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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1857-8985
Erstveröffentlichung
08 Sep 2014
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 35 (2014): Heft 3 (December 2014)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1857-8985
Erstveröffentlichung
08 Sep 2014
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

26 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Foreword - Overview of the Workshop Held and Establishing of the Macedonian Association of Medical Editors, in Skopje, on April 25, 2014

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 7 - 10

Zusammenfassung

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Publishing Integrity and Good Practices in Editing in Biomedicine

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 11 - 16

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA), held a scientific workshop for journal editors in biomedicine: “Publishing integrity and good practices in editing in biomedicine” on April 25, 2014 in MASA, Skopje. The meeting looked into old problems and new situations in editing and publishing, with emphasis on the situation in developing countries.

This global knowledge-based society is founded on the results obtained from scientific research. The data from basic research in developed countries contribute in a quite substantial manner to the newly added economic value. One of the main reasons for underdevelopment in South Eastern Europe (SEE) is certainly a low or non-existent contribution of scientific research in the newly added economic value. This has largely to do with the perception of the political elites which simply lack the insight on the crucial importance of science in development. In the long term this leads to societies in which there are distortions in the understanding of the most basic values.

Academic publishing has experienced tremendous growth: so far there are at least 50 million scientific articles. Interestingly, publishing in developing countries has experienced a rate of growth higher than in developed countries. However, this is not the case with the Balkan countries.

The meeting looked at some old and some newly emerging problems in editing and publishing.

First, the high cost for universities and researchers to purchase journals adversely affects both publishing and editing. In developing countries the high cost of purchasing scientific literature is an almost insurmountable problem in spite of the fact that some publishing companies offer discounted fees. Open access journals in South Eastern European (SEE) countries are hardly achievable as this also incurs costs that have to be covered in some way or other.

The peer review process has the fundamental difficulty that reviewers are in the situation of a Procrustean bed, tending to accept reports which support the reviewer's concepts of thinking and, like Procrustes, cutting everything else out. Authorship is often a contentious issue, as undeserved authors appear on the list of authors.

Some principles are now a norm in academic publishing. This applies to the declaration of a conflict of interest, the consent of the patient and the approval of the Ethical Board of the institution.

This global informational technological revolution has, unfortunately, led to largely widespread and increasingly sophisticated deviations: plagiarism, data fabrication and data falsification as forms of scientific misconduct. Those events are now more widespread than in the past. Luckily new tools to track them are much better than previously. The race for perfect publishing integrity and for the best good practices in editing in biomedicine is on. New and old challenges will be met. The benevolent and caring society, educated professionals and an enlightened public remain essential preconditions. The wealth of nations depends on R&D and consequently on academic publishing.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biomedicine
  • editing
  • publishing integrity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Publishing Scientific Journals in the Digital Age: Opportunities for Small Scholarly Journals

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 17 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Scientific publishing is rapidly developing from print-only to digital journals and extensive use of social media. This essay presents our experience in developing a small and scholarly journal from the so-called scientific semi-periphery and using the advantages of digital publishing to increase the visibility of the journal in international indexing and citation databases, and ensure greater visibility in the global scientific community. An editor of a scientific journal does not need to master all details of different digital publishing tools, but needs to follow the developments so that they can be best implemented in the journal.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Scientific journals
  • digital age
  • publishing
  • research and publication ethics
  • fraud
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Publication Ethics: Whose Problem is It?

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 23 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Discussions about publication ethics often focus on misconduct by authors such as data fabrication and plagiarism. However, the roles of editors, publishers, academic societies, and research institutions should not be ignored. All these players have ethical responsibilities and should carefully consider the effects of their policies and actions. If people believe that publication ethics is 'somebody else's problem', little progress will be made and problems will persist.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Publication ethics
  • research misconduct
  • journals
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Responsible Research Publication: International Standards for Authors

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 29 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Responsible Research Publication: International Standards for Editors

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 35 - 41

Zusammenfassung

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Biomedical Journals in Republic of Macedonia: the Current State

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 43 - 50

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Several biomedical journals in the Republic of Macedonia have succeeded in maintaining regular publication over the years, but only a few have a long-standing tradition. In this paper we present the basic characteristics of 18 biomedical journals that have been published without a break in the Republic of Macedonia. Of these, more details are given for 14 journals, a particular emphasis being on the journal Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Section of Medical Sciences as one of the journals with a long-term publishing tra-dition and one of the journals included in the Medline/PubMed database. A brief or broad description is given for the following journals: Macedonian Medical Review, Acta Morphologica, Physioacta, MJMS - Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, International Medical Journal Medicus, Archives of Public Health, Epilepsy, Macedonian Orthopaedics and Traumatology Journal, BANTAO Journal, Macedonian Dental Review, Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Macedonian Veterinary Review, Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics, Contributions of the Macedonian Scientific Society of Bitola, Vox Medici, Social Medicine: Professional Journal for Public Health, and Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Journals from Macedonia should aim to be published regularly, should comply with the Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, and with the recommendations of reliable organizations working in the field of publishing and research. These are the key prerequisites which Macedonian journals have to accomplish in order to b? included in renowned international bibliographic databases. Thus the results of biomedical science from the Republic of Macedonia will be presented to the international scientific arena.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biomedical journals
  • publishing
  • Republic of Macedonia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering: Open Journal Systems - Editor's Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 51 - 55

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The development and availability of personal computers and software as well as printing techniques in the last twenty years have made a profound change in the publication of scientific journals. Additionally, the Internet in the last decade has revolutionized the publication process to the point of changing the basic paradigm of printed journals. The Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in its 40-year history has adopted and adapted to all these transformations. In order to keep up with the inevitable changes, as editor-in-chief I felt my responsibility was to introduce an electronic editorial managing of the journal. The choice was between commercial and open source platforms, and because of the limited funding of the journal we chose the latter. We decided on Open Journal Systems, which provided online submission and management of all content, had flexible configuration - requirements, sections, review process, etc., had options for comprehensive indexing, offered various reading tools, had email notification and commenting ability for readers, had an option for thesis abstracts and was installed locally. However, since there is limited support it requires a moderate computer knowledge/skills and effort in order to set up. Overall, it is an excellent editorial platform and a convenient solution for journals with a low budget or journals that do not want to spend their resources on commercial platforms or simply support the idea of open source software.

Schlüsselwörter

  • open source software
  • Open Journal Systems
  • electronic editorial managing
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

New Developments in Publishing Related to Authorship

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 57 - 66

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To present the inappropriate types of authorship and practice, and the most recent developments related to basic principles and criteria to a fair system for allocating authorship in scientific publications.

Methods: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author.

Results: Working in multidisciplinary teams is a common feature of modern research processes. The most sensitive question is how to decide on who to acknowledge as author of a multi-authored publication. The pertinence of this question is growing with the increasing importance of individual scientists' publication records for professional status and career. However, discussions about authorship allocation might lead to serious conflicts and disputes among coworkers which could even endanger cooperation and successful completion of a research project. It seems that discussion and education about ethical standards and practical guidelines for fairly allocating authorship are insufficient and the question of ethical practices related to authorship in multi-authored publications remains generally unresolved.

Conclusion: It is necessary to work for raising awareness about the importance and need for education about principles of scientific communication and fair allocation of authorship, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education in the scientific community, especially young researchers and students, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud, including pathology of authorship.

Schlüsselwörter

  • authorship
  • contributorship
  • scientific publishing
  • responsible conduct of research
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Current Biomedical Scientific Impact (2013) of Institutions, Academic Journals and Researchers in the Republic of Macedonia

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 67 - 80

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To analyse current ranking (2013) of institutions, journals and researchers in the Republic of Macedonia.

