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AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 43 (2022): Issue 2 (July 2022)

Volume 43 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 42 (2021): Issue 3 (December 2021)

Volume 42 (2021): Issue 2 (October 2021)

Volume 42 (2021): Issue 1 (April 2021)

Volume 41 (2020): Issue 3 (November 2020)

Volume 41 (2020): Issue 2 (September 2020)

Volume 41 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 40 (2019): Issue 3 (December 2019)

Volume 40 (2019): Issue 2 (October 2019)

Volume 40 (2019): Issue 1 (May 2019)

Volume 39 (2018): Issue 2-3 (December 2018)

Volume 39 (2018): Issue 1 (July 2018)

Volume 38 (2017): Issue 3 (December 2017)

Volume 38 (2017): Issue 2 (September 2017)

Volume 38 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 37 (2016): Issue 2-3 (November 2016)

Volume 37 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 36 (2015): Issue 3 (December 2015)

Volume 36 (2015): Issue 2 (December 2015)

Volume 36 (2015): Issue 1 (May 2015)

Volume 35 (2014): Issue 3 (December 2014)

Volume 35 (2014): Issue 2 (October 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1857-8985
ISSN
1857-9345
First Published
08 Sep 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 42 (2021): Issue 1 (April 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1857-8985
ISSN
1857-9345
First Published
08 Sep 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

13 Articles
Open Access

Insight in the Current Progress in the Largest Clinical Trials for Covid-19 Drug Management (As of January 2021)

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 5 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has generated the largest global health crisis of the 21st century, evolving into accelerating socioeconomic disruption. In spite of all rapidly and widely emerging scientific data on epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the COVID-19 disease, severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing to propagate in lack of definitive and specific therapeutic agents. Current therapeutic strategies are mainly focused on viral inhibition by antiviral drugs and hampering the exuberant immune response of the host by immunomodulatory drugs. In this review, we have studied the reports of the largest clinical trials intended to COVID-19 treatment published during the first year of the pandemics. In general, these results concentrate on seven therapeutic options: remdesivir, chloroguine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir combination, corticosteroids, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies. In line with the reviewed data, as of January 2021, most of the evidence support the use of remdesivir in hospitalized patients with moderate and severe forms of the disease and provide reliable data on the substantial beneficial effect of corticosteroids in patients requiring supplemental oxygen. Moreover, preliminary RECOVERY trial results have demonstrated the efficacy of tociluzumab in the treatment of critically ill patients. The reports presenting the outcomes of the other immune-based therapies under investigation are enthusiastically awaited.

Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19
  • pandemic
  • antiviral drugs
  • immunomodulatory drugs
  • remdesivir
Open Access

The Importance of the World Kidney Day World Kidney Day – 11 March 2021 – Living Well with Kidney Disease

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 19 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

World Kidney Day (WKD) is a global campaign to raise awareness of the importance of our kidneys to overall health and to reduce the frequency and impact of kidney disease and associated health problems worldwide. Kidney disease is a non-communicable disease (NCD) and currently affects around 850 million people worldwide. One in ten adults has chronic kidney disease (CKD). The global burden of CKD is increasing, and is projected to become the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume 2–3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, kidney disease can be prevented and progression to end-stage kidney disease can be delayed with appropriate access to basic diagnostics and early treatment. This year World Kidney Day continues to raise awareness of the increasing burden of kidney diseases worldwide and to strive for kidney health for everyone, everywhere. During the pandemic with COVID 19 patients kidneys are also damaged, apart from the respiratory tract and other organs. It can lead to an increase in acute renal failure and consequent chronic kidney insufficiency, as well as number of deaths. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the renal function in each patient with COVID 19 virus. In the Republic of North Macedonia from 2006 to present day nephrologists and other medical personnel devoted to the early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of renal disease have participated in the activities of the World Kidney Day. These activities were supported by the Macedonian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs, the Department of Nephrology at the Medical Faculty, the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Government of the Republic of North Macedonia, non-governmental nephrology organizations (NEFRON) and the media. There were lectures and presentation devoted to the various theme of the WKD, publications in journals, as well as activities for examination of the renal function of patients in the medical centers. The activities during the WKD contributed to the improvement of the nephrological protection of the citizens of the Republic of N. Macedonia.

