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Detalles de la revista
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Revista
eISSN
2353-3978
Publicado por primera vez
30 Jul 2013
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
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Volumen 24 (2016): Edición 2 (December 2016)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2353-3978
Publicado por primera vez
30 Jul 2013
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

14 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Growth of Ornamental Grasses Under Salinity Stress

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 5 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of substrate salinity caused by increasing NaCl doses on growth and development of ornamental grasses: Briza media L., Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., Koeleria glauca (Spreng.) DC., Sesleria caerulea (L.) Ard. and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Results provide the basis for the preliminary classification of analyzed grasses in terms of their tolerance to substrate salinity. Grasses, responding negatively to substrate salinity caused by small doses of 5 and 10 g·NaCl·dm−3, may be considered to be sensitive species. Within the studied genotypes, B. media showed a negative response to salt stress in most of the analyzed traits. Genotypes responded differently to salinity but all had a decreased tolerance index even at the lowest concentration of NaCl. The lowest percentages of dry leaves at 5 and 10 g NaCl·dm−3 were in K. glauca and S. caerulea. The percentage of dry matter and leaf greenness were least affected.

Palabras clave

  • shoots
  • dry matter content
  • leaf chlorophyll content index
  • leaves
  • sodium chloride
Acceso abierto

Enhancing Growth in Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt. Seedlings with Exogenous Application of Nitric Oxide

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 13 - 17

Resumen

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that regulates biological processes in plants and may be used in horticultural practice as a potential plant growth regulator. Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., also known as pineapple lily, is a member of the Asparagaceae and native to South Africa. Pineapple lily are well suited for production as pot plants, cut flowers, and garden plants. The potential also exists for this species to be used as a medicinal plant. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the NO donor of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on morphological features of E. autumnalis seedlings. The plants grown in a greenhouse were drenched four times, at weekly intervals, with SNP solutions of the following concentration: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μM. The study revealed that the application of SNP significantly improved greenness index of leaves, leaf length, and leaf fresh weight, as compared to the control at all levels. This treatment also showed a significant increase in bulb and root fresh weight, root number, and root length. Application of SNP at 200 μM increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent.

Palabras clave

  • growth regulators
  • flower bulbs
  • pineapple lily
  • sodium nitroprusside
Acceso abierto

The Frequency of Viral Infections on Two Narcissus Plantations in Central Poland

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 19 - 24

Resumen

Abstract

Viral diseases in narcissus can drastically affect yields and quality of narcissus bulbs and flowers, leading even to a total crop loss. To test the frequency of viral infections in production fields in Central Poland, samples were collected over three years from two cultivars and two plantations, and tested for the presence of Arabis mosaic (ArMV), Cucumber mosaic (CMV), Narcissus latent (NLV), Narcissus mosaic (NMV) and the potyvirus group using the Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Potyviruses, NLV and NMV were detected in almost all leaf samples in both cultivars, in all three years of testing. Other viruses were detected in a limited number of samples. In most cases mixed infections were present. Tests on bulbs have shown the presence of potyviruses and NMV, with the higher number of positives in cultivar ‘Carlton’. In addition, for most viruses an increase in their detectability was observed on both plantations in subsequent seasons.

Palabras clave

  • ELISA
  • flower bulbs
  • negative selection
  • viral disease
Acceso abierto

Occurrence of Two-Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on Potentilla fruticosa Cultivars

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 25 - 30

Resumen

Abstract

Potentilla fruticosa L. (Rosaceae Juss.) is one of the most popular deciduous shrubs cultivated in Poland. Among pests identified so far on P. fruticosa, a serious threat is caused by two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). During three-year study, the occurrence of two-spotted spider mite T. urticae on four cultivars of P. fruticosa: ‘Goldfinger’, ‘McKay’s White’, ‘Uman’ and ‘Pink Beauty’ grown in field conditions was compared. While conducting experiment, weather conditions were monitored. The number of eggs and motile forms of two-spotted spider mite were recorded separately. The most attractive cultivar to spider mite was ‘Goldfinger’. The largest amount of motile forms of mites and their eggs were found on the leaves of this cultivar in all three years of study. The least number of pests occurred on the cv. ‘Pink Beauty’. However, differences in the abundance of this pest on all studied cultivars were variable during the growing seasons.