Material and Methods: the country rankings of R. Macedonia were analyzed with SCImago Country & Journal Rank (SJR) for subject area Medicine in the years 1996-2013, and ordered by H-index. SCImago Institutions Rankings for 2013 was used for the scientific impact of biomedical institutions in the Republic of Macedonia. Journal metrics from Elsevier for the Macedonian scholarly journals for the period 2009-2013 were performed. Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP), the Impact per Publication (IPP), and SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) were analysed. Macedonian scholarly biomedical journals included in Google Scholar metrics (2013, 2012) were analysed with h5-index and h5-median (June 2014). A semantic analysis of the PubMed database was performed with GoPubMed on November 2, 2014 in order to identify published papers from the field of biomedical sciences affiliated with the country of Macedonia. Harzing's Publish or Perish software was used for author impact analysis and the calculation of the Hirsh-index based on Google Scholar query.

Results: The rank of subject area Medicine of R. Macedonia according to the SCImago Journal & Country Rank (SJR) is 110th in the world and 17th in Eastern Europe. Of 20 universities in Macedonia, only Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, and the University St Clement of Ohrid, Bitola, are listed in the SCImago Institutions Rankings (SIR) for 2013. A very small number of Macedonian scholarly journals is included in Web of Sciences (2), PubMed (1), PubMed Central (1), SCOPUS (6), SCImago (6), and Google Scholar metrics (6). The rank of Hirsh index (h-index) was different from the rank of number of abstracts indexed in PubMed for the top 20 authors from R. Macedonia.

Conclusion: The current biomedical scientific impact (2013) of institutions, academic journals and researchers in R. Macedonia is very low. There is an urgent need for organized measures to improve the quality and output of institutions, scholarly journals, and researchers in R. Macedonia in order to achieve higher international standards.

Schlüsselwörter

  • medical science
  • Scopus database
  • citation metrics
  • h-index
  • Republic of Macedonia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Editorial Policies and Background in Editing Macedonian Edical Review and Bantao Journal

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 81 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Even in as small a country as R. Macedonia with limited resources allocated for science, there are many journals trying to establish good editorial practices and policies in publishing the scientific work achieved. Among the currently existing medical journals Macedonian Medical Review (MMR), ISSN 0025-1097, deserves to be elaborated as the oldest journal with continuous publication since its first appearance as the journal of the Macedonian Medical Association (MMA). Since its first issue, published in 1946, there has been an opus of some 4500 peer-reviewed published papers in more than 210 issues and some 80 supplements from various congresses and meetings. In this regard, great respect should be paid not only to the editorial boards, but also to the collaborators who have contributed to its successful continuity in all previous years.

In line with the needs for further development of the journal and possibilities for access to world databases, the Editorial Board of MMR has made every effort to improve and modernize its work as well as the technical quality of the journal. Hence, MMA has signed a contract with De Gruyter Open as leading publisher of Open Access academic content for further improvement and promotion of the journal and facilitation of the Medline application, so we do hope for the further success of the journal.

BANTAO Journal is published on behalf of the Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (BANTAO), ISSN 1312-2517. The first issue was published in 2003, ten years after BANTAO was born. Its appearance was an extremely important event in the existence of BANTAO. The first official editor of the journal was Dimitar Nenov, Varna (2003-2005), followed by Ali Basci (Izmir, Turkey) and Goce Spasovski (Skopje, Macedonia) as editor-in-chief since 2009. Over the years, the Journal has been included in the EBSCO, DOAJ and SCOPUS/SCIMAGO databases.

The journal is published biannually. Until now, 345 papers have been published in the past 11 years, in 21 regular issues and 3 supplements. It may be said that the journal is the “glue” between the nephrologists from the Balkan cities, reflecting the high quality research and scientific potential of Balkan nephrologists. The entire process of submitting and reviewing the manuscripts is electronically done and after their acceptance they are freely available (open access journal) on the website of the association and the journal: www.bantao.org.

In this regard, the current President of BANTAO has already signed a contract with De Gruyter Open as leading publisher of Open Access academic content for further improvement and promotion of the journal and Medline application for the further success of the journal.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Macedonian Medical Review
  • Bantao Journal
  • Macedonian Medical Association
  • De Gruyter Open
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Editorial Policies and Good Practices in Editing the Journal ‘International Medical Journal - Medicus’

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 85 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ten years ago the Association of Albanian Physicians in Macedonia undertook the very brave step of publishing a scientific medical journal, Medicus, as a platform for publishing biomedical research papers. Medical journal MEDICUS is an international peer-review journal of biomedical science. The first issue was published in 2004, starting with publishing two issues per year. From 2013, the journal delivered three issues per year, namely in January, May and September. Editor-in-Chief of the journal is Prof. Dr. Aziz Pollozhani. This year marks the tenth anniversary since publication of the first issue of Medicus, a fact that makes us proud and happy.

The journal has its own official website (www.imjm.mk), where papers can be submitted and published in electronic form. In addition, the journal also comes out in print form to be distributed mainly in the region.

Taking into account the specific socio-cultural characteristics of the region, the journal attempts to promote research activities in the region, while seeking to serve as an educational tool to promote scientific work in such a setting. As a result, Medicus accepts manuscripts for publication in English, Albanian and Macedonian, with a mandatory abstract in English for all papers.

The journal Medicus represents a solid platform of biomedical sciences that will serve to advance scientific research and promote professional achievements in medicine.

Schlüsselwörter

  • International Medical Journal “Medicus”
  • peer-reviewed journal
  • socio-cultural conditions
  • Republic of Macedonia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

“Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics” - Facts, Editorial Policies, Practices and Challenges

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 89 - 93

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics (BJMG) is an international, open access journal that publishes scientific papers covering different aspects of medical genetics. It is published by the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts twice a year in both printed and electronic versions. BJMG is covered by many abstracting and indexing databases, including PubMed Central and Thomson Reuters.

Although there are many journals in the field of medical genetics, only a few come from regions outside Western Europe and North America. Being one of these few journals, BJMG aims to promote genetics and research on this topic in the Balkan countries and beyond. BJMG's ultimate goal is to raise the scientific quality and metrics of the journal and provide a better place for BJMG in the community of scientific journals.

Schlüsselwörter

  • editorial policies
  • journal
  • human genetics
  • medical
  • genetics
  • Balkan
  • BJMG
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

How Should Journal Editors Respond to Cases of Suspected Misconduct?

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 95 - 101

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Journals and institutions have important complementary roles to play in cases of suspected research and publication misconduct. Journals should take responsibility for everything they publish and should alert institutions to cases of possible serious misconduct but should not attempt to investigate such cases. Institutions should take responsibility for their researchers and for investigating cases of possible misconduct and for ensuring journals are informed if they have published unreliable or misleading articles so that these can be retracted or corrected. Journals and institutions should have policies in place for handling such cases and these policies should respect their different roles.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Publication ethics
  • research misconduct
  • scientific journals
  • paper retraction
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 105 - 120

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy characterized by the expansion and progressive accumulation of mature autoreactive B lymphocytes. The disease is clinically heterogeneous and incurable by standard chemotherapy. A major feature of the disease is the marked dependence of the leukaemic cells on various microenvironmental stimuli, which promote leukaemia cell growth, survival, and drug-resistance. Recently, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive CLL. The identification of recurrent genetic lesions using next generation sequencing technology has provided new data on the pathophysiology of the disease and has improved its prognostication. The recognition of the critical role of the B cell receptor (BCR) in driving the disease has resulted in the development of BCR pathway inhibitors that have the potential to completely transform CLL treatment in the near future. Other novel therapeutic agents, such as BCL2 antagonists and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cells, are also showing great promise in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize some of these recent advances, with a particular focus on the BCR and corresponding pathway inhibitors.

Schlüsselwörter

  • chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
  • B-cell receptor
  • fostamatinib
  • ibrutinib
  • idelalisib
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genotype Variability and Haplotype Profile of Abcb1 (Mdr1) Gene Polymorphisms in Macedonian Population

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 121 - 133

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the most common ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein) polymorphisms in the population of R. Macedonia and compare the allele and haplotype frequencies with the global geographic data reported from different ethnic populations. The total of 107 healthy Macedonian individuals from the general population was included.

