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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 62 (2014): Edition 4 (December 2014)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4333
Première publication
28 Mar 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

11 Articles
access type Accès libre

Biohydrology research after Landau 2013 conference

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 253 - 257

Résumé

access type Accès libre

Dynamics of organic carbon losses by water erosion after biocrust removal

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 258 - 268

Résumé

Abstract

In arid and semiarid ecosystems, plant interspaces are frequently covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts. These crusts often act as runoff sources and are involved in soil stabilization and fertility, as they prevent erosion by water and wind, fix atmospheric C and N and contribute large amounts of C to soil. Their contribution to the C balance as photosynthetically active surfaces in arid and semiarid regions is receiving growing attention. However, very few studies have explicitly evaluated their contribution to organic carbon (OC) lost from runoff and erosion, which is necessary to ascertain the role of biocrusts in the ecosystem C balance. Furthermore, biocrusts are not resilient to physical disturbances, which generally cause the loss of the biocrust and thus, an increase in runoff and erosion, dust emissions, and sediment and nutrient losses. The aim of this study was to find out the influence of biocrusts and their removal on dissolved and sediment organic carbon losses. One-hour extreme rainfall simulations (50 mm h-1) were performed on small plots set up on physical soil crusts and three types of biocrusts, representing a development gradient, and also on plots where these crusts were removed from. Runoff and erosion rates, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic carbon bonded to sediments (SdOC) were measured during the simulated rain. Our results showed different SdOC and DOC for the different biocrusts and also that the presence of biocrusts substantially decreased total organic carbon (TOC) (average 1.80±1.86 g m-2) compared to physical soil crusts (7.83±3.27 g m-2). Within biocrusts, TOC losses decreased as biocrusts developed, and erosion rates were lower. Thus, erosion drove TOC losses while no significant direct relationships were found between TOC losses and runoff. In both physical crusts and biocrusts, DOC and SdOC concentrations were higher during the first minutes after runoff began and decreased over time as nutrient-enriched fine particles were washed away by runoff water. Crust removal caused a strong increase in water erosion and TOC losses. The strongest impacts on TOC losses after crust removal occurred on the lichen plots, due to the increased erosion when they were removed. DOC concentration was higher in biocrust-removed soils than in intact biocrusts, probably because OC is more strongly retained by BSC structures, but easily blown away in soils devoid of them. However, SdOC concentration was higher in intact than removed biocrusts associated with greater OC content in the top crust than in the soil once the crust is scraped off. Consequently, the loss of biocrusts leads to OC impoverishment of nutrient-limited interplant spaces in arid and semiarid areas and the reduction of soil OC heterogeneity, essential for vegetation productivity and functioning of this type of ecosystems.

Keywords

  • Biological soil crust
  • Dissolved OC
  • Sediment OC
  • Runoff
  • Biocrust disturbance
  • Physical crust
access type Accès libre

Modelling soil water content variations under drought stress on soil column cropped with winter wheat

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 269 - 276

Résumé

Abstract

Mathematical models are effective tools for evaluating the impact of predicted climate change on agricultural production, but it is difficult to test their applicability to future weather conditions. We applied the SWAP model to assess its applicability to climate conditions, differing from those, for which the model was developed. We used a database obtained from a winter wheat drought stress experiment. Winter wheat was grown in six soil columns, three having optimal water supply (NS), while three were kept under drought-stressed conditions (S). The SWAP model was successfully calibrated against measured values of potential evapotranspiration (PET), potential evaporation (PE) and total amount of water (TSW) in the soil columns. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (N-S) for TWS for the stressed columns was 0.92. For the NS treatment, we applied temporally variable soil hydraulic properties because of soil consolidation caused by regular irrigation. This approach improved the N-S values for the wetting-drying cycle from -1.77 to 0.54. We concluded that the model could be used for assessing the effects of climate change on soil water regime. Our results indicate that soil water balance studies should put more focus on the time variability of structuredependent soil properties.