Keywords

  • World Kidney Day
  • kidney disease
  • early diagnosis
  • prevention
  • therapy
Open Access

2-Methoxyestradiol Attenuates the Development and Retards the Progression of Hypoxia-And Alpha-Naphthylthiourea-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 41 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH), a progressive, incurable, and deadly disease, predominantly develops in women. Growing body of evidence suggest that dysregulated estradiol (E2) metabolism influences the development of PH and that some of the biological effects of E2 are mediated by its major non-estrogenic metabolite, 2-metyhoxyestradiol (2ME). The objective of this study was to examine effects of 2ME in chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced PH and alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU)-induced acute lung injury and PH. In addition, we investigated the effects of exposure to different levels of CH on development of PH. Chronic exposure to 15% or 10% oxygen produced similar increases in right ventricle peak systolic pressure (RVPSP) and pulmonary vascular remodeling, but oxygen concentration-dependent increase in hematocrit. Notably, right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy correlated with level of hypoxia and hematocrit, rather than with magnitude of RVPSP. The latter suggests that, in addition to increased afterload, hypoxia (via increased hematocrit) significantly contributes to RV hypertrophy in CH model of PH. In CH-PH rats, preventive and curative 2ME treatments reduced both elevated RVPSP and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Curative treatment with 2ME was more effective in reducing hematocrit and right ventricular hypertrophy, as compared to preventive treatment. Single ANTU injection produced lung injury, i.e., increased lungs weight and induced pleural effusion. Treatment with 2ME significantly reduced pleural effusion and, more importantly, eliminated acute mortality induced by ANTU (33% vs 0%, ANTU vs. ANTU+2ME group). Chronic treatment with ANTU induced PH and RV hypertrophy and increased lungs weight. 2-ME significantly attenuated severity of disease (i.e., reduced RVPSP, RV hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular injury). This study demonstrates that 2ME has beneficial effects in chronic hypoxia- and acute lung injury-induced PH and provides preclinical justification for clinical evaluation of 2ME in pulmonary hypertension.

Keywords

  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • 2-methoxyestradiol
  • hypoxia
  • polycythemia
  • vascular remodeling
  • right ventricle
  • alpha-naphthylthiourea
Open Access

The Role of Carotid Stenosis in a Prediction of Prognosis of Coronary Artery Disease

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 53 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Aims: The aim of this paper is to indicate if carotid stenosis is predictive for the prognosis of coronary artery disease.

Method and materials: Our study is a prospective cohort study. 1031 patients with proven coronary artery disease (CAD) were recruited consecutively. Carotid ultrasound was used to assess IMT, plaque, or stenosis. They were followed for 24 months for adverse cardiovascular events. Selected demographic date such as smoking history, dyslipidemia, hypertension, laboratory values, and clinical data (associated diseases and risk) were collected from each patient. Total cardiovascular events and mortality rate were followed up for the study population. The results were collected prospectively and retrospectively. The study was organized as a clinical, cross-sectional study and comparative study.

From the data collected with the clinical research, a file was formed in the statistical program with the help of which the data were statistically analyzed.

From the methods of descriptive statistics, absolute frequencies, percentages, arithmetic mean, median, measures of variability, minimum, maximum, standard deviation and logistic regression models were used.

Result: Of the total number of patients 1026 had arterial hypertension (HTA). Data on hyperlipidemia (HLP) had been reported in 895 patients. 1.023 patients had peripheral artery disease (PAB). 1031 patients were presented with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). There were 1,029 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), while 1,013 patients had coronary artery by-pass (CABG), and 1,012 had stroke (CVI). Elevated systolic blood pressure was reported in 966 patients. 184 patients had elevated triglycerides and 187 had elevated cholesterol. 1,008 patients have had a history of myocardial infarction. Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) has been found in 1,009 patients, increased body mass index (BMI) in 270 patients.

1.031 patients were followed for 24 months. Cardiovascular events were reported in 54 patients (or 5.2%). Revascularization was performed in 28 (4.1%) patients, while 12 (1.8%) of patients died. Diabetes mellitus (OR 1.878 95% CI 0.491 7.184) and Carotid stenosis (OR 2.185 95% CI 0.731 6.53) were found to be predictive factors for future cardiovascular events.

Conclusion: Due to our results carotid ultrasound may be a useful tool for risk stratification of coronary artery disease pts.