Palabras clave

  • spider mite
  • population dynamics
  • shrubby cinquefoil
  • comparison
Acceso abierto

Light Relations in a Plum Orchard Trellised Horizontally in Comparison with Standard, Central Leader Training

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 31 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

Plum trees of ‘Elena’, designed for mechanical harvesting with a straddle self-propelled harvester, were planted in 2008 in the experimental orchard at Dąbrowice at a distance of 4 × 1.5 and 2.0 m. The trees were trained to a central leader to a height of 2.7 m and 1.5 or 2.0 m spread. Plum trees designed for mechanical harvesting with a small tractor-driven harvester were spaced at 4 × 1.0 or 1.5 m and were trellised horizontally on wires stretched along rows 0.8 m above the ground. Fruits were harvested in 2012–2015. The cumulative yield from the trellised trees was only half of that from the trees trained to a central leader, whereas the fruit load index (weight of fruits per m3 canopy) was the highest at 4 × 1.0 m). To explain this phenomenon, studies were conducted in 2015 on light relations in the two training systems. The studies revealed that light transmission has different patterns in the two training systems, but the level of light interception was nearly similar. Light distribution was more beneficial for photosynthesis in the central leader trees. The trees trained to a horizontal canopy had poor illumination at the canopy base. The main reason of low productivity of the horizontal canopy was low canopy volume.

Palabras clave

  • Borkh.
  • training systems
  • mechanical harvesting
  • light interception and distribution
Acceso abierto

Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 37 - 47

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO)-controlled atmosphere (CA) [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1) and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2)] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold storage and after 25 days of maintaining at market condition had been evaluated. The physical (firmness, weight losses), chemical (total soluble solids and acid contents), and sensory (aroma, taste, acidity, sweetness, juiciness, and color) characteristics of apples had been evaluated after 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days to ascertain maximal shelf-life. Results from sensory evaluation indicated that apples treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA were characterized with distinctive aroma, whereas apples stored under CA were poor in sweetness and had remarkable acidity and juiciness. Apples that were stored in cold had pronounced aroma and color but without taste. Based on the evaluation by panelist, maximum shelf-life of apples that were kept under cold storage and ULO1 was 15 days, whereas that of apples that had been treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA and those stored in ULO2 was 25 days.

Palabras clave

  • controlled atmosphere
  • 1-Methylcyclopropene
  • cultivar Auksis
  • post-harvest quality
Acceso abierto

Growth, Yielding and Healthiness of Grapevine Cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’ in Response to Fertilizers and Biostimulants

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 49 - 60

Resumen

Abstract

In the years 2008–2015, field experiments were conducted on the vines of cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’ grafted on SO4 rootstock. The following treatments: 1. control (untreated), 2. NPK (mineral fertilization 70 kg N·ha−1; 40 kg P·ha−1; 120 kg K·ha−1), 3. mycorrhizal substrate (AMF – Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi), 4. NPK + AMF, 5. manure (before planting), 6. NPK + manure (before planting), 7. Bioilsa, 8. NPK + Bioilsa, 9. BF-Ecomix, 10. NPK + BF-Ecomix, 11. Ausma and 12. NPK + Ausma were applied to evaluate the usefulness of biostimulants and mineral and organic fertilizers in organic grapevine production in “cool climate” conditions of Poland. The tests did not show a definite positive effect of the biostimulants and organic fertilizers on growth, yielding and healthiness of the cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’. There were no substantial differences in total marketable yield in the years 2009 to 2015 between control and other treatments. Grapevines planted in soil rich in minerals grew and yielded well despite no mineral fertilization for a number of years. In 2014, when the air humidity was high during vegetation, intensive rotting of the berries of cultivar ‘Solaris’, caused by Botrytis cinerea, was observed on plants fertilized with NPK.