Genotypes for the ABCB1 for three polymorphisms C1236T [rs1128503], G2677A/T [rs2032582] and C3435T [rs1045642] were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. Obtained allele frequencies for these three SNPs were similar to those observed in other European Caucasians. The detected genotype frequencies were 33.6% for 1236CC, 44.9% for 1236CT and 21.5% for 1236TT in exon 12; 32.7%, 44.9% and 22.4% for 2677GG, 2677GT and 2677GT consecutively in exon 21; and 25.2% for 3435CC, 52.3% for 3435CT and 22.5% for 3435TT in exon 26. Strong LD was observed in our study among all three SNPs with the highest association confirmed for C1236T and G2677T ((D' = 0.859, r2 = 0.711). Eight different haplotypes were identified and the most prominent was the CGC haplotype (45.3%). Our study was the first to have documented the distribution of ABCB1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes in the population of R. Macedonia. The obtained results can help in the prediction of different response to the drugs that are P-glycoprotein substrates. Additionally, in the era of individualized medicine the determination of the P-glycoprotein genotype might be a good predictive marker for determination of the subpopulations with higher risk to certain diseases.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ABCB1 (MDR1
  • P-glycoprotein
  • C1236T
  • G2677A/T
  • C3435T
  • interethnic differences
  • haplo-types Macedonian population
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Histological Structure of the Thyroid Gland in Apolipoprotein E Deficient Female Mice After Levothyroxine Application

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 135 - 140

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the histological characteristics of the thyroid gland in ApoE KO-/- mice following the application of levothyroxine (l-thyroxine).

A total of 12 female ApoE KO-/- mice were divided into two groups. A control group of mice received distilled water and the experimental group received l-thyroxine dissolved in drinking water at a daily dose of 2 µg/ml, over 12 weeks. The paraffin sections were processed with the usual haematoxilin-eosin technique of staining.

Qualitative histological analysis demonstrated: the presence of large distended follicles in the peripheral areas of the gland; fulfillment of the lumen of follicles with an ample amount of colloid; complete absence of resorptive vacuoles in the colloid; a flattened follicullar epithelium. Morphometric assessment showed a significant increase in the diameters of follicles in the peripheral areas of the gland and a significant decrease in the height of the follicullar epithelium (p <0,001).

Our results demonstrated that l-thyroxine causes characteristic morphological changes in the structure of the thyroid gland in the direction of the occurrence of hyperthyroidism.

Schlüsselwörter

  • thyroid gland
  • ApoE KO-/- female mice
  • morphometric analysis
  • l-thyroxine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ischaemia-Driven Optimal Therapeutic Approach in Asymptomatic Patients with High Cardiovascular Risk: The Value of Clinical, Laboratory and Myocardial Spect Imaging Findings

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 141 - 148

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: We wanted to evaluate the presense of myocardial ischaemia in asymptomatic patients with high cardiovascular risk, the influencing clinical and laboratory factors and the impact of ischaemia on final management decision.

Material and methods: We evaluated 60 asymptomatic patients with high CV risk, who underwent SPECT myo-cardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for detection of suspected CAD. We used the 17 segment model for quantitative and semiquantitative scan perfusion and function analysis using perfusion scores. All patients had full blood laboratory analyses including lipid values, presence of albuminuria, rest and stress ECG. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the impact of clinical and laboratory parameters on myocardial ischaemia prevalence.

Results: Stress-inducible ischaemia was found in 19 pts (33%), fixed defects were found in 13% and mixed defects in 9% of cases. The average ischaemia amount was 10%. Mild ischaemia was found in 12 patients (64%) - summed stress score (SDS) < 4, moderate ischaemia in 5 patients (26%) - SDS 5-7 and severely abnormal scans in 2 patients (10%) - SDS > 7. Severe ischaemia was only related to the duration of diabetes. Six pts with severe ischaemia had ST depression > 2 mm on stress study, and a higher wall motion index and LVEF fall > 5% during stress study (p < 0.01). Stepwise logistic regression analysis for prediction of stress-induced ischaemia showed OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.7?3.6) for stress-induced ECG changes and OR 3.9 for presence of DM over 10y (95% CI 2.3?6.6). Seven patients with ischaemia > 10%, were referred for coronary angiography.

Conclusions: MPI is a valuable method for preclinical assessment of myocardial ischaemia in patients with high CV risk, which can improve prognosis and guide treatment decision.

Schlüsselwörter

  • myocardial imaging
  • ischaemia
  • management decision
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Carotid Artery Disease in Diabetic Patients

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 149 - 161

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are two points of view on the interplay between carotid artery disease and diabetes mellitus: Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as one of the main determinants for the presence and progression of asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery disease; and carotid intima-media thickness has been defined as a useful tool for risk stratification of this population.

Hyperglycaemia, duration of diabetes, arterial hypertension, cholesterol and inflammatory markers have previously been determined as independent factors for carotid atherosclerosis in diabetes, and aging as its predictor in this population by our own results. This paper focuses on the particularities of risk factors in diabetic patients (especially in type 2) and evidence-based guidelines for the management and risk reduction of these patients with stroke and/or carotid artery disease.

At present, carotid ultrasound is recommended in diabetic patients with cerebrovascular symptoms. Since the prevalence of diabetes increases constantly, we attempt to address refreshment of criteria for screening of carotid artery disease in the diabetic population. It could be recommended for diabetic patients with at least one more risk factors and for diabetic patients above 60 years of age.

Schlüsselwörter

  • carotid artery disease
  • diabetes
  • stroke
  • carotid ultrasound
  • aging
  • prognosis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Brief Communication of Assessment of Clinical Practice Regarding Pharmacological Treatment of Epilepsy: A Survey of Neurologists in Republic of Macedonia

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 163 - 166

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A questionnaire of 15 items was developed in order to evaluate clinical practice regarding pharmacological treatment of epilepsy among adult neurologists in R. Macedonia. It was mailed to 30 practising neurologists, 24 answered (80%). Half of them administer AED after a first unprovoked seizure considering EEG and MRI, while others usually wait for a second one before introducing treatment. Discontinuation of treatment should be individualized. Carbamazepine and lamotrigine are the most frequently prescribed first-line drugs for partial seizures; second choices include a number of older and new generation AEDs. For generalized tonic-clonic seizures, absences, myoclonic, mixed or undetermined seizures, valproate is by far the most commonly used AED. The survey showed that prescription patterns are in accordance with current evidence about the spectrum of efficacy of individual AEDs in different types of seizures. Yet some results are a cause of concern and continuous education of the neurological community on AED treatment of epilepsy is needed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • neurologist
  • survey
  • epilepsy
  • pharmacological treatment
  • antiepileptic drugs
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Retinal Complications in Diabetes Mellitus: Importance of Screening and Management

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 167 - 173

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Introduction: Diabetic retinal complications are the most common cause of reduced visual acuity in persons aged 25 to 75 years. However, vision loss can be prevented or delayed if the changes are seen on time.

Aim: By analyzing literature data to create an algorithm for careful follow-up of diabetic patients, which would prevent progression of the changes and development of conditions leading to blindness. At the same time, this paper presents certain changes of the eye fundus and mode of their treatment.

Material and method: Analysis of studies published on diabetic retinopathy and screening conducted in developed countries, with creating an algorithm for follow-up of diabetic retinal changes and their management.

Conclusion: Timely detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy with application of protocols in developed countries as well as parallel correction of systemic risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy will reduce the possibility of visual impairment in diabetics due to retinal complications. At the same time expenditures related to more complicated and less effective surgical procedures will be reduced along with the societal concern.