Keywords

  • Climatic room
  • SWAP model
  • Soil water balance elements
  • Drought stress
  • Temporal variability of soil properties
access type Accès libre

Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 277 - 284

Résumé

Abstract

The interception was recognized as an important part of the catchment water balance in temperate climate. The mountainous forest ecosystem at experimental headwater catchment Liz has been subject of long-term monitoring. Unique dataset in terms of time resolution serves to determine canopy storage capacity and free throughfall. Spatial variability of throughfall was studied using one weighing and five tipping bucket rain gauges. The basic characteristics of forest affecting interception process were determined for the Norway spruce stand at the experimental area - the leaf area index was 5.66 - 6.00 m2 m-2, the basal area was 55.7 m2 ha-1, and the crown closure above individual rain gauges was between 19 and 95%. The total interception loss in both growing seasons analyzed was 34.5%. The mean value of the interception capacity determined was about 2 mm. Throughfall exhibited high variability from place to place and it was strongly affected by character of rainfall. On the other hand, spatial pattern of throughfall in average showed low variability.

Keywords

  • Interception loss
  • Interception capacity
  • Free throughfall
  • Evaporation
  • Hydrological balance of vegetation cover.
access type Accès libre

Impact of evapotranspiration on discharge in small catchments

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 285 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

We apply the Linear Storage Model (LSM) to simulate the influence of the evapotranspiration on discharges. High resolution discharge data from two small catchments in the Czech Republic, the Teply Brook and the Starosuchdolsky Brook catchment are used. The results show the runoff process is simpler in a deeper valley of the Starosuchdolsky catchment where the soil zone is deeper and the valley bottom recharges runoff even during very dry periods. Two-soil zone model is adequate to simulate the diurnal runoff variability. Three-soil zone model is needed in the Teply Brook catchment due to the absence of water transport in the most-upper soil zone. Time delays between minimum and maximum discharge during the day reach up to about 20 hours. Evapotranspiration and hydraulic resistances are as high as 14% of catchment daily runoff in the urbanized Starosuchdolsky Brook catchment and 25% of catchment daily runoff in the forested, less impacted Teply Brook catchment

Keywords

  • Catchment water depletion
  • Diurnal streamflow variability
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Linear Storage Model (LSM).
access type Accès libre

Synergic hydraulic and nutritional feedback mechanisms control surface patchiness of biological soil crusts on tertiary sands at a post-mining site

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 293 - 302

Résumé

Abstract

In a recultivation area located in Brandenburg, Germany, five types of biocrusts (initial BSC1, developed BSC2 and BSC3, mosses, lichens) and non-crusted mineral substrate were sampled on tertiary sand deposited in 1985- 1986 to investigate hydrologic interactions between crust patches. Crust biomass was lowest in the non-crusted substrate, increased to the initial BSC1 and peaked in the developed BSC2, BSC3, the lichens and the mosses. Water infiltration was highest on the substrate, and decreased to BSC2, BSC1 and BSC3. Non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed that the lichens and BSC3 were associated with water soluble nutrients and with pyrite weathering products, thus representing a high nutrient low hydraulic feedback mode. The mosses and BSC2 represented a low nutrient high hydraulic feedback mode. These feedback mechanisms were considered as synergic, consisting of run-off generating (low hydraulic) and run-on receiving (high hydraulic) BSC patches. Three scenarios for BSC succession were proposed. (1) Initial BSCs sealed the surface until they reached a successional stage (represented by BSC1) from which the development into either of the feedback modes was triggered, (2) initial heterogeneities of the mineral substrate controlled the development of the feedback mode, and (3) complex interactions between lichens and mosses occurred at later stages of system development.

Keywords

  • Recultivation
  • Pyrite weathering
  • Bistable ecosystems
access type Accès libre

Sink plot for runoff measurements on semi-flat terrains: preliminary data and their potential hydrological and ecological implications

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 303 - 308

Résumé

Abstract

In arid and semiarid regions where water is the main limiting factor, water redistribution is regarded as an important hydrological process of great ecological value. By providing additional water to certain loci, moist pockets of great productivity are formed, characterized by high plant biomass and biological activity. These moist pockets are often a result of runon. Yet, although runoff may take place on semi-flat undulating surfaces, runoff measurements are thus far confined to slopes, where a sufficient gradient facilitates downslope water harvesting. On undulating surfaces of mounds and depressions, such as in interdunes, no quantification of the amount of water reaching depressions is feasible due to the fact that no reliable method for measuring the runoff amounts in semi-flat terrains is available. The current paper describes specific runoff plots, designed to measure runoff in depressions (sinks). These plots, termed sink plots (SPs), were operative in the Hallamish dunefield (Negev Desert, Israel). The paper presents measurements of runoff yield that were carried out between January 2013 and January 2014 on SPs and compared them to runoff obtained from crusted slope plots and fine-grained (playa) surfaces. The potential hydrological and ecological implications of water redistribution within semi-flat terrains for this and other arid ecosystems are discussed.

