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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2353-3978
Publicado por primera vez
30 Jul 2013
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 23 (2015): Edición 1 (June 2015)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2353-3978
Publicado por primera vez
30 Jul 2013
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

11 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Withania Coagulans (Stocks) Dunal: Biotechnological Achievements And Perspectives

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 5 - 12

Resumen

Abstract

Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal is an important medicinal plant of the Solanaceae. Biotechnological studies on this plant started in 2009 and are still in a nascent phase of development. Even so, some important advances have been made, particularly in the field of tissue culture, which is an important means for its large-scale propagation and in vitro conservation. This review focuses on methods for surface sterilization, culture initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization of W. coagulans.

Palabras clave

  • adventitious shoot regeneration
  • rooting
  • micropropagation
  • tissue culture
  • RAPD
  • vegetable rennet
Acceso abierto

Micropropagation Of Merremia Quinquefolia (L.) Hallier F. From Nodal Explants

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 13 - 16

Resumen

Abstract

Merremia quinquefolia, is an important medicinal plant of the family Convolvulaceae known for its vasoconstrictor, uterotonic, neurohormonic, sympathicolytic and sedative effects. In the present investigation effect of cytokinins 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kn) and thidiazuron (TDZ), at concentrations 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg·dm−3 on in vitro shoot multiplication from nodal explants of M. quinquefolia was evaluated. Bud breaking and emergence of shoots started within 10-15 days of inoculation in all media containing cytokinin. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.0 mg·dm−3 BAP resulted in maximum number of shoots from single node within 45 days. In vitro raised shoots were successfully rooted on ½ mineral salts of MS medium with 3% sucrose supplemented with 2.0 mg·dm−3 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). This is the first report on in vitro propagation of Merremia quinquefolia. This study can be useful for development of micropropagation protocols for related taxa.

Palabras clave

  • axillary shoot multiplication
  • Convolvulaceae
Acceso abierto

The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 17 - 20

Resumen

Abstract

Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water) and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

Palabras clave

  • salinity
  • growth in urbanized area
Acceso abierto

Growth Response Of Container Grown Japanese Azalea And Euonymus And Concentration Of Nitrates And Phosphates In The Runoff Water Under Different Irrigation And Fertilization

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 21 - 32

Resumen

Abstract

In this study a growth response of two container-grown ornamentals (Euonymus japonicus ‘Ovatus Aureus’ and Rhododendron ‘Geisha Orange’) grown under different irrigation and fertilization rates was examined. The content of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the plant leaves and in leachates was measured. Two levels of irrigation – standard irrigation (SI) and – high irrigation rate (HI), and three control-release fertilizers (CRFs) – Multicote 17-17-17, Osmocote Exact Standard 16-9-12 and Plantacote 15-10-15, applied at the rate of 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 g·l−1, were applied. Fast-acting fertilizers were used as the control. HI adversely affected the growth and quality of Euonymus but stimulated the growth and increased quality of Rhododendron within two years of cultivation in relation to SI. There were no significant interactions between the irrigation and fertilization treatments; irrespective of water regimes, growth responses of both plant species to used fertilizers were similar. Osmocote and Plantacote at the rate of 3 g·l−1 were the most effective for the growth of Euonymus and Rhododendron plants, except of Euonymus in the second year, when 4.5 g·l−1 CRFs resulted in the best growth of plants. HI increased the amount of runoff water as well as N-NO3 and P-PO4 losses from containers during the entire growing period, irrespective of a fertilizer type. The amount of the nitrate and phosphate in leakage was higher when higher rates of CRFs were applied. Maximum nitrate concentration in leakage was the highest 14 days after the application of CRFs.