Schlüsselwörter

  • diabetic retinopathy
  • screening
  • management
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of Radiographic Bone Parameters Throughout the Surgical Lengthening and Deformity Correction of Extremities

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 175 - 183

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Radiographic examination of extremities in surgical lengthening and/or correction of deformities is of crucial importance for the assessment of new bone formation. The purpose of this study is to confirm the diagnostic value of radiography in precise detection of bone parameters in various lengthening or correction stages in patients treated by limb-lengthening and deformity correction.

Patients and Methods: 50 patients were treated by the Ilizarov method of limb lengthening or deformity correction at the University Orthopaedic Surgery Clinic in Skopje, and analysed over the period from 2006 to 2012. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 27 patients with limb-lengthening because of congenital shortening. The second group consisted of 23 patients treated for acquired limb deformities. The results in both groups were received in three stages of new bone formation and were based on the appearance of 3 radiographic parameters at the distraction/compression site.

Results: The differences between the presence of all radiographic bone parameters in different stages of new bone formation were statistically signficant in both groups, especially the presence of the cortical margin in the first group (Cochran Q = 34.43, df = 2, p = 0.00000). The comparative analysis between the two groups showed a statistically significant difference in the presence of initial bone elements and cystic formations only in the first stage.

Discussion and Conclusions: Almost no statistical significance in the differences between both groups of patients with regard to 3 radiographic parameters in 3 stages of new bone formation, indicates a minor influence of the etiopathogenetic background on the new bone formation in patients treated by gradual lengthening or correction of limb deformities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Limb lengthening
  • correction
  • radiography
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Role of Humoral Mechanisms in Etiology of Lichen Planus

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 185 - 194

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To examine the role of IgA, CIC and component C3 as indicators of humoral immune response in the etiopathogenesis of oral erosive lichen planus (OELP).

Material and method: The study comprised 19 patients with OELP whose samples of blood, saliva and tissue were obtained after carefully taken medical history and clinical examination. Samples of oral mucosa were taken from the site of lesion, i.e. exclusively from buccal mucosa (1 cm in width and length), and from the deep epithelium as well as a segment from the lamina propria. Determination of immunoglobulins in serum and saliva, and determination of component C3, was done using the micro-elisa technique by Rook & Cameron, Engvall and Ulman. Determination of CIC in serum and mixed saliva was done with the PEG (polyethylene glycol) method. Determination of immunoglobulin A and component C3 in biopsy material was done with direct immunofluorescence.

Results: Levels of immunoglobulin A in serum in OELP during exacerbation were decreased (1.04 ± 0.49 gr/l) and during remission increased (5.92 ± 0.62) in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001). Levels of CIC during exacerbation and remission were increased (p < 0.001), and component C3 levels were increased in both examined phases in the examined group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Deposits of IgA were registered in one (5.88%) patient with OELP and component C3 was registered in 3 (17.64%) patients.

Conclusion: Changes in IgA values, as well as CIC and component C3, may correlate with changes in oral mucosa emphasizing the role of humoral immune response in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

Schlüsselwörter

  • erosive lichen planus
  • humoral immunity
  • immunoglobulin A
  • CIC
  • component C3
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Rapeutic Effect of Proaftol in Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 195 - 202

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a quite frequent, painful, ulcerative disease that affects the lining of the oral cavity and has an unknown etiology. The aim of this article is to examine the impact of the medication proaftol on epithelization speed and severity of pain in patients with RAS. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study respondents were divided into two groups where one group was treated with proaftol spray and the other with a placebo. Aphthae considered for treatment had a diameter of 5-6 mm. The participants were given instruction on the use of the spray, two sprayings on the place of the aphtae 3-4 times a day. We examined two parameters in the symptomatology of RAS-lesion size (mm) and pain intensity (noted on four subjective levels: 0-no pain, 1-discomfort, 2-moderate pain, 3-severe pain). These parameters were noted on the baseline, the third, the fifth and the eighth days of examination.

Results: A significant faster reduction of the dimension of aphthous ulcers in patients treated with proaftol 3rd day p < 0.001, 5th day p < 0.0006, 8th day full epithelization in the control group. The magnitude of pain in the experimental compared with the control group on 3rd, 5th and 8th day was also significantly reduced: p < 0.0001, p < 0.007, p < 0.007 respectively.

Conclusion: The use of proaftol positively influences the rate of epithelization and reduction of subjective feeling of pain in patients with RAS. The action of propolis should be the goal of studies with a larger number of subjects.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
  • propolis
  • aphthous ulcers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

History and Development of Anaesthesiology (With Resuscitation and Intensive Medicine) in the Republic of Macedonia

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 203 - 217

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To present a chronological overview of the most important events and actors that have marked the history of anaesthesiology and intensive treatment in R. Macedonia since its beginnings in the 1950s.

Method: Retrospective study based on archive materials, published literature and jubilee publications, as well as the memories of individuals who have worked in the field of anaesthesiology in the past period.

Results: Between the two World Wars the first anaesthesia procedures were handled by surgeons. After World War II, the development of anaesthesia in R. Macedonia could be divided into two periods: before 1965 and after 1965. Before 1965 anaesthesia was mainly given by technicians trained on courses, and after this year anaesthesiology was taken over by anaesthesiologists who had specialized at the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje. In 1985 the number of anaesthesiologists was 100, and today it exceeds 250. The most important figures in the history of Macedonian anaesthesiology are: Dr. Risto Ivanovski, who worked from 1954-78, and Prof. Dr. Vladimir Andonov, who worked as an anaesthesiologist from 1965-99. Both of them are doyens who contributed a lot to the development of the anaesthesiology service and education of anaesthesiologists in R. Macedonia. Intensive treatment had started in 1955, but in real terms it has been performed since 1966, when artificial ventilators were introduced. The modern Intensive Care Department was opened at the Surgical Clinic in 1995 and it was followed in other hospitals in the state. The Department of Anaesthesiology has existed since 1975, and it has made a huge contribution to the education of professionals who apply modern principles in emergency medicine and intensive care.

Conclusion: From modest beginnings in the 1950s, anaesthesiology today in R. Macedonia has developed well organized activity that successfully follow the trends of modern medicine in the field of anesthesiology, resuscitation, intensive care and pain treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anaesthesiology
  • resuscitation
  • intensive care
  • pain treatment
  • Republic of Macedonia
  • history
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Seventy Years Since the Establishment of the Skopje Military Hospital, 1944-2014

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 219 - 231

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To present the phases and activities over the period of the existence and work of the Military Hospital in Skopje, from its establishment in 1944 to its transformation on 01.01.2010.

Methods: A retrospective study based on available archive materials, encyclopaedias and other sources of information and review of the relevant literature, and personal experiences, observations and memories of the authors and others.

Results: During the War of 1941-1945, the larger military units formed hospitals. On 15.11.1944, the hospital of the Headquarters of the People's Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Macedonia was moved from the village Gorno Vranovci to Skopje. The Military Hospital in Skopje received the status of permanent hospital of the 5th Army, and from 1945-1963 worked at the “Crescent” facility. After the earthquake in 1963, due to damage, it was partly moved to the hospital in Nish, and partly dispersed in pavilions. In 1971 a new military medical complex was put into operation, in which most belonged to the Military Hospital in Skopje. Until 1992 the military sanitation service was under the command of the then Yugoslav People's Army, and then was under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence of R. Macedonia. From 10.04.1992 to 2.06.1992 it served as a Military Hospital of the Army of R. Macedonia and then as the “Centre of Military Health Institutions” until 26.10.2001. Then it was renamed the Military Hospital of the Army of R. Macedonia until March 2008, when converted to the Ministry of Defence as “Military Health Service - Military Hospital”. On 01.01.2010 the Military Hospital was reshaped into: PHI Eighth of September City General Hospital, Skopje, and the Military Medical Centre.

