- 08 Sep 2014
- 2 Hefte pro Jahr
- Open Access
Insight in the Current Progress in the Largest Clinical Trials for Covid-19 Drug Management (As of January 2021)
Seitenbereich: 5 - 18
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has generated the largest global health crisis of the 21st century, evolving into accelerating socioeconomic disruption. In spite of all rapidly and widely emerging scientific data on epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the COVID-19 disease, severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing to propagate in lack of definitive and specific therapeutic agents. Current therapeutic strategies are mainly focused on viral inhibition by antiviral drugs and hampering the exuberant immune response of the host by immunomodulatory drugs. In this review, we have studied the reports of the largest clinical trials intended to COVID-19 treatment published during the first year of the pandemics. In general, these results concentrate on seven therapeutic options: remdesivir, chloroguine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir combination, corticosteroids, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies. In line with the reviewed data, as of January 2021, most of the evidence support the use of remdesivir in hospitalized patients with moderate and severe forms of the disease and provide reliable data on the substantial beneficial effect of corticosteroids in patients requiring supplemental oxygen. Moreover, preliminary RECOVERY trial results have demonstrated the efficacy of tociluzumab in the treatment of critically ill patients. The reports presenting the outcomes of the other immune-based therapies under investigation are enthusiastically awaited.
- antiviral drugs
- immunomodulatory drugs
- Open Access
The Importance of the World Kidney Day World Kidney Day – 11 March 2021 – Living Well with Kidney Disease
Seitenbereich: 19 - 40
World Kidney Day (WKD) is a global campaign to raise awareness of the importance of our kidneys to overall health and to reduce the frequency and impact of kidney disease and associated health problems worldwide. Kidney disease is a non-communicable disease (NCD) and currently affects around 850 million people worldwide. One in ten adults has chronic kidney disease (CKD). The global burden of CKD is increasing, and is projected to become the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume 2–3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, kidney disease can be prevented and progression to end-stage kidney disease can be delayed with appropriate access to basic diagnostics and early treatment. This year World Kidney Day continues to raise awareness of the increasing burden of kidney diseases worldwide and to strive for kidney health for everyone, everywhere. During the pandemic with COVID 19 patients kidneys are also damaged, apart from the respiratory tract and other organs. It can lead to an increase in acute renal failure and consequent chronic kidney insufficiency, as well as number of deaths. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the renal function in each patient with COVID 19 virus. In the Republic of North Macedonia from 2006 to present day nephrologists and other medical personnel devoted to the early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of renal disease have participated in the activities of the World Kidney Day. These activities were supported by the Macedonian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs, the Department of Nephrology at the Medical Faculty, the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Government of the Republic of North Macedonia, non-governmental nephrology organizations (NEFRON) and the media. There were lectures and presentation devoted to the various theme of the WKD, publications in journals, as well as activities for examination of the renal function of patients in the medical centers. The activities during the WKD contributed to the improvement of the nephrological protection of the citizens of the Republic of N. Macedonia.
- World Kidney Day
- kidney disease
- early diagnosis
- Open Access
2-Methoxyestradiol Attenuates the Development and Retards the Progression of Hypoxia-And Alpha-Naphthylthiourea-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension
Seitenbereich: 41 - 51
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH), a progressive, incurable, and deadly disease, predominantly develops in women. Growing body of evidence suggest that dysregulated estradiol (E2) metabolism influences the development of PH and that some of the biological effects of E2 are mediated by its major non-estrogenic metabolite, 2-metyhoxyestradiol (2ME). The objective of this study was to examine effects of 2ME in chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced PH and alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU)-induced acute lung injury and PH. In addition, we investigated the effects of exposure to different levels of CH on development of PH. Chronic exposure to 15% or 10% oxygen produced similar increases in right ventricle peak systolic pressure (RVPSP) and pulmonary vascular remodeling, but oxygen concentration-dependent increase in hematocrit. Notably, right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy correlated with level of hypoxia and hematocrit, rather than with magnitude of RVPSP. The latter suggests that, in addition to increased afterload, hypoxia (via increased hematocrit) significantly contributes to RV hypertrophy in CH model of PH. In CH-PH rats, preventive and curative 2ME treatments reduced both elevated RVPSP and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Curative treatment with 2ME was more effective in reducing hematocrit and right ventricular hypertrophy, as compared to preventive treatment. Single ANTU injection produced lung injury, i.e., increased lungs weight and induced pleural effusion. Treatment with 2ME significantly reduced pleural effusion and, more importantly, eliminated acute mortality induced by ANTU (33% vs 0%, ANTU vs. ANTU+2ME group). Chronic treatment with ANTU induced PH and RV hypertrophy and increased lungs weight. 2-ME significantly attenuated severity of disease (i.e., reduced RVPSP, RV hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular injury). This study demonstrates that 2ME has beneficial effects in chronic hypoxia- and acute lung injury-induced PH and provides preclinical justification for clinical evaluation of 2ME in pulmonary hypertension.