Palabras clave

  • CRFs
  • ‘Ovatus Aureus’
  • overhead irrigation
  • nursery production
  • ‘Geisha Orange’
Acceso abierto

Rain-Fed Plantations Of The Domesticated Ziziphus Mauritiana In The Sahel: Effects Of Varieties And Rootstocks On Yields And Fruit Quality

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 33 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

A long-term study was conducted to explore the possibility of using traditional rain-fed systems for growing domesticated Ziziphus mauritiana (so-called Pomme du Sahel) in the Sahel. Five varieties, Gola, Ben Gurion, Seb, Umran and Kaithli, were grafted on six rootstocks of Z. mauritiana from various agroecological zones of Niger. Trees were planted inside microcatchments at 8 × 8 m spacing. Over a period of six years, the variety Umran gave the highest fruit yield (3600 kg·ha−1) and the lowest fruit yield was documented for variety Seb (1970 kg·ha−1). Individual fruit weight ranged from 25.8 g for ‘Umran’ to 9.5 g for ‘Seb’. The rootstocks had no effect on average fruits yields and fruit size. There was a significant linear correlation between fruit yield and annual rainfall. In a rainy year (680 mm), the average yield of the five varieties was 7580 kg·ha−1. The results of the current study indicate that dry land plantations of Pomme du Sahel can guarantee food security during dry years in the Sahel. However, further studies are required to evaluate the economic feasibility of this system.

Palabras clave

  • Pomme du Sahel
  • domestication
  • varieties
  • rootstocks
Acceso abierto

Biodiversity Of Weed Communities In Organic And Conventional Orchards

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 39 - 48

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the occurrence of segetal and ruderal weeds in young apple and cherry organic orchards, where weeds under tree canopies were controlled mechanically with a rototiller, and in conventional orchards, where post-emergence herbicides were used. The research material consisted of phytosociological relevés recorded according to the Braun-Blanquet method, in three organic and three conventional orchards, situated near Skierniewice (central Poland), in 2010-2013. On the basis of the collected source material, species composition for the synanthropic flora, as well as phytosociological stability, the cover factor, and weed infestation rate for the analysed species were determined. The total number of the recorded weeds and the average number of weed species in a single relevé were for each of the three organic orchards greater than for the conventional orchards. The organic orchard situated in the same location as the conventional orchard was characterized by a greater biodiversity of flora. Systematic shallow cultivation of the soil, without herbicide treatments, resulted in the proliferation of perennial weeds.

Palabras clave

  • synanthropic flora
  • farming systems
  • apple and sour cherry trees
  • weed species
Acceso abierto

Effect Of Fertilization And Mycorrhization On Growth And Nutritional Status Of Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon Ait.) In The Nursery

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 49 - 56

Resumen

Abstract

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a species that is becoming increasingly popular due to the health value and taste qualities of fruits. Studies on cranberry ‘Pilgrim’ were carried out in 2012-2013 in the nursery farm. Plants were grown in containers in open space. The effect of method of fertilization and application of mycorrhizal vaccine on the growth, development and nutritional status of plants during the first two years of cultivation in the nursery was evaluated. Fertilizer characterized by a controlled release of nutrients (CRF) – Osmocote 6M, agent with sustained-releasing components (SRF) – Hortiform pH, fertigation and fertilization using Hortiform pH combined with fertigation, were applied. The vaccine contained fungi of Hymenoscyphus sp. genus that are characteristic for Vaccinium genus. Significantly greater weight of plant shoots as well as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were recorded in plants supplied with the mycorrhizal vaccine. A positive effect of slow-releasing fertilizers on plant weight and their chemical composition has been demonstrated, whereas plants fertigated developed lower mass of shoots and contained less nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

Palabras clave

  • cranberry
  • nutrition
  • mycorrhizae
  • fertilization
  • nursery
Acceso abierto

In Vitro Propagation Of ‘Gisela 5’ Rootstock As Affected By Mineral Composition Of Media And Plant Growth Regulators