Conclusion: The Military Hospital in Skopje over the period of its existence has been one of the key specialist-consultative and hospital facilities in the health system in R. Macedonia for providing health care to military beneficiaries and the civilian population.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Military hospital
  • hospitals
  • secondary health care
  • hospital treatment
  • Republic of Macedonia
26 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Foreword - Overview of the Workshop Held and Establishing of the Macedonian Association of Medical Editors, in Skopje, on April 25, 2014

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 7 - 10

Zusammenfassung

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Publishing Integrity and Good Practices in Editing in Biomedicine

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 11 - 16

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA), held a scientific workshop for journal editors in biomedicine: “Publishing integrity and good practices in editing in biomedicine” on April 25, 2014 in MASA, Skopje. The meeting looked into old problems and new situations in editing and publishing, with emphasis on the situation in developing countries.

This global knowledge-based society is founded on the results obtained from scientific research. The data from basic research in developed countries contribute in a quite substantial manner to the newly added economic value. One of the main reasons for underdevelopment in South Eastern Europe (SEE) is certainly a low or non-existent contribution of scientific research in the newly added economic value. This has largely to do with the perception of the political elites which simply lack the insight on the crucial importance of science in development. In the long term this leads to societies in which there are distortions in the understanding of the most basic values.

Academic publishing has experienced tremendous growth: so far there are at least 50 million scientific articles. Interestingly, publishing in developing countries has experienced a rate of growth higher than in developed countries. However, this is not the case with the Balkan countries.

The meeting looked at some old and some newly emerging problems in editing and publishing.

First, the high cost for universities and researchers to purchase journals adversely affects both publishing and editing. In developing countries the high cost of purchasing scientific literature is an almost insurmountable problem in spite of the fact that some publishing companies offer discounted fees. Open access journals in South Eastern European (SEE) countries are hardly achievable as this also incurs costs that have to be covered in some way or other.

The peer review process has the fundamental difficulty that reviewers are in the situation of a Procrustean bed, tending to accept reports which support the reviewer's concepts of thinking and, like Procrustes, cutting everything else out. Authorship is often a contentious issue, as undeserved authors appear on the list of authors.

Some principles are now a norm in academic publishing. This applies to the declaration of a conflict of interest, the consent of the patient and the approval of the Ethical Board of the institution.

This global informational technological revolution has, unfortunately, led to largely widespread and increasingly sophisticated deviations: plagiarism, data fabrication and data falsification as forms of scientific misconduct. Those events are now more widespread than in the past. Luckily new tools to track them are much better than previously. The race for perfect publishing integrity and for the best good practices in editing in biomedicine is on. New and old challenges will be met. The benevolent and caring society, educated professionals and an enlightened public remain essential preconditions. The wealth of nations depends on R&D and consequently on academic publishing.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biomedicine
  • editing
  • publishing integrity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Publishing Scientific Journals in the Digital Age: Opportunities for Small Scholarly Journals

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 17 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Scientific publishing is rapidly developing from print-only to digital journals and extensive use of social media. This essay presents our experience in developing a small and scholarly journal from the so-called scientific semi-periphery and using the advantages of digital publishing to increase the visibility of the journal in international indexing and citation databases, and ensure greater visibility in the global scientific community. An editor of a scientific journal does not need to master all details of different digital publishing tools, but needs to follow the developments so that they can be best implemented in the journal.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Scientific journals
  • digital age
  • publishing
  • research and publication ethics
  • fraud
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Publication Ethics: Whose Problem is It?

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 23 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Discussions about publication ethics often focus on misconduct by authors such as data fabrication and plagiarism. However, the roles of editors, publishers, academic societies, and research institutions should not be ignored. All these players have ethical responsibilities and should carefully consider the effects of their policies and actions. If people believe that publication ethics is 'somebody else's problem', little progress will be made and problems will persist.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Publication ethics
  • research misconduct
  • journals
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Responsible Research Publication: International Standards for Authors

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 29 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Responsible Research Publication: International Standards for Editors

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 35 - 41

Zusammenfassung

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Biomedical Journals in Republic of Macedonia: the Current State

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 43 - 50

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Several biomedical journals in the Republic of Macedonia have succeeded in maintaining regular publication over the years, but only a few have a long-standing tradition. In this paper we present the basic characteristics of 18 biomedical journals that have been published without a break in the Republic of Macedonia. Of these, more details are given for 14 journals, a particular emphasis being on the journal Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Section of Medical Sciences as one of the journals with a long-term publishing tra-dition and one of the journals included in the Medline/PubMed database. A brief or broad description is given for the following journals: Macedonian Medical Review, Acta Morphologica, Physioacta, MJMS - Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, International Medical Journal Medicus, Archives of Public Health, Epilepsy, Macedonian Orthopaedics and Traumatology Journal, BANTAO Journal, Macedonian Dental Review, Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Macedonian Veterinary Review, Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics, Contributions of the Macedonian Scientific Society of Bitola, Vox Medici, Social Medicine: Professional Journal for Public Health, and Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Journals from Macedonia should aim to be published regularly, should comply with the Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, and with the recommendations of reliable organizations working in the field of publishing and research. These are the key prerequisites which Macedonian journals have to accomplish in order to b? included in renowned international bibliographic databases. Thus the results of biomedical science from the Republic of Macedonia will be presented to the international scientific arena.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biomedical journals
  • publishing
  • Republic of Macedonia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering: Open Journal Systems - Editor's Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 51 - 55

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The development and availability of personal computers and software as well as printing techniques in the last twenty years have made a profound change in the publication of scientific journals. Additionally, the Internet in the last decade has revolutionized the publication process to the point of changing the basic paradigm of printed journals. The Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in its 40-year history has adopted and adapted to all these transformations. In order to keep up with the inevitable changes, as editor-in-chief I felt my responsibility was to introduce an electronic editorial managing of the journal. The choice was between commercial and open source platforms, and because of the limited funding of the journal we chose the latter. We decided on Open Journal Systems, which provided online submission and management of all content, had flexible configuration - requirements, sections, review process, etc., had options for comprehensive indexing, offered various reading tools, had email notification and commenting ability for readers, had an option for thesis abstracts and was installed locally. However, since there is limited support it requires a moderate computer knowledge/skills and effort in order to set up. Overall, it is an excellent editorial platform and a convenient solution for journals with a low budget or journals that do not want to spend their resources on commercial platforms or simply support the idea of open source software.

Schlüsselwörter

  • open source software
  • Open Journal Systems
  • electronic editorial managing
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

New Developments in Publishing Related to Authorship

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 57 - 66

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To present the inappropriate types of authorship and practice, and the most recent developments related to basic principles and criteria to a fair system for allocating authorship in scientific publications.

Methods: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author.

Results: Working in multidisciplinary teams is a common feature of modern research processes. The most sensitive question is how to decide on who to acknowledge as author of a multi-authored publication. The pertinence of this question is growing with the increasing importance of individual scientists' publication records for professional status and career. However, discussions about authorship allocation might lead to serious conflicts and disputes among coworkers which could even endanger cooperation and successful completion of a research project. It seems that discussion and education about ethical standards and practical guidelines for fairly allocating authorship are insufficient and the question of ethical practices related to authorship in multi-authored publications remains generally unresolved.

Conclusion: It is necessary to work for raising awareness about the importance and need for education about principles of scientific communication and fair allocation of authorship, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education in the scientific community, especially young researchers and students, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud, including pathology of authorship.

Schlüsselwörter

  • authorship
  • contributorship
  • scientific publishing
  • responsible conduct of research
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Current Biomedical Scientific Impact (2013) of Institutions, Academic Journals and Researchers in the Republic of Macedonia

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 67 - 80

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To analyse current ranking (2013) of institutions, journals and researchers in the Republic of Macedonia.