- Pulmonary hypertension
- vascular remodeling
- right ventricle
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 53 - 66
From the data collected with the clinical research, a file was formed in the statistical program with the help of which the data were statistically analyzed.
From the methods of descriptive statistics, absolute frequencies, percentages, arithmetic mean, median, measures of variability, minimum, maximum, standard deviation and logistic regression models were used.
1.031 patients were followed for 24 months. Cardiovascular events were reported in 54 patients (or 5.2%). Revascularization was performed in 28 (4.1%) patients, while 12 (1.8%) of patients died. Diabetes mellitus (OR 1.878 95% CI 0.491 7.184) and Carotid stenosis (OR 2.185 95% CI 0.731 6.53) were found to be predictive factors for future cardiovascular events.
- Carotid stenosis
- coronary artery disease
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 67 - 75
Having in mind the rising rates of the incidence for autism worldwide, the early diagnosis of this neuro-developmental disorder is of the high priority. For that purpose, several checklists have been constructed and used. Nevertheless, there are no universal and uniform criteria for assessing and diagnosing autism, and even if there existed, not every country has the resources to manage such an assessment for diagnosis.
A recently validated, revised version of the M-CHAT, the M-CHAT-Revised with Follow up (M-CHAT-R/F) has demonstrated strong psychometric properties.
The aim of this article is to discuss our results obtained with M-CHAT-R applied in a sample of 131 children aged 31,9 ±9,4 months, recruited for diagnosis and treatment at the University Children’s Hospital in Skopje.
Our results confirmed that for screening the use of M-CHAT-R/F is currently the very exact instrument which allows the early suspicion, but also possible follow up the symptoms of this disorder. Additionally, we showed the significant negative correlation between age and scores obtained on the checklist.
- neurodevelopmental disorder
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 77 - 81
Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the kidney and urinary tract. The association with the posterior urethral valve is also very rare. Here we present a patient with both entities and prenatal resolution of the cysts.
A 10-week old baby was referred for nephrourological work up due to prenatal diagnosis of the left multicystic kidney. He had serial US scans during the pregnancy. Immediately before delivery the cysts were not seen (prenatal resolution). There were no extrarenal anomalies. The first postnatal ultrasound scan revealed normal sized right kidney without dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system. The bladder had normal thickness of the wall. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan showed no activity on the left side, and the right kidney appeared normal. At two months of age, a poor urinary steam was observed and additional urologic work up was indicated on clinical suspicion of PUV. Voiding urethrocystography revealed posterior urethral valve and the baby underwent cytoscopic valve resection.
Conclusion: We present a rare association of two congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract with prenatal involution of the multicystic dysplastic kidney that is extremely rare event as seen in our case. Presence of posterior urethral valve must be suspected in a male baby with a poor urinary stream even when his ultrasound scan of urinary system appears normal.
- posterior urethral valve
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 83 - 90
The autoimmune liver disease constituent conditions include autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and IgG-4 associated cholangitis. They remain a diagnostic challenge to the practicing physician due to their close resemblance in clinical course, and laboratory and imaging findings to the vast array of other etiologies of liver injury. We report a case of recurrent severe hepatitis of autoimmune origin in a female patient. The disease course was marked by initial onset at age 39, followed by nearly four years of remission, and a second flare with a more exaggerated severity. Systemic lupus erythematosus was initially deemed as the culprit, however formal diagnostic criteria were not fulfilled and the serological findings were not reproduced at a later date. With the aim of ascertaining the underlying process, the patient underwent an extensive array of testing with regards to infectious, genetic, systemic and autoimmune disease. Positive anti-dsDNA (double stranded DNA) and an antinuclear antibody titer of 1:160 provided the strongest support for an autoimmune etiology, specifically autoimmune hepatitis or possibly an overlap syndrome. An excellent outcome was achieved via treatment with corticosteroids, ursodeoxycholic acid and plasmapheresis.