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 57 - 64

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of the presented study was to determine the best mineral composition of media and plant growth regulators in the micropropagation of the ‘Gisela 5’ (Prunus cerasus × P. canescens) dwarf sweet cherry rootstock. Nodal explants from young healthy shoots were excised and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators. In vitro raised shoot tips were transferred to three culture media including Murashige and Skoog (MS), Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) and Lloyd and McCown (WPM) containing benzyl adenine (BA) (0.5, 1 or 2 mg·l−1) in combination with kinetin (Kin) at 0 or 0.5 mg·l−1. WPM and DKW media were proving to be the most effective, resulting in a higher percentage of shoot multiplication and shoot number as compared to MS. BA in concentration 2 mg·l−1 resulted in the highest number of microshoots per explant (3.1). For rooting, 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg·l−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on MS, DKW and WPM media were tested. WPM medium containing 2 mg·l−1 IBA was most effective for rooting (93.7%) in comparison to MS (53.1%) and DKW (14.0%). Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and established in pots.

Palabras clave

  • ‘Gisela 5’ rootstock
  • media
  • proliferation
  • rooting
Acceso abierto

Selected Indicators Of The Root Quality Of Fifteen Cultivars Of Red Beet (Beta Vulgaris L.)

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 65 - 74

Resumen

Abstract

Evaluation of the quality of 15 cultivars of red beet has been made during four successive vegetative seasons. The study involved cultivars ‘Astar F1’, ‘Boro F1’, ‘Ceryl’, ‘Chrobry’, ‘Czerwona Kula’, ‘Egipski’, ‘Karmazyn’, ‘Nabab F1’, ‘Nochowski’, ‘Opolski’, ‘Pablo F1’, ‘Patryk’, ‘Regulski Cylinder’, ‘Okrągły Regulski’ and ‘Rywal’. The mass, diameter of roots, antioxidant activity, the content of dry mass, soluble sugars, betanin and vulgaxanthin in roots were evaluated. The study indicated ‘Chrobry’ as the cultivar of the most favorable quality features. It was characterized by high antioxidant activity, high content of dry mass, soluble sugars and betalain pigments. Among cultivars of cylindrical shaped roots, content of soluble sugars and antiradical activity was the highest in ‘Regulski Cylinder’ roots.

Palabras clave

  • red beet
  • cultivars
  • antioxidant activity
  • betalain pigments
  • soluble sugars
Acceso abierto

Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 75 - 86

Resumen

Abstract

Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) or biological control agents (BCA) in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1), chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5), and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%), T. harzianum (21%), T. lentiforme (9%), T. virens (9%), and T. simmonsii (6%). Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

Palabras clave

  • fungal barcoding
  • multilocus sequence analysis
  • phylogeny
  • species identification
Acceso abierto

Pathogenicity Of Mycogone Perniciosa Isolates Collected On Polish Mushroom Farms

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 87 - 92

Resumen

Abstract

Mycogone perniciosa is the fungal pathogen causing the wet bubble of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). The main symptoms of disease are undifferentiated, irregular forms of mushroom tissue, cap spotting and development of amber liquid droplets on the distorted mushrooms. The aim of the research was to assess the pathogenicity of M. perniciosa isolates that were obtained from the infected sporophores. Six isolates from Polish mushroom farms as well reference strain of Hypomyces perniciosus CBS 322.52 were used in this study. The pathogenicity of isolates was assessed on the basis of severity of disease symptoms and crop reduction in the first flush. Mushroom crop was infected with different suspensions containing of M. perniciosa aleuriospores. Significant variability was shown between tested isolates. It was stated that the pathogenicity of isolates and concentration of conidia had a significant influence on the mushroom yield. The isolate of high pathogenicity caused significant yield losses, after inoculation with 1.3 × 104·m−2, whereas the isolate with fairly pathogenicity did not produce symptoms of wet bubble disease or caused slight deformation of single sporophores, even when the casing soil was inoculated with 1.3 × 106·m−2 spores.