Keywords

  • Infiltration
  • Playa surfaces
  • Sand dunes
  • Negev Desert
access type Accès libre

Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 309 - 315

Résumé

Abstract

The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM) depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic manure contents. Locally available cattle manure (CM), goat manure (GM), and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves (CE) were used as the organic manure amendments. Organic matter content of soils was measured in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days intervals under the laboratory conditions with 74±5% relative humidity at 28±1°C. Initial water repellency of soil samples was measured as the wetting rates using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Initial water repellency increased with increasing SOM content showing higher increasing rate for hydrophobic CE amended samples compared with those amended with CM and GM. The relation between water repellency and SOM content was considered to be governed by the original hydrophobicities of added manures. The SOM contents of all the soil samples decreased with the time to reach almost steady level at about 30 d. The initial SOM depletion rates were negatively related with the initial water repellency. However, all the CE amended samples initially showed prominent low SOM depletion rates, which were not significantly differed with the amended manure content or the difference in initial water repellency. It is explicable that the original hydrophobicity of the manure as well has a potentially important effect on initiation of SOM decomposition. In contrast, the overall SOM depletion rate can be attributed to the initial water repellency of the manure amended sample, however, not to the original hydrophobicity of the amended manure. Hydrophobic protection may prevent rapid microbial decomposition of SOM and it is conceivable that hydrophobic substances in appropriate composition may reduce organic matter mineralization in soil. These results suggest the contribution of hydrophobic organic substances in bioresistance of SOM and their long-term accumulation in soils

Keywords

  • Carbon mineralization
  • Hydrophobicity
  • Organic manure
  • Water drop penetration time
  • Water repellency.
access type Accès libre

Transpiration and biomass production of the bioenergy crop Giant Knotweed Igniscum under various supplies of water and nutrients

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 316 - 323

Résumé

Abstract

Soil water availability, nutrient supply and climatic conditions are key factors for plant production. For a sustainable integration of bioenergy plants into agricultural systems, detailed studies on their water uses and growth performances are needed. The new bioenergy plant Igniscum Candy is a cultivar of the Sakhalin Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis), which is characterized by a high annual biomass production. For the determination of transpiration-yield relations at the whole plant level we used wicked lysimeters at multiple irrigation levels associated with the soil water availability (25, 35, 70, 100%) and nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1). Leaf transpiration and net photosynthesis were determined with a portable minicuvette system. The maximum mean transpiration rate was 10.6 mmol m-2 s-1 for well-watered plants, while the mean net photosynthesis was 9.1 μmol m-2 s-1. The cumulative transpiration of the plants during the growing seasons varied between 49 l (drought stressed) and 141 l (well-watered) per plant. The calculated transpiration coefficient for Fallopia over all of the treatments applied was 485.6 l kg-1. The transpiration-yield relation of Igniscum is comparable to rye and barley. Its growth performance making Fallopia a potentially good second generation bioenergy crop.

Keywords

  • Water use efficiency
  • Transpiration coefficient
  • Photosynthesis
  • Nitrogen
  • Ecophysiology
  • Lysimeter
  • Fallopia
access type Accès libre

Tensile and erosive strength of soil macro-aggregates from soils under different management system

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 324 - 333

Résumé

Abstract

Reduced soil tillage practices are claimed to improve soil health, fertility and productivity through improved soil structure and higher soil organic matter contents. This study compares soil structure stability of soil aggregates under three different tillage practices: conventional, reduced and no tillage. The erosive strength of soil aggregates has been determined using the abrasion technique with the soil aggregate erosion chambers (SAE). During abrasion soil aggregates have been separated into the exterior, transitional and interior regions. The forces needed to remove the material from the aggregate were calculated as erosive strength and compared with the tensile strength of the aggregates derived from crushing tests. The relationship between aggregate strength and other soil properties such as organic carbon and hydrophobic groups’ content has also been identified.