Palabras clave

  • sp. L.
  • field trials
  • fertilization
  • bioproducts
Acceso abierto

Migration Monitoring of Blackcurrant Gall Mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw.) from Buds to Leaves on Several Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) Cultivars

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 61 - 68

Resumen

Abstract

The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis) is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz) used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC) became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

Palabras clave

  • monitoring
  • blackcurrant gall mite
  • ‘Ben Alder’
  • ‘Ben Hope’
  • ‘Ruben’
  • ‘Ojebyn’
Acceso abierto

Genomic Profiling of F1 Hybrids of Durian (Durio zibethinus) Revealed by RAPD-PCR

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 69 - 76

Resumen

Abstract

The molecular analysis of 32 durian F1 hybrids, resulted from crossing of the Arp 8990 (female parent) and ‘Otong’ (male parent), was conducted in order to determine the genetic characteristics of hybrids and parents, as it would be followed/evidenced by the variability of traits produced from the cross breeding. The RAPD analyses of 14 primers resulted in 114 scoring bands, 112 (98.2%) of them were polymorphic, with 4 to 11 bands amplified per primer. The electrophoresis gel of the PCR results revealed that some hybrids produced different band patterns compared to the parents; this indicated the crossing between parents’ alleles and trait combinations from both the parents. The Dice-Sorensen similarity coefficient demonstrated that most of the hybrids had distant genetic similarities with both parents, which were ranged from 0.141 [71B(4) and 72B(15)] to 0.776 [71B(15) and 48B(1)]. The UPGMA method was used to construct the dendrogram, which grouped the hybrids in five clusters with distinct genetic relationships and was confirmed with the PCA analysis. This result implied that above crossing produced hybrids having characters different from the parents.

Palabras clave

  • cross breeding
  • hybrids
  • RAPD
Acceso abierto

Growth and Cropping of Two Pear Cultivars as Affected by the Type of Nursery Trees

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 77 - 82

Resumen

Abstract

The study was conducted in 2001–2012 next to Wrocław (southwestern Poland). The purpose of this research was to assess the influence of type of nursery trees of pear cvs ‘Carola’ and ‘Dicolor’ budded on quince S1 rootstock on growth and cropping, as well as fruit quality of two pear cultivars. The trees were planted in the spring of 2001 in 4 replications with 5 trees per plot. Trees were planted in rows with spacing 1.2 × 3.5 m (2381 trees per hectare). Three types of nursery trees, all without feathers, were planted: two-year-old (3 years in a nursery), one-year-old maidens (2 years in a nursery) and annual grafts (only 1 year in a nursery). Tree canopies were formed as a spindle and were trained in the Güttingen-V system. Until the twelfth year after planting, growth and yield were significantly affected by the type of nursery trees. One-year-old maidens were characterized by the strongest vigor in orchard, while pears planted as two-year-old trees grew rather weak (especially with ‘Dicolor’ cv.). Planting two-year-old trees didn’t have any clear positive influence on tree cropping in the orchard. The final results of the study proved that trees planted as annual grafts, irrespective of cultivar, yielded significantly worse. The type of nursery trees had no clear influence on mean fruit weight.

Palabras clave

  • planting material
  • quality
  • growth
  • cropping
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Short-term Storage and the Hot Water Treatment of Fresh-Cut Pepper Fruit cv. ‛Blondy F1’ and ‛Yecla F1’ on the Content of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Properties

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 83 - 90

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the experiment was to determine the changes in the contents of bioactive compounds and antioxidant/antiradical activity in fresh-cut fruits of sweet pepper cv. ‘Blondy F1’ and ‘Yecla F1’, depending on the postharvest treatment. Treatment with hot water and short-term storage decreased the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant/antiradical activity of fruit peppers. The treatment with water at 55 °C for 12 sec. of fresh-cut fruits caused lower losses in content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant/antiradical activities than the treatment with water at 45 °C for 10 min. There was a significant correlation between the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant and antiradical activity of pepper fruits depending on the cultivar and the experimental season.