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 91 - 103
Brachial plexus injuries are still challenging for every surgeon taking part in treating patients with BPI. Injuries of the brachial plexus can be divided into injuries of the upper trunk, extended upper trunk, injuries of the lower trunk and swinging hand where all of the roots are involved in this type of the injury. Brachial plexus can be divided in five anatomical sections from its roots to its terminal branches: roots, trunks, division, cords and terminal branches. Brachial plexus ends up as five terminal branches, responsible for upper limb innervation, musculocutaneous, median nerve, axillary nerve, radial and ulnar nerve. According to the findings from the preoperative investigation combined with clinically found functional deficit, the type of BPI will be confirmed and that is going to determine which surgical procedure, from variety of them (neurolysis, nerve graft, neurotization, arthrodesis, tendon transfer, free muscle transfer, bionic reconstruction) is appropriate for treating the patient.
- brachial plexus injuries
- anatomy of brachial plexus
- treatment options for brachial plexus injuries
- bionic reconstruction
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 105 - 108
Neonatal tumours in the neck region are a rare finding. Teratomas typically comprise all three germ cell layers with tissues usually foreign to the anatomic site of origin. Head and neck teratomas account a smaller part of congenital teratomas. They can cause major airway obstruction due to the external compression that oropharyngeal or neck masses produce. In addition, there can be an intrinsic lesion in the larynx or trachea. We describe a premature, 30-gestational week-old newborn with large subcutaneous neck mass. Pre-delivery ultrasound showed heterogeneous tumor structure and displaced larynx. The intubation was successful. The newborn developed respiratory distress syndrome immediately after birth which rendered the surgical removal of the neck tumor impossible. An autopsy was done, and the histopathology revealed mature teratoma comprising muscle, brain, salivary and pulmonary tissues, as well as well-developed hyaline membranes in the alveoli. The combination of the respiratory distress syndrome and the neck tumor compression proved fatal. Prenatal diagnosis, therapeutic options and ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedures are discussed for the diagnosis and management of this very rare tumor.
- Newborn tumors
- neck teratoma
- neonatal cervical compression
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 109 - 126
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic condition, generally regarded as an irreversible, that is among the top 10 causes of death globally. The hallmark of T2D is hyperglycemia, which results from disturbances in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Several clinical and lifestyle factors are involved in the progression of T2D, such as obesity and physical inactivity. A high-calorie diet is the main contributor to the development of obesity, which results in T2D, as obesity or increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue is related to insulin resistance. Technological advances have contributed to individuals having a more sedentary lifestyle, leading to obesity and T2D. T2D can be treated with lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise. Herein, we highlight the positive impact of a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) and lifestyle modalities in the treatment and prevention of T2D. An inclusion of VLCD 400-800 kcal/day for 8 weeks and ≥ 150 minutes exercise 5 times a week as lifestyle interventions can decrease glucose levels to normal, reduce HbA1c and improve insulin resistance and sensitivity. Therefore, a potential mechanism in maintaining glucose homeostasis and remission of T2D by VLCD and exercise reduces body weight.
- very low-calorie diet
- insulin sensitivity
- insulin resistance
- type 2 diabetes
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 127 - 139
Wound healing is a dynamic and physiological process for restoring the normal architecture and functionality of damaged tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous whole blood product that contains a large number of platelets in a small volume of plasma with complete set of coagulation factors, which are in physiological concentrations. PRP has haemostatic, adhesive properties and acts supraphysiologically in the process of wound healing and osteogenesis. Platelets play a very important role in the wound healing process by providing growth factors that enhance the rate and quality of wound healing by many different mechanisms. The aim of this review is to describe: the biology of platelets and their role in the wound healing process, the terminology of platelet rich products, PRP preparation, activation and concentration of PRP, as well as the use of PRP in plastic surgery.
- platelet-rich plasma
- wound healing
- plastic surgery
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 141 - 148
- Meniere’s disease
- refractory vertigo
- endolymphatic sac surgery
- posterior semicircular canal fenestration
- Open Access
Seitenbereich: 149 - 162
The International Conference Renal Aspects of Disaster Relief, Ohrid, R. Macedonia, May 24–26, 1996 united doctors and engineers in order to better build settlements, and in case of an earthquake, how to help the injured.
Plans have been proposed for the treatment of the injured with fluid and dialysis, as well as how to organize the non-governmental organizations and the population to assist the medical staff in optimizing the treatment of the injured.
Members of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology and the European Renal Best Practice were tasked with preparing guidelines for medical staff and the population to address earthquake injuries.
- Renal Aspects of Disaster Relief
- crush syndrome