The results show that erosive and tensile strength of soil aggregates is very low in topsoil under conventional and reduced tillage comparing with the subsoil horizons. Negative correlation was found between the content of organic carbon, hydrophobic compounds and erosive aggregate strength which suggests that the stabilising effect of soils organic carbon may be lost with drying. The positive relationship between the tensile strength and erosive strength for aggregates of 8-5 mm size suggests that the total strength of these aggregates is controlled by the sum of strength of all concentric layers

Keywords

  • Tensile strength
  • Erosive strength
  • Exterior/interior aggregate region
  • Aggregate
  • Concentric layers
  • Dry aggregate stability
  • Reduced tillage
access type Accès libre

Effects of patterned Artemisia capillaris on overland flow resistance under varied rainfall intensities in the Loess Plateau of China

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 334 - 342

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper simulated rainfall experiments in laboratory were conducted to quantify the effects oƒ patchy distributed Artemisia capillaris on spatial and temporal variations oƒ the Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient (f). Different intensities oƒ 60, 90, 120, and 150 mm h-1 were applied on a bare plot (CK) and four different patched patterns: a checkerboard pattern (CP), a banded pattern perpendicular to slope direction (BP), a single long strip parallel to slope direction (LP), and a pattern with small patches distributed like the letter ‘X’ (XP). Each plot underwent two sets oƒ experiments, intact plant and root plots (the above-ground parts were removed). Results showed that mean ƒ for A. capillaris patterned treatments was 1.25-13.0 times oƒ that for CK. BP, CP, and XP performed more effectively than LP in increasing hydraulic roughness. The removal oƒ grass shoots significantly reduced f. A negative relationship was found between mean ƒ for the bare plot and rainfall intensity, whereas for grass patterned plots fr (mean ƒ in patterned plots divided by that for CK) increased exponentially with rainfall intensity. The ƒ -Re relation was best fitted by a power function. Soil erosion rate can be well described using ƒ by a power-law relationship

Keywords

  • Overland flow
  • Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient
  • Patch pattern
  • Vegetation structure
  • Simulated rainfall
  • Loess Plateau
11 Articles
access type Accès libre

Biohydrology research after Landau 2013 conference

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 253 - 257

Résumé

access type Accès libre

Dynamics of organic carbon losses by water erosion after biocrust removal

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 258 - 268

Résumé

Abstract

In arid and semiarid ecosystems, plant interspaces are frequently covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts. These crusts often act as runoff sources and are involved in soil stabilization and fertility, as they prevent erosion by water and wind, fix atmospheric C and N and contribute large amounts of C to soil. Their contribution to the C balance as photosynthetically active surfaces in arid and semiarid regions is receiving growing attention. However, very few studies have explicitly evaluated their contribution to organic carbon (OC) lost from runoff and erosion, which is necessary to ascertain the role of biocrusts in the ecosystem C balance. Furthermore, biocrusts are not resilient to physical disturbances, which generally cause the loss of the biocrust and thus, an increase in runoff and erosion, dust emissions, and sediment and nutrient losses. The aim of this study was to find out the influence of biocrusts and their removal on dissolved and sediment organic carbon losses. One-hour extreme rainfall simulations (50 mm h-1) were performed on small plots set up on physical soil crusts and three types of biocrusts, representing a development gradient, and also on plots where these crusts were removed from. Runoff and erosion rates, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic carbon bonded to sediments (SdOC) were measured during the simulated rain. Our results showed different SdOC and DOC for the different biocrusts and also that the presence of biocrusts substantially decreased total organic carbon (TOC) (average 1.80±1.86 g m-2) compared to physical soil crusts (7.83±3.27 g m-2). Within biocrusts, TOC losses decreased as biocrusts developed, and erosion rates were lower. Thus, erosion drove TOC losses while no significant direct relationships were found between TOC losses and runoff. In both physical crusts and biocrusts, DOC and SdOC concentrations were higher during the first minutes after runoff began and decreased over time as nutrient-enriched fine particles were washed away by runoff water. Crust removal caused a strong increase in water erosion and TOC losses. The strongest impacts on TOC losses after crust removal occurred on the lichen plots, due to the increased erosion when they were removed. DOC concentration was higher in biocrust-removed soils than in intact biocrusts, probably because OC is more strongly retained by BSC structures, but easily blown away in soils devoid of them. However, SdOC concentration was higher in intact than removed biocrusts associated with greater OC content in the top crust than in the soil once the crust is scraped off. Consequently, the loss of biocrusts leads to OC impoverishment of nutrient-limited interplant spaces in arid and semiarid areas and the reduction of soil OC heterogeneity, essential for vegetation productivity and functioning of this type of ecosystems.