Material and Methods: the country rankings of R. Macedonia were analyzed with SCImago Country & Journal Rank (SJR) for subject area Medicine in the years 1996-2013, and ordered by H-index. SCImago Institutions Rankings for 2013 was used for the scientific impact of biomedical institutions in the Republic of Macedonia. Journal metrics from Elsevier for the Macedonian scholarly journals for the period 2009-2013 were performed. Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP), the Impact per Publication (IPP), and SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) were analysed. Macedonian scholarly biomedical journals included in Google Scholar metrics (2013, 2012) were analysed with h5-index and h5-median (June 2014). A semantic analysis of the PubMed database was performed with GoPubMed on November 2, 2014 in order to identify published papers from the field of biomedical sciences affiliated with the country of Macedonia. Harzing's Publish or Perish software was used for author impact analysis and the calculation of the Hirsh-index based on Google Scholar query.

Results: The rank of subject area Medicine of R. Macedonia according to the SCImago Journal & Country Rank (SJR) is 110th in the world and 17th in Eastern Europe. Of 20 universities in Macedonia, only Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, and the University St Clement of Ohrid, Bitola, are listed in the SCImago Institutions Rankings (SIR) for 2013. A very small number of Macedonian scholarly journals is included in Web of Sciences (2), PubMed (1), PubMed Central (1), SCOPUS (6), SCImago (6), and Google Scholar metrics (6). The rank of Hirsh index (h-index) was different from the rank of number of abstracts indexed in PubMed for the top 20 authors from R. Macedonia.

Conclusion: The current biomedical scientific impact (2013) of institutions, academic journals and researchers in R. Macedonia is very low. There is an urgent need for organized measures to improve the quality and output of institutions, scholarly journals, and researchers in R. Macedonia in order to achieve higher international standards.

Schlüsselwörter

  • medical science
  • Scopus database
  • citation metrics
  • h-index
  • Republic of Macedonia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Editorial Policies and Background in Editing Macedonian Edical Review and Bantao Journal

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 81 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Even in as small a country as R. Macedonia with limited resources allocated for science, there are many journals trying to establish good editorial practices and policies in publishing the scientific work achieved. Among the currently existing medical journals Macedonian Medical Review (MMR), ISSN 0025-1097, deserves to be elaborated as the oldest journal with continuous publication since its first appearance as the journal of the Macedonian Medical Association (MMA). Since its first issue, published in 1946, there has been an opus of some 4500 peer-reviewed published papers in more than 210 issues and some 80 supplements from various congresses and meetings. In this regard, great respect should be paid not only to the editorial boards, but also to the collaborators who have contributed to its successful continuity in all previous years.

In line with the needs for further development of the journal and possibilities for access to world databases, the Editorial Board of MMR has made every effort to improve and modernize its work as well as the technical quality of the journal. Hence, MMA has signed a contract with De Gruyter Open as leading publisher of Open Access academic content for further improvement and promotion of the journal and facilitation of the Medline application, so we do hope for the further success of the journal.

BANTAO Journal is published on behalf of the Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (BANTAO), ISSN 1312-2517. The first issue was published in 2003, ten years after BANTAO was born. Its appearance was an extremely important event in the existence of BANTAO. The first official editor of the journal was Dimitar Nenov, Varna (2003-2005), followed by Ali Basci (Izmir, Turkey) and Goce Spasovski (Skopje, Macedonia) as editor-in-chief since 2009. Over the years, the Journal has been included in the EBSCO, DOAJ and SCOPUS/SCIMAGO databases.

The journal is published biannually. Until now, 345 papers have been published in the past 11 years, in 21 regular issues and 3 supplements. It may be said that the journal is the “glue” between the nephrologists from the Balkan cities, reflecting the high quality research and scientific potential of Balkan nephrologists. The entire process of submitting and reviewing the manuscripts is electronically done and after their acceptance they are freely available (open access journal) on the website of the association and the journal: www.bantao.org.

In this regard, the current President of BANTAO has already signed a contract with De Gruyter Open as leading publisher of Open Access academic content for further improvement and promotion of the journal and Medline application for the further success of the journal.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Macedonian Medical Review
  • Bantao Journal
  • Macedonian Medical Association
  • De Gruyter Open
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Editorial Policies and Good Practices in Editing the Journal ‘International Medical Journal - Medicus’

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 85 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ten years ago the Association of Albanian Physicians in Macedonia undertook the very brave step of publishing a scientific medical journal, Medicus, as a platform for publishing biomedical research papers. Medical journal MEDICUS is an international peer-review journal of biomedical science. The first issue was published in 2004, starting with publishing two issues per year. From 2013, the journal delivered three issues per year, namely in January, May and September. Editor-in-Chief of the journal is Prof. Dr. Aziz Pollozhani. This year marks the tenth anniversary since publication of the first issue of Medicus, a fact that makes us proud and happy.

The journal has its own official website (www.imjm.mk), where papers can be submitted and published in electronic form. In addition, the journal also comes out in print form to be distributed mainly in the region.

Taking into account the specific socio-cultural characteristics of the region, the journal attempts to promote research activities in the region, while seeking to serve as an educational tool to promote scientific work in such a setting. As a result, Medicus accepts manuscripts for publication in English, Albanian and Macedonian, with a mandatory abstract in English for all papers.

The journal Medicus represents a solid platform of biomedical sciences that will serve to advance scientific research and promote professional achievements in medicine.

Schlüsselwörter

  • International Medical Journal “Medicus”
  • peer-reviewed journal
  • socio-cultural conditions
  • Republic of Macedonia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

“Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics” - Facts, Editorial Policies, Practices and Challenges

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 89 - 93

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics (BJMG) is an international, open access journal that publishes scientific papers covering different aspects of medical genetics. It is published by the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts twice a year in both printed and electronic versions. BJMG is covered by many abstracting and indexing databases, including PubMed Central and Thomson Reuters.

Although there are many journals in the field of medical genetics, only a few come from regions outside Western Europe and North America. Being one of these few journals, BJMG aims to promote genetics and research on this topic in the Balkan countries and beyond. BJMG's ultimate goal is to raise the scientific quality and metrics of the journal and provide a better place for BJMG in the community of scientific journals.

Schlüsselwörter

  • editorial policies
  • journal
  • human genetics
  • medical
  • genetics
  • Balkan
  • BJMG
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

How Should Journal Editors Respond to Cases of Suspected Misconduct?

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 95 - 101

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Journals and institutions have important complementary roles to play in cases of suspected research and publication misconduct. Journals should take responsibility for everything they publish and should alert institutions to cases of possible serious misconduct but should not attempt to investigate such cases. Institutions should take responsibility for their researchers and for investigating cases of possible misconduct and for ensuring journals are informed if they have published unreliable or misleading articles so that these can be retracted or corrected. Journals and institutions should have policies in place for handling such cases and these policies should respect their different roles.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Publication ethics
  • research misconduct
  • scientific journals
  • paper retraction
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 105 - 120

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy characterized by the expansion and progressive accumulation of mature autoreactive B lymphocytes. The disease is clinically heterogeneous and incurable by standard chemotherapy. A major feature of the disease is the marked dependence of the leukaemic cells on various microenvironmental stimuli, which promote leukaemia cell growth, survival, and drug-resistance. Recently, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive CLL. The identification of recurrent genetic lesions using next generation sequencing technology has provided new data on the pathophysiology of the disease and has improved its prognostication. The recognition of the critical role of the B cell receptor (BCR) in driving the disease has resulted in the development of BCR pathway inhibitors that have the potential to completely transform CLL treatment in the near future. Other novel therapeutic agents, such as BCL2 antagonists and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cells, are also showing great promise in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize some of these recent advances, with a particular focus on the BCR and corresponding pathway inhibitors.

Schlüsselwörter

  • chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
  • B-cell receptor
  • fostamatinib
  • ibrutinib
  • idelalisib
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genotype Variability and Haplotype Profile of Abcb1 (Mdr1) Gene Polymorphisms in Macedonian Population

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 121 - 133

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the most common ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein) polymorphisms in the population of R. Macedonia and compare the allele and haplotype frequencies with the global geographic data reported from different ethnic populations. The total of 107 healthy Macedonian individuals from the general population was included.