Palabras clave

  • pepper
  • antioxidant activity
  • antiradical activity
  • short-term storage
  • minimal processing
Acceso abierto

Genetic Variability and Associations Between Grain Yield and Related Traits in Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus Grown at Two Locations

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 91 - 99

Resumen

Abstract

For plant genetic improvement, it is paramount to determine genetic components for the selection of desirable traits. Eighteen Amaranthus cruentus and 11 Amaranthus hypochondriacus genotypes were evaluated at two locations in Nigeria differing in temperature/precipitation to determine the influence of environment on genetic gain. Genotype × environment was significant for all analysed morphological parameters and for grain yield, 1000 seed weight and no. of days to 50% flowering in A. cruentus. In A. hypochondriacus genotype × environment was significant for plant height, leaf length and width, leaf area, inflorescence length, 1000 seed weight and grain yield. Higher genotypic coefficient of variability, heritability estimates, and genetic advance was observed for the traits at Abeokuta (more wet) than Ibadan (more dry) conditions. Grain yield had positive association with the traits at the two locations except the number of leaves and inflorescence length. Inflorescence length was positively associated with grain yield at Abeokuta and negatively associated at Ibadan. Path analysis indicated simultaneous improvement of grain yield with petiole length and leaf length at Abeokuta but with petiole length and leaf area at Ibadan. In general, the locations had potential for genetic improvement of traits of amaranth grain; therefore, selection criteria for improving grain yield should be considered with respect to environment.

Palabras clave

  • genetic variability
  • heritability
  • path analysis
  • effect of environment
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria on Transplants Growth and Lettuce Yield in Organic Production

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 101 - 107

Resumen

Abstract

Application of beneficial bacterial strain B125 (Enterobacter sp.) and strain PZ9 (Bacillus sp.) in lettuce transplants production significantly enhanced seed germination and plant biomass. The best effect was obtained when the mixture of B125 and PZ9 was used. Combined application of these bacteria significantly increased transplants biomass, which was about 45% higher than that in the control. However, after planting these transplants in organic field, generally, there were no differences in yield and nutrient content in plants treated and not treated with the bacteria, except for nitrogen and vitamin C. The lettuce grown from transplants treated with bacterial mixture B125 + PZ9 contained significantly higher nitrogen than plants from other treatments. Opposite to nitrogen, bacterial applications decreased the amount of vitamin C. The growth and organic lettuce composition was affected by planting time. The yield was higher in spring, but the concentration of nutrients in these plants was lower than that in plants harvested in autumn. Climatic and light conditions in the late season were the reasons for increased dry matter content, minerals, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C, as well as high concentration of nitrates.

Palabras clave

  • organic lettuce
  • transplants bacterization
  • yield quality
Acceso abierto

Effect of the Substrate Composition on Yield and Quality of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 109 - 118

Resumen

Abstract

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an aromatic herb which has a high value and is of high demand in the world. Basil in Ukraine is grown mainly in small farms and country house gardens. The influence of the substrate composition (proportions of peat to perlite) on the yield of herbs and on the accumulation of biologically active substances with antioxidant properties was studied for two cultivars grown in a green-house. It was found that the substrate composition influenced the fresh and dry weight, as well as level of total phenolic compounds, carotenoids and essential oils of basil. The herbs yield, ascorbic acid and essential oils concentration increased at an addition of 20, 40 and 60% of perlite, and decreased at 80% as compared to 100% peat. Plants of both cultivars accumulated the highest amount of phenolic substances when grown in the substrate, which contained 40% of peat and 60% of perlite. The concentration of ascorbic acid increased in plants grown in the substrates with 20, 40 and 60% of perlite, mostly at 40%. Significant increase in the concentration of carotenoids differed for cultivars and in ʽBad’oryi’ cv. increased at 20 and 40% perlite, but in ʽFilosof’ at 20, 40 and 60%.