Keywords

  • Biological soil crust
  • Dissolved OC
  • Sediment OC
  • Runoff
  • Biocrust disturbance
  • Physical crust
access type Accès libre

Modelling soil water content variations under drought stress on soil column cropped with winter wheat

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 269 - 276

Résumé

Abstract

Mathematical models are effective tools for evaluating the impact of predicted climate change on agricultural production, but it is difficult to test their applicability to future weather conditions. We applied the SWAP model to assess its applicability to climate conditions, differing from those, for which the model was developed. We used a database obtained from a winter wheat drought stress experiment. Winter wheat was grown in six soil columns, three having optimal water supply (NS), while three were kept under drought-stressed conditions (S). The SWAP model was successfully calibrated against measured values of potential evapotranspiration (PET), potential evaporation (PE) and total amount of water (TSW) in the soil columns. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (N-S) for TWS for the stressed columns was 0.92. For the NS treatment, we applied temporally variable soil hydraulic properties because of soil consolidation caused by regular irrigation. This approach improved the N-S values for the wetting-drying cycle from -1.77 to 0.54. We concluded that the model could be used for assessing the effects of climate change on soil water regime. Our results indicate that soil water balance studies should put more focus on the time variability of structuredependent soil properties.

Keywords

  • Climatic room
  • SWAP model
  • Soil water balance elements
  • Drought stress
  • Temporal variability of soil properties
access type Accès libre

Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 277 - 284

Résumé

Abstract

The interception was recognized as an important part of the catchment water balance in temperate climate. The mountainous forest ecosystem at experimental headwater catchment Liz has been subject of long-term monitoring. Unique dataset in terms of time resolution serves to determine canopy storage capacity and free throughfall. Spatial variability of throughfall was studied using one weighing and five tipping bucket rain gauges. The basic characteristics of forest affecting interception process were determined for the Norway spruce stand at the experimental area - the leaf area index was 5.66 - 6.00 m2 m-2, the basal area was 55.7 m2 ha-1, and the crown closure above individual rain gauges was between 19 and 95%. The total interception loss in both growing seasons analyzed was 34.5%. The mean value of the interception capacity determined was about 2 mm. Throughfall exhibited high variability from place to place and it was strongly affected by character of rainfall. On the other hand, spatial pattern of throughfall in average showed low variability.

Keywords

  • Interception loss
  • Interception capacity
  • Free throughfall
  • Evaporation
  • Hydrological balance of vegetation cover.
access type Accès libre

Impact of evapotranspiration on discharge in small catchments

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 285 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

We apply the Linear Storage Model (LSM) to simulate the influence of the evapotranspiration on discharges. High resolution discharge data from two small catchments in the Czech Republic, the Teply Brook and the Starosuchdolsky Brook catchment are used. The results show the runoff process is simpler in a deeper valley of the Starosuchdolsky catchment where the soil zone is deeper and the valley bottom recharges runoff even during very dry periods. Two-soil zone model is adequate to simulate the diurnal runoff variability. Three-soil zone model is needed in the Teply Brook catchment due to the absence of water transport in the most-upper soil zone. Time delays between minimum and maximum discharge during the day reach up to about 20 hours. Evapotranspiration and hydraulic resistances are as high as 14% of catchment daily runoff in the urbanized Starosuchdolsky Brook catchment and 25% of catchment daily runoff in the forested, less impacted Teply Brook catchment

Keywords

  • Catchment water depletion
  • Diurnal streamflow variability
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Linear Storage Model (LSM).
access type Accès libre

Synergic hydraulic and nutritional feedback mechanisms control surface patchiness of biological soil crusts on tertiary sands at a post-mining site