Genotypes for the ABCB1 for three polymorphisms C1236T [rs1128503], G2677A/T [rs2032582] and C3435T [rs1045642] were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. Obtained allele frequencies for these three SNPs were similar to those observed in other European Caucasians. The detected genotype frequencies were 33.6% for 1236CC, 44.9% for 1236CT and 21.5% for 1236TT in exon 12; 32.7%, 44.9% and 22.4% for 2677GG, 2677GT and 2677GT consecutively in exon 21; and 25.2% for 3435CC, 52.3% for 3435CT and 22.5% for 3435TT in exon 26. Strong LD was observed in our study among all three SNPs with the highest association confirmed for C1236T and G2677T ((D' = 0.859, r2 = 0.711). Eight different haplotypes were identified and the most prominent was the CGC haplotype (45.3%). Our study was the first to have documented the distribution of ABCB1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes in the population of R. Macedonia. The obtained results can help in the prediction of different response to the drugs that are P-glycoprotein substrates. Additionally, in the era of individualized medicine the determination of the P-glycoprotein genotype might be a good predictive marker for determination of the subpopulations with higher risk to certain diseases.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ABCB1 (MDR1
  • P-glycoprotein
  • C1236T
  • G2677A/T
  • C3435T
  • interethnic differences
  • haplo-types Macedonian population
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Histological Structure of the Thyroid Gland in Apolipoprotein E Deficient Female Mice After Levothyroxine Application

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 135 - 140

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the histological characteristics of the thyroid gland in ApoE KO-/- mice following the application of levothyroxine (l-thyroxine).

A total of 12 female ApoE KO-/- mice were divided into two groups. A control group of mice received distilled water and the experimental group received l-thyroxine dissolved in drinking water at a daily dose of 2 µg/ml, over 12 weeks. The paraffin sections were processed with the usual haematoxilin-eosin technique of staining.

Qualitative histological analysis demonstrated: the presence of large distended follicles in the peripheral areas of the gland; fulfillment of the lumen of follicles with an ample amount of colloid; complete absence of resorptive vacuoles in the colloid; a flattened follicullar epithelium. Morphometric assessment showed a significant increase in the diameters of follicles in the peripheral areas of the gland and a significant decrease in the height of the follicullar epithelium (p <0,001).

Our results demonstrated that l-thyroxine causes characteristic morphological changes in the structure of the thyroid gland in the direction of the occurrence of hyperthyroidism.

Schlüsselwörter

  • thyroid gland
  • ApoE KO-/- female mice
  • morphometric analysis
  • l-thyroxine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ischaemia-Driven Optimal Therapeutic Approach in Asymptomatic Patients with High Cardiovascular Risk: The Value of Clinical, Laboratory and Myocardial Spect Imaging Findings

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 141 - 148

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: We wanted to evaluate the presense of myocardial ischaemia in asymptomatic patients with high cardiovascular risk, the influencing clinical and laboratory factors and the impact of ischaemia on final management decision.

Material and methods: We evaluated 60 asymptomatic patients with high CV risk, who underwent SPECT myo-cardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for detection of suspected CAD. We used the 17 segment model for quantitative and semiquantitative scan perfusion and function analysis using perfusion scores. All patients had full blood laboratory analyses including lipid values, presence of albuminuria, rest and stress ECG. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the impact of clinical and laboratory parameters on myocardial ischaemia prevalence.

Results: Stress-inducible ischaemia was found in 19 pts (33%), fixed defects were found in 13% and mixed defects in 9% of cases. The average ischaemia amount was 10%. Mild ischaemia was found in 12 patients (64%) - summed stress score (SDS) < 4, moderate ischaemia in 5 patients (26%) - SDS 5-7 and severely abnormal scans in 2 patients (10%) - SDS > 7. Severe ischaemia was only related to the duration of diabetes. Six pts with severe ischaemia had ST depression > 2 mm on stress study, and a higher wall motion index and LVEF fall > 5% during stress study (p < 0.01). Stepwise logistic regression analysis for prediction of stress-induced ischaemia showed OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.7?3.6) for stress-induced ECG changes and OR 3.9 for presence of DM over 10y (95% CI 2.3?6.6). Seven patients with ischaemia > 10%, were referred for coronary angiography.

Conclusions: MPI is a valuable method for preclinical assessment of myocardial ischaemia in patients with high CV risk, which can improve prognosis and guide treatment decision.

Schlüsselwörter

  • myocardial imaging
  • ischaemia
  • management decision
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Carotid Artery Disease in Diabetic Patients

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 149 - 161

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are two points of view on the interplay between carotid artery disease and diabetes mellitus: Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as one of the main determinants for the presence and progression of asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery disease; and carotid intima-media thickness has been defined as a useful tool for risk stratification of this population.

Hyperglycaemia, duration of diabetes, arterial hypertension, cholesterol and inflammatory markers have previously been determined as independent factors for carotid atherosclerosis in diabetes, and aging as its predictor in this population by our own results. This paper focuses on the particularities of risk factors in diabetic patients (especially in type 2) and evidence-based guidelines for the management and risk reduction of these patients with stroke and/or carotid artery disease.

At present, carotid ultrasound is recommended in diabetic patients with cerebrovascular symptoms. Since the prevalence of diabetes increases constantly, we attempt to address refreshment of criteria for screening of carotid artery disease in the diabetic population. It could be recommended for diabetic patients with at least one more risk factors and for diabetic patients above 60 years of age.

Schlüsselwörter

  • carotid artery disease
  • diabetes
  • stroke
  • carotid ultrasound
  • aging
  • prognosis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Brief Communication of Assessment of Clinical Practice Regarding Pharmacological Treatment of Epilepsy: A Survey of Neurologists in Republic of Macedonia

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 163 - 166

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A questionnaire of 15 items was developed in order to evaluate clinical practice regarding pharmacological treatment of epilepsy among adult neurologists in R. Macedonia. It was mailed to 30 practising neurologists, 24 answered (80%). Half of them administer AED after a first unprovoked seizure considering EEG and MRI, while others usually wait for a second one before introducing treatment. Discontinuation of treatment should be individualized. Carbamazepine and lamotrigine are the most frequently prescribed first-line drugs for partial seizures; second choices include a number of older and new generation AEDs. For generalized tonic-clonic seizures, absences, myoclonic, mixed or undetermined seizures, valproate is by far the most commonly used AED. The survey showed that prescription patterns are in accordance with current evidence about the spectrum of efficacy of individual AEDs in different types of seizures. Yet some results are a cause of concern and continuous education of the neurological community on AED treatment of epilepsy is needed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • neurologist
  • survey
  • epilepsy
  • pharmacological treatment
  • antiepileptic drugs
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Retinal Complications in Diabetes Mellitus: Importance of Screening and Management

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 167 - 173

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Introduction: Diabetic retinal complications are the most common cause of reduced visual acuity in persons aged 25 to 75 years. However, vision loss can be prevented or delayed if the changes are seen on time.

Aim: By analyzing literature data to create an algorithm for careful follow-up of diabetic patients, which would prevent progression of the changes and development of conditions leading to blindness. At the same time, this paper presents certain changes of the eye fundus and mode of their treatment.

Material and method: Analysis of studies published on diabetic retinopathy and screening conducted in developed countries, with creating an algorithm for follow-up of diabetic retinal changes and their management.

Conclusion: Timely detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy with application of protocols in developed countries as well as parallel correction of systemic risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy will reduce the possibility of visual impairment in diabetics due to retinal complications. At the same time expenditures related to more complicated and less effective surgical procedures will be reduced along with the societal concern.

Schlüsselwörter

  • diabetic retinopathy
  • screening
  • management
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of Radiographic Bone Parameters Throughout the Surgical Lengthening and Deformity Correction of Extremities

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 175 - 183

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Radiographic examination of extremities in surgical lengthening and/or correction of deformities is of crucial importance for the assessment of new bone formation. The purpose of this study is to confirm the diagnostic value of radiography in precise detection of bone parameters in various lengthening or correction stages in patients treated by limb-lengthening and deformity correction.