Keywords

  • Carotid stenosis
  • coronary artery disease
  • prognosis
Open Access

Does the M-Chat-R Give Important Information for the Diagnosis of the Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 67 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

Having in mind the rising rates of the incidence for autism worldwide, the early diagnosis of this neuro-developmental disorder is of the high priority. For that purpose, several checklists have been constructed and used. Nevertheless, there are no universal and uniform criteria for assessing and diagnosing autism, and even if there existed, not every country has the resources to manage such an assessment for diagnosis.

A recently validated, revised version of the M-CHAT, the M-CHAT-Revised with Follow up (M-CHAT-R/F) has demonstrated strong psychometric properties.

The aim of this article is to discuss our results obtained with M-CHAT-R applied in a sample of 131 children aged 31,9 ±9,4 months, recruited for diagnosis and treatment at the University Children’s Hospital in Skopje.

Our results confirmed that for screening the use of M-CHAT-R/F is currently the very exact instrument which allows the early suspicion, but also possible follow up the symptoms of this disorder. Additionally, we showed the significant negative correlation between age and scores obtained on the checklist.

Keywords

  • autism
  • checklist
  • screening
  • neurodevelopmental disorder
Open Access

Posterior Urethral Valve and Prenataly Resolved Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 77 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the kidney and urinary tract. The association with the posterior urethral valve is also very rare. Here we present a patient with both entities and prenatal resolution of the cysts.

A 10-week old baby was referred for nephrourological work up due to prenatal diagnosis of the left multicystic kidney. He had serial US scans during the pregnancy. Immediately before delivery the cysts were not seen (prenatal resolution). There were no extrarenal anomalies. The first postnatal ultrasound scan revealed normal sized right kidney without dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system. The bladder had normal thickness of the wall. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan showed no activity on the left side, and the right kidney appeared normal. At two months of age, a poor urinary steam was observed and additional urologic work up was indicated on clinical suspicion of PUV. Voiding urethrocystography revealed posterior urethral valve and the baby underwent cytoscopic valve resection.

Conclusion: We present a rare association of two congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract with prenatal involution of the multicystic dysplastic kidney that is extremely rare event as seen in our case. Presence of posterior urethral valve must be suspected in a male baby with a poor urinary stream even when his ultrasound scan of urinary system appears normal.

Keywords

  • kidney
  • dysplasia
  • posterior urethral valve
Open Access

Recurrent Severe Hepatitis of Autoimmune Origin

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 83 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

The autoimmune liver disease constituent conditions include autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and IgG-4 associated cholangitis. They remain a diagnostic challenge to the practicing physician due to their close resemblance in clinical course, and laboratory and imaging findings to the vast array of other etiologies of liver injury. We report a case of recurrent severe hepatitis of autoimmune origin in a female patient. The disease course was marked by initial onset at age 39, followed by nearly four years of remission, and a second flare with a more exaggerated severity. Systemic lupus erythematosus was initially deemed as the culprit, however formal diagnostic criteria were not fulfilled and the serological findings were not reproduced at a later date. With the aim of ascertaining the underlying process, the patient underwent an extensive array of testing with regards to infectious, genetic, systemic and autoimmune disease. Positive anti-dsDNA (double stranded DNA) and an antinuclear antibody titer of 1:160 provided the strongest support for an autoimmune etiology, specifically autoimmune hepatitis or possibly an overlap syndrome. An excellent outcome was achieved via treatment with corticosteroids, ursodeoxycholic acid and plasmapheresis.

Keywords

  • autoimmune
  • hepatitis
  • autoantibodies
Open Access

Brachial Plexus Injuries – Review of the Anatomy and the Treatment Options

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 91 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

Brachial plexus injuries are still challenging for every surgeon taking part in treating patients with BPI. Injuries of the brachial plexus can be divided into injuries of the upper trunk, extended upper trunk, injuries of the lower trunk and swinging hand where all of the roots are involved in this type of the injury. Brachial plexus can be divided in five anatomical sections from its roots to its terminal branches: roots, trunks, division, cords and terminal branches. Brachial plexus ends up as five terminal branches, responsible for upper limb innervation, musculocutaneous, median nerve, axillary nerve, radial and ulnar nerve. According to the findings from the preoperative investigation combined with clinically found functional deficit, the type of BPI will be confirmed and that is going to determine which surgical procedure, from variety of them (neurolysis, nerve graft, neurotization, arthrodesis, tendon transfer, free muscle transfer, bionic reconstruction) is appropriate for treating the patient.