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 293 - 302

Résumé

Abstract

In a recultivation area located in Brandenburg, Germany, five types of biocrusts (initial BSC1, developed BSC2 and BSC3, mosses, lichens) and non-crusted mineral substrate were sampled on tertiary sand deposited in 1985- 1986 to investigate hydrologic interactions between crust patches. Crust biomass was lowest in the non-crusted substrate, increased to the initial BSC1 and peaked in the developed BSC2, BSC3, the lichens and the mosses. Water infiltration was highest on the substrate, and decreased to BSC2, BSC1 and BSC3. Non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed that the lichens and BSC3 were associated with water soluble nutrients and with pyrite weathering products, thus representing a high nutrient low hydraulic feedback mode. The mosses and BSC2 represented a low nutrient high hydraulic feedback mode. These feedback mechanisms were considered as synergic, consisting of run-off generating (low hydraulic) and run-on receiving (high hydraulic) BSC patches. Three scenarios for BSC succession were proposed. (1) Initial BSCs sealed the surface until they reached a successional stage (represented by BSC1) from which the development into either of the feedback modes was triggered, (2) initial heterogeneities of the mineral substrate controlled the development of the feedback mode, and (3) complex interactions between lichens and mosses occurred at later stages of system development.

Keywords

  • Recultivation
  • Pyrite weathering
  • Bistable ecosystems
access type Accès libre

Sink plot for runoff measurements on semi-flat terrains: preliminary data and their potential hydrological and ecological implications

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 303 - 308

Résumé

Abstract

In arid and semiarid regions where water is the main limiting factor, water redistribution is regarded as an important hydrological process of great ecological value. By providing additional water to certain loci, moist pockets of great productivity are formed, characterized by high plant biomass and biological activity. These moist pockets are often a result of runon. Yet, although runoff may take place on semi-flat undulating surfaces, runoff measurements are thus far confined to slopes, where a sufficient gradient facilitates downslope water harvesting. On undulating surfaces of mounds and depressions, such as in interdunes, no quantification of the amount of water reaching depressions is feasible due to the fact that no reliable method for measuring the runoff amounts in semi-flat terrains is available. The current paper describes specific runoff plots, designed to measure runoff in depressions (sinks). These plots, termed sink plots (SPs), were operative in the Hallamish dunefield (Negev Desert, Israel). The paper presents measurements of runoff yield that were carried out between January 2013 and January 2014 on SPs and compared them to runoff obtained from crusted slope plots and fine-grained (playa) surfaces. The potential hydrological and ecological implications of water redistribution within semi-flat terrains for this and other arid ecosystems are discussed.

Keywords

  • Infiltration
  • Playa surfaces
  • Sand dunes
  • Negev Desert
access type Accès libre

Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 309 - 315

Résumé

Abstract

The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM) depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic manure contents. Locally available cattle manure (CM), goat manure (GM), and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves (CE) were used as the organic manure amendments. Organic matter content of soils was measured in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days intervals under the laboratory conditions with 74±5% relative humidity at 28±1°C. Initial water repellency of soil samples was measured as the wetting rates using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Initial water repellency increased with increasing SOM content showing higher increasing rate for hydrophobic CE amended samples compared with those amended with CM and GM. The relation between water repellency and SOM content was considered to be governed by the original hydrophobicities of added manures. The SOM contents of all the soil samples decreased with the time to reach almost steady level at about 30 d. The initial SOM depletion rates were negatively related with the initial water repellency. However, all the CE amended samples initially showed prominent low SOM depletion rates, which were not significantly differed with the amended manure content or the difference in initial water repellency. It is explicable that the original hydrophobicity of the manure as well has a potentially important effect on initiation of SOM decomposition. In contrast, the overall SOM depletion rate can be attributed to the initial water repellency of the manure amended sample, however, not to the original hydrophobicity of the amended manure. Hydrophobic protection may prevent rapid microbial decomposition of SOM and it is conceivable that hydrophobic substances in appropriate composition may reduce organic matter mineralization in soil. These results suggest the contribution of hydrophobic organic substances in bioresistance of SOM and their long-term accumulation in soils

Keywords

  • Carbon mineralization
  • Hydrophobicity
  • Organic manure
  • Water drop penetration time
  • Water repellency.
access type Accès libre