Palabras clave

  • basil
  • yield
  • total phenolic compounds
  • ascorbic acid
  • carotenoids
  • essential oil
  • substrate
14 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Growth of Ornamental Grasses Under Salinity Stress

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 5 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of substrate salinity caused by increasing NaCl doses on growth and development of ornamental grasses: Briza media L., Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., Koeleria glauca (Spreng.) DC., Sesleria caerulea (L.) Ard. and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Results provide the basis for the preliminary classification of analyzed grasses in terms of their tolerance to substrate salinity. Grasses, responding negatively to substrate salinity caused by small doses of 5 and 10 g·NaCl·dm−3, may be considered to be sensitive species. Within the studied genotypes, B. media showed a negative response to salt stress in most of the analyzed traits. Genotypes responded differently to salinity but all had a decreased tolerance index even at the lowest concentration of NaCl. The lowest percentages of dry leaves at 5 and 10 g NaCl·dm−3 were in K. glauca and S. caerulea. The percentage of dry matter and leaf greenness were least affected.

Palabras clave

  • shoots
  • dry matter content
  • leaf chlorophyll content index
  • leaves
  • sodium chloride
Acceso abierto

Enhancing Growth in Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt. Seedlings with Exogenous Application of Nitric Oxide

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 13 - 17

Resumen

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that regulates biological processes in plants and may be used in horticultural practice as a potential plant growth regulator. Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., also known as pineapple lily, is a member of the Asparagaceae and native to South Africa. Pineapple lily are well suited for production as pot plants, cut flowers, and garden plants. The potential also exists for this species to be used as a medicinal plant. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the NO donor of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on morphological features of E. autumnalis seedlings. The plants grown in a greenhouse were drenched four times, at weekly intervals, with SNP solutions of the following concentration: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μM. The study revealed that the application of SNP significantly improved greenness index of leaves, leaf length, and leaf fresh weight, as compared to the control at all levels. This treatment also showed a significant increase in bulb and root fresh weight, root number, and root length. Application of SNP at 200 μM increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent.

Palabras clave

  • growth regulators
  • flower bulbs
  • pineapple lily
  • sodium nitroprusside
Acceso abierto

The Frequency of Viral Infections on Two Narcissus Plantations in Central Poland

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 19 - 24

Resumen

Abstract

Viral diseases in narcissus can drastically affect yields and quality of narcissus bulbs and flowers, leading even to a total crop loss. To test the frequency of viral infections in production fields in Central Poland, samples were collected over three years from two cultivars and two plantations, and tested for the presence of Arabis mosaic (ArMV), Cucumber mosaic (CMV), Narcissus latent (NLV), Narcissus mosaic (NMV) and the potyvirus group using the Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Potyviruses, NLV and NMV were detected in almost all leaf samples in both cultivars, in all three years of testing. Other viruses were detected in a limited number of samples. In most cases mixed infections were present. Tests on bulbs have shown the presence of potyviruses and NMV, with the higher number of positives in cultivar ‘Carlton’. In addition, for most viruses an increase in their detectability was observed on both plantations in subsequent seasons.

Palabras clave

  • ELISA
  • flower bulbs
  • negative selection
  • viral disease
Acceso abierto

Occurrence of Two-Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on Potentilla fruticosa Cultivars

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 25 - 30

Resumen

Abstract

Potentilla fruticosa L. (Rosaceae Juss.) is one of the most popular deciduous shrubs cultivated in Poland. Among pests identified so far on P. fruticosa, a serious threat is caused by two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). During three-year study, the occurrence of two-spotted spider mite T. urticae on four cultivars of P. fruticosa: ‘Goldfinger’, ‘McKay’s White’, ‘Uman’ and ‘Pink Beauty’ grown in field conditions was compared. While conducting experiment, weather conditions were monitored. The number of eggs and motile forms of two-spotted spider mite were recorded separately. The most attractive cultivar to spider mite was ‘Goldfinger’. The largest amount of motile forms of mites and their eggs were found on the leaves of this cultivar in all three years of study. The least number of pests occurred on the cv. ‘Pink Beauty’. However, differences in the abundance of this pest on all studied cultivars were variable during the growing seasons.