Keywords

  • BPI
  • brachial plexus injuries
  • anatomy of brachial plexus
  • treatment options for brachial plexus injuries
  • bionic reconstruction
Open Access

Large Neck Teratoma in a Newborn with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 105 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

Neonatal tumours in the neck region are a rare finding. Teratomas typically comprise all three germ cell layers with tissues usually foreign to the anatomic site of origin. Head and neck teratomas account a smaller part of congenital teratomas. They can cause major airway obstruction due to the external compression that oropharyngeal or neck masses produce. In addition, there can be an intrinsic lesion in the larynx or trachea. We describe a premature, 30-gestational week-old newborn with large subcutaneous neck mass. Pre-delivery ultrasound showed heterogeneous tumor structure and displaced larynx. The intubation was successful. The newborn developed respiratory distress syndrome immediately after birth which rendered the surgical removal of the neck tumor impossible. An autopsy was done, and the histopathology revealed mature teratoma comprising muscle, brain, salivary and pulmonary tissues, as well as well-developed hyaline membranes in the alveoli. The combination of the respiratory distress syndrome and the neck tumor compression proved fatal. Prenatal diagnosis, therapeutic options and ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedures are discussed for the diagnosis and management of this very rare tumor.

Keywords

  • Newborn tumors
  • neck teratoma
  • neonatal cervical compression
Open Access

Effect of Calorie Restriction and Exercise on Type 2 Diabetes

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 109 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic condition, generally regarded as an irreversible, that is among the top 10 causes of death globally. The hallmark of T2D is hyperglycemia, which results from disturbances in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Several clinical and lifestyle factors are involved in the progression of T2D, such as obesity and physical inactivity. A high-calorie diet is the main contributor to the development of obesity, which results in T2D, as obesity or increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue is related to insulin resistance. Technological advances have contributed to individuals having a more sedentary lifestyle, leading to obesity and T2D. T2D can be treated with lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise. Herein, we highlight the positive impact of a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) and lifestyle modalities in the treatment and prevention of T2D. An inclusion of VLCD 400-800 kcal/day for 8 weeks and ≥ 150 minutes exercise 5 times a week as lifestyle interventions can decrease glucose levels to normal, reduce HbA1c and improve insulin resistance and sensitivity. Therefore, a potential mechanism in maintaining glucose homeostasis and remission of T2D by VLCD and exercise reduces body weight.

Keywords

  • Hyperglycemia
  • very low-calorie diet
  • insulin sensitivity
  • insulin resistance
  • type 2 diabetes
Open Access

Platlet-Rich Plasma – Review of Literature

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 127 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

Wound healing is a dynamic and physiological process for restoring the normal architecture and functionality of damaged tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous whole blood product that contains a large number of platelets in a small volume of plasma with complete set of coagulation factors, which are in physiological concentrations. PRP has haemostatic, adhesive properties and acts supraphysiologically in the process of wound healing and osteogenesis. Platelets play a very important role in the wound healing process by providing growth factors that enhance the rate and quality of wound healing by many different mechanisms. The aim of this review is to describe: the biology of platelets and their role in the wound healing process, the terminology of platelet rich products, PRP preparation, activation and concentration of PRP, as well as the use of PRP in plastic surgery.

Keywords

  • platelet-rich plasma
  • wound healing
  • plastic surgery
Open Access

Endolymphatic Sac Surgery And Posterior Semicircular Canal Fenestration For Meniere’s Disease

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 141 - 148

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of the simultaneous endolymphatic sac drainage (ELSD) and posterior semicircular canal fenestration (PSCF) primary on the vestibular function as an new therapeutic strategy in the patients with medically refractory Meniere’s disease (MD).

Study Design: retrospective follow-up study.

Setting: University Clinic of Otolaryngology.

Methods: Twenty-six patients with MD with severe vertigo and disability who underwent ELSD and PSCF in the same time in the period of 1988 and 2007 were reviewed. The main outcome measures were frequency of vertigo, functional disability according the guidelines for diagnosis and evaluation of therapy in MD. The canal paresis was evaluated by caloric test. The degree of reduced vestibular response rates as an indicators of the vestibular function were compared before and after surgery.

Results: The preoperative audition was already altered in all cases except in 8 patients who had no significant changes in hearing threshold. The mean value of vertigo attacks before operation was 8.6. After 3 years of surgery only one patient (3.8%) had one vertigo attack. Functional level was highly ameliorated except in two patients who presented functional level 2 or B in the late postoperative period. The mean caloric testing duration after 3 years postoperatively showed that the 50% of the patients approaching the normal results.