Transpiration and biomass production of the bioenergy crop Giant Knotweed Igniscum under various supplies of water and nutrients

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 316 - 323

Résumé

Abstract

Soil water availability, nutrient supply and climatic conditions are key factors for plant production. For a sustainable integration of bioenergy plants into agricultural systems, detailed studies on their water uses and growth performances are needed. The new bioenergy plant Igniscum Candy is a cultivar of the Sakhalin Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis), which is characterized by a high annual biomass production. For the determination of transpiration-yield relations at the whole plant level we used wicked lysimeters at multiple irrigation levels associated with the soil water availability (25, 35, 70, 100%) and nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1). Leaf transpiration and net photosynthesis were determined with a portable minicuvette system. The maximum mean transpiration rate was 10.6 mmol m-2 s-1 for well-watered plants, while the mean net photosynthesis was 9.1 μmol m-2 s-1. The cumulative transpiration of the plants during the growing seasons varied between 49 l (drought stressed) and 141 l (well-watered) per plant. The calculated transpiration coefficient for Fallopia over all of the treatments applied was 485.6 l kg-1. The transpiration-yield relation of Igniscum is comparable to rye and barley. Its growth performance making Fallopia a potentially good second generation bioenergy crop.

Keywords

  • Water use efficiency
  • Transpiration coefficient
  • Photosynthesis
  • Nitrogen
  • Ecophysiology
  • Lysimeter
  • Fallopia
access type Accès libre

Tensile and erosive strength of soil macro-aggregates from soils under different management system

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 324 - 333

Résumé

Abstract

Reduced soil tillage practices are claimed to improve soil health, fertility and productivity through improved soil structure and higher soil organic matter contents. This study compares soil structure stability of soil aggregates under three different tillage practices: conventional, reduced and no tillage. The erosive strength of soil aggregates has been determined using the abrasion technique with the soil aggregate erosion chambers (SAE). During abrasion soil aggregates have been separated into the exterior, transitional and interior regions. The forces needed to remove the material from the aggregate were calculated as erosive strength and compared with the tensile strength of the aggregates derived from crushing tests. The relationship between aggregate strength and other soil properties such as organic carbon and hydrophobic groups’ content has also been identified.

The results show that erosive and tensile strength of soil aggregates is very low in topsoil under conventional and reduced tillage comparing with the subsoil horizons. Negative correlation was found between the content of organic carbon, hydrophobic compounds and erosive aggregate strength which suggests that the stabilising effect of soils organic carbon may be lost with drying. The positive relationship between the tensile strength and erosive strength for aggregates of 8-5 mm size suggests that the total strength of these aggregates is controlled by the sum of strength of all concentric layers

Keywords

  • Tensile strength
  • Erosive strength
  • Exterior/interior aggregate region
  • Aggregate
  • Concentric layers
  • Dry aggregate stability
  • Reduced tillage
access type Accès libre

Effects of patterned Artemisia capillaris on overland flow resistance under varied rainfall intensities in the Loess Plateau of China

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 334 - 342

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper simulated rainfall experiments in laboratory were conducted to quantify the effects oƒ patchy distributed Artemisia capillaris on spatial and temporal variations oƒ the Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient (f). Different intensities oƒ 60, 90, 120, and 150 mm h-1 were applied on a bare plot (CK) and four different patched patterns: a checkerboard pattern (CP), a banded pattern perpendicular to slope direction (BP), a single long strip parallel to slope direction (LP), and a pattern with small patches distributed like the letter ‘X’ (XP). Each plot underwent two sets oƒ experiments, intact plant and root plots (the above-ground parts were removed). Results showed that mean ƒ for A. capillaris patterned treatments was 1.25-13.0 times oƒ that for CK. BP, CP, and XP performed more effectively than LP in increasing hydraulic roughness. The removal oƒ grass shoots significantly reduced f. A negative relationship was found between mean ƒ for the bare plot and rainfall intensity, whereas for grass patterned plots fr (mean ƒ in patterned plots divided by that for CK) increased exponentially with rainfall intensity. The ƒ -Re relation was best fitted by a power function. Soil erosion rate can be well described using ƒ by a power-law relationship

Keywords

  • Overland flow
  • Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient
  • Patch pattern
  • Vegetation structure
  • Simulated rainfall
  • Loess Plateau

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