Patients and Methods: 50 patients were treated by the Ilizarov method of limb lengthening or deformity correction at the University Orthopaedic Surgery Clinic in Skopje, and analysed over the period from 2006 to 2012. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 27 patients with limb-lengthening because of congenital shortening. The second group consisted of 23 patients treated for acquired limb deformities. The results in both groups were received in three stages of new bone formation and were based on the appearance of 3 radiographic parameters at the distraction/compression site.

Results: The differences between the presence of all radiographic bone parameters in different stages of new bone formation were statistically signficant in both groups, especially the presence of the cortical margin in the first group (Cochran Q = 34.43, df = 2, p = 0.00000). The comparative analysis between the two groups showed a statistically significant difference in the presence of initial bone elements and cystic formations only in the first stage.

Discussion and Conclusions: Almost no statistical significance in the differences between both groups of patients with regard to 3 radiographic parameters in 3 stages of new bone formation, indicates a minor influence of the etiopathogenetic background on the new bone formation in patients treated by gradual lengthening or correction of limb deformities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Limb lengthening
  • correction
  • radiography
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Role of Humoral Mechanisms in Etiology of Lichen Planus

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 185 - 194

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To examine the role of IgA, CIC and component C3 as indicators of humoral immune response in the etiopathogenesis of oral erosive lichen planus (OELP).

Material and method: The study comprised 19 patients with OELP whose samples of blood, saliva and tissue were obtained after carefully taken medical history and clinical examination. Samples of oral mucosa were taken from the site of lesion, i.e. exclusively from buccal mucosa (1 cm in width and length), and from the deep epithelium as well as a segment from the lamina propria. Determination of immunoglobulins in serum and saliva, and determination of component C3, was done using the micro-elisa technique by Rook & Cameron, Engvall and Ulman. Determination of CIC in serum and mixed saliva was done with the PEG (polyethylene glycol) method. Determination of immunoglobulin A and component C3 in biopsy material was done with direct immunofluorescence.

Results: Levels of immunoglobulin A in serum in OELP during exacerbation were decreased (1.04 ± 0.49 gr/l) and during remission increased (5.92 ± 0.62) in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001). Levels of CIC during exacerbation and remission were increased (p < 0.001), and component C3 levels were increased in both examined phases in the examined group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Deposits of IgA were registered in one (5.88%) patient with OELP and component C3 was registered in 3 (17.64%) patients.

Conclusion: Changes in IgA values, as well as CIC and component C3, may correlate with changes in oral mucosa emphasizing the role of humoral immune response in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

Schlüsselwörter

  • erosive lichen planus
  • humoral immunity
  • immunoglobulin A
  • CIC
  • component C3
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Rapeutic Effect of Proaftol in Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 195 - 202

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a quite frequent, painful, ulcerative disease that affects the lining of the oral cavity and has an unknown etiology. The aim of this article is to examine the impact of the medication proaftol on epithelization speed and severity of pain in patients with RAS. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study respondents were divided into two groups where one group was treated with proaftol spray and the other with a placebo. Aphthae considered for treatment had a diameter of 5-6 mm. The participants were given instruction on the use of the spray, two sprayings on the place of the aphtae 3-4 times a day. We examined two parameters in the symptomatology of RAS-lesion size (mm) and pain intensity (noted on four subjective levels: 0-no pain, 1-discomfort, 2-moderate pain, 3-severe pain). These parameters were noted on the baseline, the third, the fifth and the eighth days of examination.

Results: A significant faster reduction of the dimension of aphthous ulcers in patients treated with proaftol 3rd day p < 0.001, 5th day p < 0.0006, 8th day full epithelization in the control group. The magnitude of pain in the experimental compared with the control group on 3rd, 5th and 8th day was also significantly reduced: p < 0.0001, p < 0.007, p < 0.007 respectively.

Conclusion: The use of proaftol positively influences the rate of epithelization and reduction of subjective feeling of pain in patients with RAS. The action of propolis should be the goal of studies with a larger number of subjects.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
  • propolis
  • aphthous ulcers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

History and Development of Anaesthesiology (With Resuscitation and Intensive Medicine) in the Republic of Macedonia

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 203 - 217

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To present a chronological overview of the most important events and actors that have marked the history of anaesthesiology and intensive treatment in R. Macedonia since its beginnings in the 1950s.

Method: Retrospective study based on archive materials, published literature and jubilee publications, as well as the memories of individuals who have worked in the field of anaesthesiology in the past period.

Results: Between the two World Wars the first anaesthesia procedures were handled by surgeons. After World War II, the development of anaesthesia in R. Macedonia could be divided into two periods: before 1965 and after 1965. Before 1965 anaesthesia was mainly given by technicians trained on courses, and after this year anaesthesiology was taken over by anaesthesiologists who had specialized at the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje. In 1985 the number of anaesthesiologists was 100, and today it exceeds 250. The most important figures in the history of Macedonian anaesthesiology are: Dr. Risto Ivanovski, who worked from 1954-78, and Prof. Dr. Vladimir Andonov, who worked as an anaesthesiologist from 1965-99. Both of them are doyens who contributed a lot to the development of the anaesthesiology service and education of anaesthesiologists in R. Macedonia. Intensive treatment had started in 1955, but in real terms it has been performed since 1966, when artificial ventilators were introduced. The modern Intensive Care Department was opened at the Surgical Clinic in 1995 and it was followed in other hospitals in the state. The Department of Anaesthesiology has existed since 1975, and it has made a huge contribution to the education of professionals who apply modern principles in emergency medicine and intensive care.

Conclusion: From modest beginnings in the 1950s, anaesthesiology today in R. Macedonia has developed well organized activity that successfully follow the trends of modern medicine in the field of anesthesiology, resuscitation, intensive care and pain treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anaesthesiology
  • resuscitation
  • intensive care
  • pain treatment
  • Republic of Macedonia
  • history
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Seventy Years Since the Establishment of the Skopje Military Hospital, 1944-2014

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Mar 2015
Seitenbereich: 219 - 231

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aim: To present the phases and activities over the period of the existence and work of the Military Hospital in Skopje, from its establishment in 1944 to its transformation on 01.01.2010.

Methods: A retrospective study based on available archive materials, encyclopaedias and other sources of information and review of the relevant literature, and personal experiences, observations and memories of the authors and others.

Results: During the War of 1941-1945, the larger military units formed hospitals. On 15.11.1944, the hospital of the Headquarters of the People's Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Macedonia was moved from the village Gorno Vranovci to Skopje. The Military Hospital in Skopje received the status of permanent hospital of the 5th Army, and from 1945-1963 worked at the “Crescent” facility. After the earthquake in 1963, due to damage, it was partly moved to the hospital in Nish, and partly dispersed in pavilions. In 1971 a new military medical complex was put into operation, in which most belonged to the Military Hospital in Skopje. Until 1992 the military sanitation service was under the command of the then Yugoslav People's Army, and then was under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence of R. Macedonia. From 10.04.1992 to 2.06.1992 it served as a Military Hospital of the Army of R. Macedonia and then as the “Centre of Military Health Institutions” until 26.10.2001. Then it was renamed the Military Hospital of the Army of R. Macedonia until March 2008, when converted to the Ministry of Defence as “Military Health Service - Military Hospital”. On 01.01.2010 the Military Hospital was reshaped into: PHI Eighth of September City General Hospital, Skopje, and the Military Medical Centre.

Conclusion: The Military Hospital in Skopje over the period of its existence has been one of the key specialist-consultative and hospital facilities in the health system in R. Macedonia for providing health care to military beneficiaries and the civilian population.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Military hospital
  • hospitals
  • secondary health care
  • hospital treatment
  • Republic of Macedonia

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