Conclusion: Based on the results of simultaneous endolymphatic sac surgery and posterior canal fenestration, they are effective methods for treatment of the refractory Meniere’s disease. Endolymphatic sac surgery enables drainage of endolymphatic fluid and the fenestration of the posterior semicircular canal enables the distension or dilatation of the membranous canal in the decompressed perilymphatic space across the perilymphatic leak at the level of the new fenestra, and, so, appearing of certain decrease of the endolymphatic pressure. Both techniques at the same time decrease the pressure in the case of the endolymphatic hydrops.

Keywords

  • Meniere’s disease
  • refractory vertigo
  • endolymphatic sac surgery
  • posterior semicircular canal fenestration
Open Access

International Conference: “Renal Aspects of Disaster Relief”, Ohrid, R. Macedonia, May 24–26, 1996

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 149 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

The International Conference Renal Aspects of Disaster Relief, Ohrid, R. Macedonia, May 24–26, 1996 united doctors and engineers in order to better build settlements, and in case of an earthquake, how to help the injured.

Plans have been proposed for the treatment of the injured with fluid and dialysis, as well as how to organize the non-governmental organizations and the population to assist the medical staff in optimizing the treatment of the injured.

Members of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology and the European Renal Best Practice were tasked with preparing guidelines for medical staff and the population to address earthquake injuries.

Keywords

  • Renal Aspects of Disaster Relief
  • earthquake
  • trauma
  • crush syndrome
  • dialysis
13 Articles
Open Access

Insight in the Current Progress in the Largest Clinical Trials for Covid-19 Drug Management (As of January 2021)

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 5 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has generated the largest global health crisis of the 21st century, evolving into accelerating socioeconomic disruption. In spite of all rapidly and widely emerging scientific data on epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the COVID-19 disease, severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing to propagate in lack of definitive and specific therapeutic agents. Current therapeutic strategies are mainly focused on viral inhibition by antiviral drugs and hampering the exuberant immune response of the host by immunomodulatory drugs. In this review, we have studied the reports of the largest clinical trials intended to COVID-19 treatment published during the first year of the pandemics. In general, these results concentrate on seven therapeutic options: remdesivir, chloroguine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir combination, corticosteroids, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies. In line with the reviewed data, as of January 2021, most of the evidence support the use of remdesivir in hospitalized patients with moderate and severe forms of the disease and provide reliable data on the substantial beneficial effect of corticosteroids in patients requiring supplemental oxygen. Moreover, preliminary RECOVERY trial results have demonstrated the efficacy of tociluzumab in the treatment of critically ill patients. The reports presenting the outcomes of the other immune-based therapies under investigation are enthusiastically awaited.

Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19
  • pandemic
  • antiviral drugs
  • immunomodulatory drugs
  • remdesivir
Open Access

The Importance of the World Kidney Day World Kidney Day – 11 March 2021 – Living Well with Kidney Disease

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 19 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

World Kidney Day (WKD) is a global campaign to raise awareness of the importance of our kidneys to overall health and to reduce the frequency and impact of kidney disease and associated health problems worldwide. Kidney disease is a non-communicable disease (NCD) and currently affects around 850 million people worldwide. One in ten adults has chronic kidney disease (CKD). The global burden of CKD is increasing, and is projected to become the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume 2–3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, kidney disease can be prevented and progression to end-stage kidney disease can be delayed with appropriate access to basic diagnostics and early treatment. This year World Kidney Day continues to raise awareness of the increasing burden of kidney diseases worldwide and to strive for kidney health for everyone, everywhere. During the pandemic with COVID 19 patients kidneys are also damaged, apart from the respiratory tract and other organs. It can lead to an increase in acute renal failure and consequent chronic kidney insufficiency, as well as number of deaths. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the renal function in each patient with COVID 19 virus. In the Republic of North Macedonia from 2006 to present day nephrologists and other medical personnel devoted to the early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of renal disease have participated in the activities of the World Kidney Day. These activities were supported by the Macedonian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs, the Department of Nephrology at the Medical Faculty, the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Government of the Republic of North Macedonia, non-governmental nephrology organizations (NEFRON) and the media. There were lectures and presentation devoted to the various theme of the WKD, publications in journals, as well as activities for examination of the renal function of patients in the medical centers. The activities during the WKD contributed to the improvement of the nephrological protection of the citizens of the Republic of N. Macedonia.