Palabras clave

  • spider mite
  • population dynamics
  • shrubby cinquefoil
  • comparison
Acceso abierto

Light Relations in a Plum Orchard Trellised Horizontally in Comparison with Standard, Central Leader Training

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 31 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

Plum trees of ‘Elena’, designed for mechanical harvesting with a straddle self-propelled harvester, were planted in 2008 in the experimental orchard at Dąbrowice at a distance of 4 × 1.5 and 2.0 m. The trees were trained to a central leader to a height of 2.7 m and 1.5 or 2.0 m spread. Plum trees designed for mechanical harvesting with a small tractor-driven harvester were spaced at 4 × 1.0 or 1.5 m and were trellised horizontally on wires stretched along rows 0.8 m above the ground. Fruits were harvested in 2012–2015. The cumulative yield from the trellised trees was only half of that from the trees trained to a central leader, whereas the fruit load index (weight of fruits per m3 canopy) was the highest at 4 × 1.0 m). To explain this phenomenon, studies were conducted in 2015 on light relations in the two training systems. The studies revealed that light transmission has different patterns in the two training systems, but the level of light interception was nearly similar. Light distribution was more beneficial for photosynthesis in the central leader trees. The trees trained to a horizontal canopy had poor illumination at the canopy base. The main reason of low productivity of the horizontal canopy was low canopy volume.

Palabras clave

  • Borkh.
  • training systems
  • mechanical harvesting
  • light interception and distribution
Acceso abierto

Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 37 - 47

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO)-controlled atmosphere (CA) [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1) and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2)] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold storage and after 25 days of maintaining at market condition had been evaluated. The physical (firmness, weight losses), chemical (total soluble solids and acid contents), and sensory (aroma, taste, acidity, sweetness, juiciness, and color) characteristics of apples had been evaluated after 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days to ascertain maximal shelf-life. Results from sensory evaluation indicated that apples treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA were characterized with distinctive aroma, whereas apples stored under CA were poor in sweetness and had remarkable acidity and juiciness. Apples that were stored in cold had pronounced aroma and color but without taste. Based on the evaluation by panelist, maximum shelf-life of apples that were kept under cold storage and ULO1 was 15 days, whereas that of apples that had been treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA and those stored in ULO2 was 25 days.

Palabras clave

  • controlled atmosphere
  • 1-Methylcyclopropene
  • cultivar Auksis
  • post-harvest quality
Acceso abierto

Growth, Yielding and Healthiness of Grapevine Cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’ in Response to Fertilizers and Biostimulants

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 49 - 60

Resumen

Abstract

In the years 2008–2015, field experiments were conducted on the vines of cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’ grafted on SO4 rootstock. The following treatments: 1. control (untreated), 2. NPK (mineral fertilization 70 kg N·ha−1; 40 kg P·ha−1; 120 kg K·ha−1), 3. mycorrhizal substrate (AMF – Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi), 4. NPK + AMF, 5. manure (before planting), 6. NPK + manure (before planting), 7. Bioilsa, 8. NPK + Bioilsa, 9. BF-Ecomix, 10. NPK + BF-Ecomix, 11. Ausma and 12. NPK + Ausma were applied to evaluate the usefulness of biostimulants and mineral and organic fertilizers in organic grapevine production in “cool climate” conditions of Poland. The tests did not show a definite positive effect of the biostimulants and organic fertilizers on growth, yielding and healthiness of the cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’. There were no substantial differences in total marketable yield in the years 2009 to 2015 between control and other treatments. Grapevines planted in soil rich in minerals grew and yielded well despite no mineral fertilization for a number of years. In 2014, when the air humidity was high during vegetation, intensive rotting of the berries of cultivar ‘Solaris’, caused by Botrytis cinerea, was observed on plants fertilized with NPK.