Palabras clave

  • wet bubble
  • strain pathogenicity
  • yield reduction
11 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Withania Coagulans (Stocks) Dunal: Biotechnological Achievements And Perspectives

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 5 - 12

Resumen

Abstract

Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal is an important medicinal plant of the Solanaceae. Biotechnological studies on this plant started in 2009 and are still in a nascent phase of development. Even so, some important advances have been made, particularly in the field of tissue culture, which is an important means for its large-scale propagation and in vitro conservation. This review focuses on methods for surface sterilization, culture initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization of W. coagulans.

Palabras clave

  • adventitious shoot regeneration
  • rooting
  • micropropagation
  • tissue culture
  • RAPD
  • vegetable rennet
Acceso abierto

Micropropagation Of Merremia Quinquefolia (L.) Hallier F. From Nodal Explants

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 13 - 16

Resumen

Abstract

Merremia quinquefolia, is an important medicinal plant of the family Convolvulaceae known for its vasoconstrictor, uterotonic, neurohormonic, sympathicolytic and sedative effects. In the present investigation effect of cytokinins 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kn) and thidiazuron (TDZ), at concentrations 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg·dm−3 on in vitro shoot multiplication from nodal explants of M. quinquefolia was evaluated. Bud breaking and emergence of shoots started within 10-15 days of inoculation in all media containing cytokinin. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.0 mg·dm−3 BAP resulted in maximum number of shoots from single node within 45 days. In vitro raised shoots were successfully rooted on ½ mineral salts of MS medium with 3% sucrose supplemented with 2.0 mg·dm−3 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). This is the first report on in vitro propagation of Merremia quinquefolia. This study can be useful for development of micropropagation protocols for related taxa.

Palabras clave

  • axillary shoot multiplication
  • Convolvulaceae
Acceso abierto

The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 17 - 20

Resumen

Abstract

Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water) and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

Palabras clave

  • salinity
  • growth in urbanized area
Acceso abierto

Growth Response Of Container Grown Japanese Azalea And Euonymus And Concentration Of Nitrates And Phosphates In The Runoff Water Under Different Irrigation And Fertilization

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 21 - 32

Resumen

Abstract

In this study a growth response of two container-grown ornamentals (Euonymus japonicus ‘Ovatus Aureus’ and Rhododendron ‘Geisha Orange’) grown under different irrigation and fertilization rates was examined. The content of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the plant leaves and in leachates was measured. Two levels of irrigation – standard irrigation (SI) and – high irrigation rate (HI), and three control-release fertilizers (CRFs) – Multicote 17-17-17, Osmocote Exact Standard 16-9-12 and Plantacote 15-10-15, applied at the rate of 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 g·l−1, were applied. Fast-acting fertilizers were used as the control. HI adversely affected the growth and quality of Euonymus but stimulated the growth and increased quality of Rhododendron within two years of cultivation in relation to SI. There were no significant interactions between the irrigation and fertilization treatments; irrespective of water regimes, growth responses of both plant species to used fertilizers were similar. Osmocote and Plantacote at the rate of 3 g·l−1 were the most effective for the growth of Euonymus and Rhododendron plants, except of Euonymus in the second year, when 4.5 g·l−1 CRFs resulted in the best growth of plants. HI increased the amount of runoff water as well as N-NO3 and P-PO4 losses from containers during the entire growing period, irrespective of a fertilizer type. The amount of the nitrate and phosphate in leakage was higher when higher rates of CRFs were applied. Maximum nitrate concentration in leakage was the highest 14 days after the application of CRFs.

