  • Preferential flow in soil
  • Infiltration experiment
  • Radioactive tracer technique
access type Accès libre

Continuous field soil moisture content mapping by means of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measurement

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 305 - 312

Résumé

Abstract

A soil moisture content map is important for providing information about the distribution of moisture in a given area. Moisture content directly influences agricultural yield thus it is crucial to have accurate and reliable information about moisture distribution and content in the field. Since soil is a porous medium modified generalized Archie’s equation provides the basic formula to calculate moisture content data based on measured ECa. In this study we aimed to find a more accurate and cost effective method for measuring moisture content than manual field sampling. Locations of 25 sampling points were chosen from our research field as a reference. We assumed that soil moisture content could be calculated by measuring apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) using the Veris-3100 on-the-go soil mapping tool. Statistical analysis was carried out on the 10.791 ECa raw data in order to filter the outliers. The applied statistical method was ±1.5 interquartile (IRQ) distance approach. The visualization of soil moisture distribution within the experimental field was carried out by means of ArcGIS/ArcMAP using the inverse distance weighting interpolation method. In the investigated 25 sampling points, coefficient of determination between calculated volumetric moisture content data and measured ECa was R2 = 0.87. According to our results, volumetric moisture content can be mapped by applying ECa measurements in these particular soil types.

Keywords

  • Moisture content mapping
  • Apparent electrical conductivity
  • Data preparation and interpolation
  • Precision agriculture
access type Accès libre

Criteria for selecting fluorescent dye tracers for soil hydrological applications using Uranine as an example

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 313 - 325

Résumé

Abstract

Calibrating and verifying 2-D and 3-D vadose zone flow and transport models requires detailed information on water and solute redistribution. Among the different water flow and mass transfer determination methods, staining tracers have the best spatial resolution allowing visualization and quantification of fluid flow including preferential flow paths. Staining techniques have been used successfully for several decades; however, the hydrological community is still searching for an “ideal” vadose zone tracer regarding flow path visualization. To date, most research using staining dyes is carried out with Brilliant Blue FCF. Fluorescent dyes such as Uranine, however, have significant advantages over nonfluorescents which makes them a promising alternative. This paper presents the first analysis of key properties any fluorescent substance must possess to qualify as a staining fluorescent tracer in vadose zone hydrological applications. First, we summarize the main physico-chemical properties of Uranine and evaluate its staining tracer potential with conventional suitability indicators and visibility testing in a soil profile. Based on numerical analysis using the theory of fluorescence, we show that a low molar absorption coefficient is a crucial parameter to quantify concentration accurately. In addition, excitation of a tracer on wavelengths different from the maximum excitation wavelength can extend the linear range of the concentration-fluorescence relationship significantly. Finally, we develop criteria for evaluating the suitability of any potential fluorescent soil staining compound for soil hydrological applications: 1) high quantum yield, 2) low molar absorption coefficient, 3) fluorescence independent of temperature, 4) low photodecomposition rates, and 5) fluorescence stable across a wide range of pH values.

Keywords

  • Staining
  • Preferential flow paths visualization
  • Molar extinction coefficient
  • Tracer concentration quantification
  • Vadose zone hydrology
access type Accès libre

Historic flood marks and flood frequency analysis of the Danube River at Bratislava, Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 326 - 333

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper we focused on the history of floods and extreme flood frequency analysis of the upper Danube River at Bratislava. Firstly, we briefly describe the flood marks found on the Danube River in the region of Bratislava, Slovakia, and provide an account of the floods’ consequences. Secondly, we analyzed the annual maximum discharge series for the period 1876-2012, including the most recent flood of June 2013. Thirdly, we compare the values of T-year design discharge computed with and without incorporating the historic floods (floods of the years 1501, 1682, and 1787 into the 138-year series of annual discharge peaks). There are unfortunately only a few historic flood marks preserved in Bratislava, but there are very important and old marks in neighbouring Hainburg and other Austrian cities upstream to Passau. The calculated T-year maximum discharge of the Danube at Bratislava for the period 1876-2010 without and with historic flood values have been compared. Our analysis showed that without incorporating the historic floods from the years 1501, 1682, and 1787 the 1000-year discharge calculated only with data from the instrumented period 1876- 2013 is 14,188 m3 s-1, and it is lower compared to the 1000-year discharge of 14,803 m3 s-1 when the three historic floods are included. In general, the T-year discharge is higher throughout the whole spectrum of T-year discharges (10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500-year discharge) when the three historic floods are included. Incorporating historic floods into a time series of maximum annual discharge seems to exert a significant effect on the estimates of low probability floods. This has important implications for flood managements and estimation of flood design discharge.

Keywords

  • Historic floods
  • Extreme flood peak
  • Flood hazard
  • Danube River
  • Bratislava
access type Accès libre

Application of a hydrological-hydraulic modelling cascade in lowlands for investigating water and sediment fluxes in catchment, channel and reach

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 334 - 346

Résumé

Abstract

This study shows a comprehensive simulation of water and sediment fluxes from the catchment to the reach scale. We describe the application of a modelling cascade in a well researched study catchment through connecting stateof- the-art public domain models in ArcGIS. Three models are used consecutively: (1) the hydrological model SWAT to evaluate water balances, sediment input from fields and tile drains as a function of catchment characteristics; (2) the onedimensional hydraulic model HEC-RAS to depict channel erosion and sedimentation along a 9 km channel onedimensionally; and (3) the two-dimensional hydraulic model AdH for simulating detailed substrate changes in a 230 m long reach section over the course of one year. Model performance for the water fluxes is very good, sediment fluxes and substrate changes are simulated with good agreement to observed data. Improvement of tile drain sediment load, simulation of different substrate deposition events and carrying out data sensitivity tests are suggested as future work. Main advantages that can be deduced from this study are separate representation of field, drain and bank erosion processes; shown adaptability to lowland catchments and transferability to other catchments; usability of the model’s output for habitat assessments.

Keywords

  • SWAT
  • HEC-RAS
  • AdH
  • SEDLIB
  • Hydrology
  • Sediment transport
  • Multiple scales
access type Accès libre

The use of sodium polytungstate as an X-ray contrast agent to reduce the beam hardening artifact in hydrological laboratory experiments

Publié en ligne: 01 Dec 2013
Pages: 347 - 352

Résumé

Abstract

Iodine is conventionally used as a contrast agent in hydrological laboratory experiments using polychromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT) to monitor two-phase Darcy flow in porous geological media. Undesirable beam hardening artifacts, however, render the quantitative analysis of the obtained CT images difficult. CT imaging of porous sand/bead packs saturated with iodine and tungsten-bearing aqueous solutions, respectively, was performed using a medical CT scanner. We found that sodium polytungstate (Na6H2W12O40) significantly reduced the beam hardening compared with potassium iodide (KI). This result is attributable to the location of the K absorption edge of tungsten, which is nearer to the peak of the polychromatic X-ray source spectrum than that of iodine. As sodium polytungstate is chemically stable and less toxic than other heavy element bearing compounds, we recommend it as a promising contrast agent for hydrological CT experiments.

Mots clés

  • Beam hardening artifact
  • Contrast agent
  • Darcy flow
  • Porous media
  • Sodium polytungstate (SPT)
  • X-ray CT

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