Palabras clave

  • sp. L.
  • field trials
  • fertilization
  • bioproducts
Acceso abierto

Migration Monitoring of Blackcurrant Gall Mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw.) from Buds to Leaves on Several Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) Cultivars

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 61 - 68

Resumen

Abstract

The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis) is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz) used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC) became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

Palabras clave

  • monitoring
  • blackcurrant gall mite
  • ‘Ben Alder’
  • ‘Ben Hope’
  • ‘Ruben’
  • ‘Ojebyn’
Acceso abierto

Genomic Profiling of F1 Hybrids of Durian (Durio zibethinus) Revealed by RAPD-PCR

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 69 - 76

Resumen

Abstract

The molecular analysis of 32 durian F1 hybrids, resulted from crossing of the Arp 8990 (female parent) and ‘Otong’ (male parent), was conducted in order to determine the genetic characteristics of hybrids and parents, as it would be followed/evidenced by the variability of traits produced from the cross breeding. The RAPD analyses of 14 primers resulted in 114 scoring bands, 112 (98.2%) of them were polymorphic, with 4 to 11 bands amplified per primer. The electrophoresis gel of the PCR results revealed that some hybrids produced different band patterns compared to the parents; this indicated the crossing between parents’ alleles and trait combinations from both the parents. The Dice-Sorensen similarity coefficient demonstrated that most of the hybrids had distant genetic similarities with both parents, which were ranged from 0.141 [71B(4) and 72B(15)] to 0.776 [71B(15) and 48B(1)]. The UPGMA method was used to construct the dendrogram, which grouped the hybrids in five clusters with distinct genetic relationships and was confirmed with the PCA analysis. This result implied that above crossing produced hybrids having characters different from the parents.

Palabras clave

  • cross breeding
  • hybrids
  • RAPD
Acceso abierto

Growth and Cropping of Two Pear Cultivars as Affected by the Type of Nursery Trees

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 77 - 82

Resumen

Abstract

The study was conducted in 2001–2012 next to Wrocław (southwestern Poland). The purpose of this research was to assess the influence of type of nursery trees of pear cvs ‘Carola’ and ‘Dicolor’ budded on quince S1 rootstock on growth and cropping, as well as fruit quality of two pear cultivars. The trees were planted in the spring of 2001 in 4 replications with 5 trees per plot. Trees were planted in rows with spacing 1.2 × 3.5 m (2381 trees per hectare). Three types of nursery trees, all without feathers, were planted: two-year-old (3 years in a nursery), one-year-old maidens (2 years in a nursery) and annual grafts (only 1 year in a nursery). Tree canopies were formed as a spindle and were trained in the Güttingen-V system. Until the twelfth year after planting, growth and yield were significantly affected by the type of nursery trees. One-year-old maidens were characterized by the strongest vigor in orchard, while pears planted as two-year-old trees grew rather weak (especially with ‘Dicolor’ cv.). Planting two-year-old trees didn’t have any clear positive influence on tree cropping in the orchard. The final results of the study proved that trees planted as annual grafts, irrespective of cultivar, yielded significantly worse. The type of nursery trees had no clear influence on mean fruit weight.

Palabras clave

  • planting material
  • quality
  • growth
  • cropping
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Short-term Storage and the Hot Water Treatment of Fresh-Cut Pepper Fruit cv. ‛Blondy F1’ and ‛Yecla F1’ on the Content of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Properties

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 83 - 90

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the experiment was to determine the changes in the contents of bioactive compounds and antioxidant/antiradical activity in fresh-cut fruits of sweet pepper cv. ‘Blondy F1’ and ‘Yecla F1’, depending on the postharvest treatment. Treatment with hot water and short-term storage decreased the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant/antiradical activity of fruit peppers. The treatment with water at 55 °C for 12 sec. of fresh-cut fruits caused lower losses in content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant/antiradical activities than the treatment with water at 45 °C for 10 min. There was a significant correlation between the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant and antiradical activity of pepper fruits depending on the cultivar and the experimental season.