Keywords

  • World Kidney Day
  • kidney disease
  • early diagnosis
  • prevention
  • therapy
Open Access

2-Methoxyestradiol Attenuates the Development and Retards the Progression of Hypoxia-And Alpha-Naphthylthiourea-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 41 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH), a progressive, incurable, and deadly disease, predominantly develops in women. Growing body of evidence suggest that dysregulated estradiol (E2) metabolism influences the development of PH and that some of the biological effects of E2 are mediated by its major non-estrogenic metabolite, 2-metyhoxyestradiol (2ME). The objective of this study was to examine effects of 2ME in chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced PH and alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU)-induced acute lung injury and PH. In addition, we investigated the effects of exposure to different levels of CH on development of PH. Chronic exposure to 15% or 10% oxygen produced similar increases in right ventricle peak systolic pressure (RVPSP) and pulmonary vascular remodeling, but oxygen concentration-dependent increase in hematocrit. Notably, right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy correlated with level of hypoxia and hematocrit, rather than with magnitude of RVPSP. The latter suggests that, in addition to increased afterload, hypoxia (via increased hematocrit) significantly contributes to RV hypertrophy in CH model of PH. In CH-PH rats, preventive and curative 2ME treatments reduced both elevated RVPSP and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Curative treatment with 2ME was more effective in reducing hematocrit and right ventricular hypertrophy, as compared to preventive treatment. Single ANTU injection produced lung injury, i.e., increased lungs weight and induced pleural effusion. Treatment with 2ME significantly reduced pleural effusion and, more importantly, eliminated acute mortality induced by ANTU (33% vs 0%, ANTU vs. ANTU+2ME group). Chronic treatment with ANTU induced PH and RV hypertrophy and increased lungs weight. 2-ME significantly attenuated severity of disease (i.e., reduced RVPSP, RV hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular injury). This study demonstrates that 2ME has beneficial effects in chronic hypoxia- and acute lung injury-induced PH and provides preclinical justification for clinical evaluation of 2ME in pulmonary hypertension.

Keywords

  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • 2-methoxyestradiol
  • hypoxia
  • polycythemia
  • vascular remodeling
  • right ventricle
  • alpha-naphthylthiourea
Open Access

The Role of Carotid Stenosis in a Prediction of Prognosis of Coronary Artery Disease

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 53 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Aims: The aim of this paper is to indicate if carotid stenosis is predictive for the prognosis of coronary artery disease.

Method and materials: Our study is a prospective cohort study. 1031 patients with proven coronary artery disease (CAD) were recruited consecutively. Carotid ultrasound was used to assess IMT, plaque, or stenosis. They were followed for 24 months for adverse cardiovascular events. Selected demographic date such as smoking history, dyslipidemia, hypertension, laboratory values, and clinical data (associated diseases and risk) were collected from each patient. Total cardiovascular events and mortality rate were followed up for the study population. The results were collected prospectively and retrospectively. The study was organized as a clinical, cross-sectional study and comparative study.

From the data collected with the clinical research, a file was formed in the statistical program with the help of which the data were statistically analyzed.

From the methods of descriptive statistics, absolute frequencies, percentages, arithmetic mean, median, measures of variability, minimum, maximum, standard deviation and logistic regression models were used.

Result: Of the total number of patients 1026 had arterial hypertension (HTA). Data on hyperlipidemia (HLP) had been reported in 895 patients. 1.023 patients had peripheral artery disease (PAB). 1031 patients were presented with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). There were 1,029 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), while 1,013 patients had coronary artery by-pass (CABG), and 1,012 had stroke (CVI). Elevated systolic blood pressure was reported in 966 patients. 184 patients had elevated triglycerides and 187 had elevated cholesterol. 1,008 patients have had a history of myocardial infarction. Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) has been found in 1,009 patients, increased body mass index (BMI) in 270 patients.

1.031 patients were followed for 24 months. Cardiovascular events were reported in 54 patients (or 5.2%). Revascularization was performed in 28 (4.1%) patients, while 12 (1.8%) of patients died. Diabetes mellitus (OR 1.878 95% CI 0.491 7.184) and Carotid stenosis (OR 2.185 95% CI 0.731 6.53) were found to be predictive factors for future cardiovascular events.