Palabras clave

  • CRFs
  • ‘Ovatus Aureus’
  • overhead irrigation
  • nursery production
  • ‘Geisha Orange’
Acceso abierto

Rain-Fed Plantations Of The Domesticated Ziziphus Mauritiana In The Sahel: Effects Of Varieties And Rootstocks On Yields And Fruit Quality

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 33 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

A long-term study was conducted to explore the possibility of using traditional rain-fed systems for growing domesticated Ziziphus mauritiana (so-called Pomme du Sahel) in the Sahel. Five varieties, Gola, Ben Gurion, Seb, Umran and Kaithli, were grafted on six rootstocks of Z. mauritiana from various agroecological zones of Niger. Trees were planted inside microcatchments at 8 × 8 m spacing. Over a period of six years, the variety Umran gave the highest fruit yield (3600 kg·ha−1) and the lowest fruit yield was documented for variety Seb (1970 kg·ha−1). Individual fruit weight ranged from 25.8 g for ‘Umran’ to 9.5 g for ‘Seb’. The rootstocks had no effect on average fruits yields and fruit size. There was a significant linear correlation between fruit yield and annual rainfall. In a rainy year (680 mm), the average yield of the five varieties was 7580 kg·ha−1. The results of the current study indicate that dry land plantations of Pomme du Sahel can guarantee food security during dry years in the Sahel. However, further studies are required to evaluate the economic feasibility of this system.

Palabras clave

  • Pomme du Sahel
  • domestication
  • varieties
  • rootstocks
Acceso abierto

Biodiversity Of Weed Communities In Organic And Conventional Orchards

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 39 - 48

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the occurrence of segetal and ruderal weeds in young apple and cherry organic orchards, where weeds under tree canopies were controlled mechanically with a rototiller, and in conventional orchards, where post-emergence herbicides were used. The research material consisted of phytosociological relevés recorded according to the Braun-Blanquet method, in three organic and three conventional orchards, situated near Skierniewice (central Poland), in 2010-2013. On the basis of the collected source material, species composition for the synanthropic flora, as well as phytosociological stability, the cover factor, and weed infestation rate for the analysed species were determined. The total number of the recorded weeds and the average number of weed species in a single relevé were for each of the three organic orchards greater than for the conventional orchards. The organic orchard situated in the same location as the conventional orchard was characterized by a greater biodiversity of flora. Systematic shallow cultivation of the soil, without herbicide treatments, resulted in the proliferation of perennial weeds.

Palabras clave

  • synanthropic flora
  • farming systems
  • apple and sour cherry trees
  • weed species
Acceso abierto

Effect Of Fertilization And Mycorrhization On Growth And Nutritional Status Of Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon Ait.) In The Nursery

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 49 - 56

Resumen

Abstract

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a species that is becoming increasingly popular due to the health value and taste qualities of fruits. Studies on cranberry ‘Pilgrim’ were carried out in 2012-2013 in the nursery farm. Plants were grown in containers in open space. The effect of method of fertilization and application of mycorrhizal vaccine on the growth, development and nutritional status of plants during the first two years of cultivation in the nursery was evaluated. Fertilizer characterized by a controlled release of nutrients (CRF) – Osmocote 6M, agent with sustained-releasing components (SRF) – Hortiform pH, fertigation and fertilization using Hortiform pH combined with fertigation, were applied. The vaccine contained fungi of Hymenoscyphus sp. genus that are characteristic for Vaccinium genus. Significantly greater weight of plant shoots as well as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were recorded in plants supplied with the mycorrhizal vaccine. A positive effect of slow-releasing fertilizers on plant weight and their chemical composition has been demonstrated, whereas plants fertigated developed lower mass of shoots and contained less nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

Palabras clave

  • cranberry
  • nutrition
  • mycorrhizae
  • fertilization
  • nursery
Acceso abierto

In Vitro Propagation Of ‘Gisela 5’ Rootstock As Affected By Mineral Composition Of Media And Plant Growth Regulators