Palabras clave

  • pepper
  • antioxidant activity
  • antiradical activity
  • short-term storage
  • minimal processing
Acceso abierto

Genetic Variability and Associations Between Grain Yield and Related Traits in Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus Grown at Two Locations

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 91 - 99

Resumen

Abstract

For plant genetic improvement, it is paramount to determine genetic components for the selection of desirable traits. Eighteen Amaranthus cruentus and 11 Amaranthus hypochondriacus genotypes were evaluated at two locations in Nigeria differing in temperature/precipitation to determine the influence of environment on genetic gain. Genotype × environment was significant for all analysed morphological parameters and for grain yield, 1000 seed weight and no. of days to 50% flowering in A. cruentus. In A. hypochondriacus genotype × environment was significant for plant height, leaf length and width, leaf area, inflorescence length, 1000 seed weight and grain yield. Higher genotypic coefficient of variability, heritability estimates, and genetic advance was observed for the traits at Abeokuta (more wet) than Ibadan (more dry) conditions. Grain yield had positive association with the traits at the two locations except the number of leaves and inflorescence length. Inflorescence length was positively associated with grain yield at Abeokuta and negatively associated at Ibadan. Path analysis indicated simultaneous improvement of grain yield with petiole length and leaf length at Abeokuta but with petiole length and leaf area at Ibadan. In general, the locations had potential for genetic improvement of traits of amaranth grain; therefore, selection criteria for improving grain yield should be considered with respect to environment.

Palabras clave

  • genetic variability
  • heritability
  • path analysis
  • effect of environment
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria on Transplants Growth and Lettuce Yield in Organic Production

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 101 - 107

Resumen

Abstract

Application of beneficial bacterial strain B125 (Enterobacter sp.) and strain PZ9 (Bacillus sp.) in lettuce transplants production significantly enhanced seed germination and plant biomass. The best effect was obtained when the mixture of B125 and PZ9 was used. Combined application of these bacteria significantly increased transplants biomass, which was about 45% higher than that in the control. However, after planting these transplants in organic field, generally, there were no differences in yield and nutrient content in plants treated and not treated with the bacteria, except for nitrogen and vitamin C. The lettuce grown from transplants treated with bacterial mixture B125 + PZ9 contained significantly higher nitrogen than plants from other treatments. Opposite to nitrogen, bacterial applications decreased the amount of vitamin C. The growth and organic lettuce composition was affected by planting time. The yield was higher in spring, but the concentration of nutrients in these plants was lower than that in plants harvested in autumn. Climatic and light conditions in the late season were the reasons for increased dry matter content, minerals, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C, as well as high concentration of nitrates.

Palabras clave

  • organic lettuce
  • transplants bacterization
  • yield quality
Acceso abierto

Effect of the Substrate Composition on Yield and Quality of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2016
Páginas: 109 - 118

Resumen

Abstract

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an aromatic herb which has a high value and is of high demand in the world. Basil in Ukraine is grown mainly in small farms and country house gardens. The influence of the substrate composition (proportions of peat to perlite) on the yield of herbs and on the accumulation of biologically active substances with antioxidant properties was studied for two cultivars grown in a green-house. It was found that the substrate composition influenced the fresh and dry weight, as well as level of total phenolic compounds, carotenoids and essential oils of basil. The herbs yield, ascorbic acid and essential oils concentration increased at an addition of 20, 40 and 60% of perlite, and decreased at 80% as compared to 100% peat. Plants of both cultivars accumulated the highest amount of phenolic substances when grown in the substrate, which contained 40% of peat and 60% of perlite. The concentration of ascorbic acid increased in plants grown in the substrates with 20, 40 and 60% of perlite, mostly at 40%. Significant increase in the concentration of carotenoids differed for cultivars and in ʽBad’oryi’ cv. increased at 20 and 40% perlite, but in ʽFilosof’ at 20, 40 and 60%.

Palabras clave

  • basil
  • yield
  • total phenolic compounds
  • ascorbic acid
  • carotenoids
  • essential oil
  • substrate

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