Conclusion: Due to our results carotid ultrasound may be a useful tool for risk stratification of coronary artery disease pts.

Keywords

  • Carotid stenosis
  • coronary artery disease
  • prognosis
Open Access

Does the M-Chat-R Give Important Information for the Diagnosis of the Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 67 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

Having in mind the rising rates of the incidence for autism worldwide, the early diagnosis of this neuro-developmental disorder is of the high priority. For that purpose, several checklists have been constructed and used. Nevertheless, there are no universal and uniform criteria for assessing and diagnosing autism, and even if there existed, not every country has the resources to manage such an assessment for diagnosis.

A recently validated, revised version of the M-CHAT, the M-CHAT-Revised with Follow up (M-CHAT-R/F) has demonstrated strong psychometric properties.

The aim of this article is to discuss our results obtained with M-CHAT-R applied in a sample of 131 children aged 31,9 ±9,4 months, recruited for diagnosis and treatment at the University Children’s Hospital in Skopje.

Our results confirmed that for screening the use of M-CHAT-R/F is currently the very exact instrument which allows the early suspicion, but also possible follow up the symptoms of this disorder. Additionally, we showed the significant negative correlation between age and scores obtained on the checklist.

Keywords

  • autism
  • checklist
  • screening
  • neurodevelopmental disorder
Open Access

Posterior Urethral Valve and Prenataly Resolved Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 77 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the kidney and urinary tract. The association with the posterior urethral valve is also very rare. Here we present a patient with both entities and prenatal resolution of the cysts.

A 10-week old baby was referred for nephrourological work up due to prenatal diagnosis of the left multicystic kidney. He had serial US scans during the pregnancy. Immediately before delivery the cysts were not seen (prenatal resolution). There were no extrarenal anomalies. The first postnatal ultrasound scan revealed normal sized right kidney without dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system. The bladder had normal thickness of the wall. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan showed no activity on the left side, and the right kidney appeared normal. At two months of age, a poor urinary steam was observed and additional urologic work up was indicated on clinical suspicion of PUV. Voiding urethrocystography revealed posterior urethral valve and the baby underwent cytoscopic valve resection.

Conclusion: We present a rare association of two congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract with prenatal involution of the multicystic dysplastic kidney that is extremely rare event as seen in our case. Presence of posterior urethral valve must be suspected in a male baby with a poor urinary stream even when his ultrasound scan of urinary system appears normal.

Keywords

  • kidney
  • dysplasia
  • posterior urethral valve
Open Access

Recurrent Severe Hepatitis of Autoimmune Origin

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 83 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

The autoimmune liver disease constituent conditions include autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and IgG-4 associated cholangitis. They remain a diagnostic challenge to the practicing physician due to their close resemblance in clinical course, and laboratory and imaging findings to the vast array of other etiologies of liver injury. We report a case of recurrent severe hepatitis of autoimmune origin in a female patient. The disease course was marked by initial onset at age 39, followed by nearly four years of remission, and a second flare with a more exaggerated severity. Systemic lupus erythematosus was initially deemed as the culprit, however formal diagnostic criteria were not fulfilled and the serological findings were not reproduced at a later date. With the aim of ascertaining the underlying process, the patient underwent an extensive array of testing with regards to infectious, genetic, systemic and autoimmune disease. Positive anti-dsDNA (double stranded DNA) and an antinuclear antibody titer of 1:160 provided the strongest support for an autoimmune etiology, specifically autoimmune hepatitis or possibly an overlap syndrome. An excellent outcome was achieved via treatment with corticosteroids, ursodeoxycholic acid and plasmapheresis.

Keywords

  • autoimmune
  • hepatitis
  • autoantibodies
Open Access

Brachial Plexus Injuries – Review of the Anatomy and the Treatment Options

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 91 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

Brachial plexus injuries are still challenging for every surgeon taking part in treating patients with BPI. Injuries of the brachial plexus can be divided into injuries of the upper trunk, extended upper trunk, injuries of the lower trunk and swinging hand where all of the roots are involved in this type of the injury. Brachial plexus can be divided in five anatomical sections from its roots to its terminal branches: roots, trunks, division, cords and terminal branches. Brachial plexus ends up as five terminal branches, responsible for upper limb innervation, musculocutaneous, median nerve, axillary nerve, radial and ulnar nerve. According to the findings from the preoperative investigation combined with clinically found functional deficit, the type of BPI will be confirmed and that is going to determine which surgical procedure, from variety of them (neurolysis, nerve graft, neurotization, arthrodesis, tendon transfer, free muscle transfer, bionic reconstruction) is appropriate for treating the patient.