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 57 - 64

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of the presented study was to determine the best mineral composition of media and plant growth regulators in the micropropagation of the ‘Gisela 5’ (Prunus cerasus × P. canescens) dwarf sweet cherry rootstock. Nodal explants from young healthy shoots were excised and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators. In vitro raised shoot tips were transferred to three culture media including Murashige and Skoog (MS), Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) and Lloyd and McCown (WPM) containing benzyl adenine (BA) (0.5, 1 or 2 mg·l−1) in combination with kinetin (Kin) at 0 or 0.5 mg·l−1. WPM and DKW media were proving to be the most effective, resulting in a higher percentage of shoot multiplication and shoot number as compared to MS. BA in concentration 2 mg·l−1 resulted in the highest number of microshoots per explant (3.1). For rooting, 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg·l−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on MS, DKW and WPM media were tested. WPM medium containing 2 mg·l−1 IBA was most effective for rooting (93.7%) in comparison to MS (53.1%) and DKW (14.0%). Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and established in pots.

Palabras clave

  • ‘Gisela 5’ rootstock
  • media
  • proliferation
  • rooting
Acceso abierto

Selected Indicators Of The Root Quality Of Fifteen Cultivars Of Red Beet (Beta Vulgaris L.)

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 65 - 74

Resumen

Abstract

Evaluation of the quality of 15 cultivars of red beet has been made during four successive vegetative seasons. The study involved cultivars ‘Astar F1’, ‘Boro F1’, ‘Ceryl’, ‘Chrobry’, ‘Czerwona Kula’, ‘Egipski’, ‘Karmazyn’, ‘Nabab F1’, ‘Nochowski’, ‘Opolski’, ‘Pablo F1’, ‘Patryk’, ‘Regulski Cylinder’, ‘Okrągły Regulski’ and ‘Rywal’. The mass, diameter of roots, antioxidant activity, the content of dry mass, soluble sugars, betanin and vulgaxanthin in roots were evaluated. The study indicated ‘Chrobry’ as the cultivar of the most favorable quality features. It was characterized by high antioxidant activity, high content of dry mass, soluble sugars and betalain pigments. Among cultivars of cylindrical shaped roots, content of soluble sugars and antiradical activity was the highest in ‘Regulski Cylinder’ roots.

Palabras clave

  • red beet
  • cultivars
  • antioxidant activity
  • betalain pigments
  • soluble sugars
Acceso abierto

Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 75 - 86

Resumen

Abstract

Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) or biological control agents (BCA) in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1), chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5), and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%), T. harzianum (21%), T. lentiforme (9%), T. virens (9%), and T. simmonsii (6%). Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

Palabras clave

  • fungal barcoding
  • multilocus sequence analysis
  • phylogeny
  • species identification
Acceso abierto

Pathogenicity Of Mycogone Perniciosa Isolates Collected On Polish Mushroom Farms

Publicado en línea: 23 Sep 2015
Páginas: 87 - 92

Resumen

Abstract

Mycogone perniciosa is the fungal pathogen causing the wet bubble of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). The main symptoms of disease are undifferentiated, irregular forms of mushroom tissue, cap spotting and development of amber liquid droplets on the distorted mushrooms. The aim of the research was to assess the pathogenicity of M. perniciosa isolates that were obtained from the infected sporophores. Six isolates from Polish mushroom farms as well reference strain of Hypomyces perniciosus CBS 322.52 were used in this study. The pathogenicity of isolates was assessed on the basis of severity of disease symptoms and crop reduction in the first flush. Mushroom crop was infected with different suspensions containing of M. perniciosa aleuriospores. Significant variability was shown between tested isolates. It was stated that the pathogenicity of isolates and concentration of conidia had a significant influence on the mushroom yield. The isolate of high pathogenicity caused significant yield losses, after inoculation with 1.3 × 104·m−2, whereas the isolate with fairly pathogenicity did not produce symptoms of wet bubble disease or caused slight deformation of single sporophores, even when the casing soil was inoculated with 1.3 × 106·m−2 spores.

Palabras clave

  • wet bubble
  • strain pathogenicity
  • yield reduction

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