Keywords

  • BPI
  • brachial plexus injuries
  • anatomy of brachial plexus
  • treatment options for brachial plexus injuries
  • bionic reconstruction
Open Access

Large Neck Teratoma in a Newborn with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 105 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

Neonatal tumours in the neck region are a rare finding. Teratomas typically comprise all three germ cell layers with tissues usually foreign to the anatomic site of origin. Head and neck teratomas account a smaller part of congenital teratomas. They can cause major airway obstruction due to the external compression that oropharyngeal or neck masses produce. In addition, there can be an intrinsic lesion in the larynx or trachea. We describe a premature, 30-gestational week-old newborn with large subcutaneous neck mass. Pre-delivery ultrasound showed heterogeneous tumor structure and displaced larynx. The intubation was successful. The newborn developed respiratory distress syndrome immediately after birth which rendered the surgical removal of the neck tumor impossible. An autopsy was done, and the histopathology revealed mature teratoma comprising muscle, brain, salivary and pulmonary tissues, as well as well-developed hyaline membranes in the alveoli. The combination of the respiratory distress syndrome and the neck tumor compression proved fatal. Prenatal diagnosis, therapeutic options and ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedures are discussed for the diagnosis and management of this very rare tumor.

Keywords

  • Newborn tumors
  • neck teratoma
  • neonatal cervical compression
Open Access

Effect of Calorie Restriction and Exercise on Type 2 Diabetes

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 109 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic condition, generally regarded as an irreversible, that is among the top 10 causes of death globally. The hallmark of T2D is hyperglycemia, which results from disturbances in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Several clinical and lifestyle factors are involved in the progression of T2D, such as obesity and physical inactivity. A high-calorie diet is the main contributor to the development of obesity, which results in T2D, as obesity or increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue is related to insulin resistance. Technological advances have contributed to individuals having a more sedentary lifestyle, leading to obesity and T2D. T2D can be treated with lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise. Herein, we highlight the positive impact of a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) and lifestyle modalities in the treatment and prevention of T2D. An inclusion of VLCD 400-800 kcal/day for 8 weeks and ≥ 150 minutes exercise 5 times a week as lifestyle interventions can decrease glucose levels to normal, reduce HbA1c and improve insulin resistance and sensitivity. Therefore, a potential mechanism in maintaining glucose homeostasis and remission of T2D by VLCD and exercise reduces body weight.

Keywords

  • Hyperglycemia
  • very low-calorie diet
  • insulin sensitivity
  • insulin resistance
  • type 2 diabetes
Open Access

Platlet-Rich Plasma – Review of Literature

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 127 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

Wound healing is a dynamic and physiological process for restoring the normal architecture and functionality of damaged tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous whole blood product that contains a large number of platelets in a small volume of plasma with complete set of coagulation factors, which are in physiological concentrations. PRP has haemostatic, adhesive properties and acts supraphysiologically in the process of wound healing and osteogenesis. Platelets play a very important role in the wound healing process by providing growth factors that enhance the rate and quality of wound healing by many different mechanisms. The aim of this review is to describe: the biology of platelets and their role in the wound healing process, the terminology of platelet rich products, PRP preparation, activation and concentration of PRP, as well as the use of PRP in plastic surgery.

Keywords

  • platelet-rich plasma
  • wound healing
  • plastic surgery
Open Access

Endolymphatic Sac Surgery And Posterior Semicircular Canal Fenestration For Meniere’s Disease

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 141 - 148

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of the simultaneous endolymphatic sac drainage (ELSD) and posterior semicircular canal fenestration (PSCF) primary on the vestibular function as an new therapeutic strategy in the patients with medically refractory Meniere’s disease (MD).

Study Design: retrospective follow-up study.

Setting: University Clinic of Otolaryngology.

Methods: Twenty-six patients with MD with severe vertigo and disability who underwent ELSD and PSCF in the same time in the period of 1988 and 2007 were reviewed. The main outcome measures were frequency of vertigo, functional disability according the guidelines for diagnosis and evaluation of therapy in MD. The canal paresis was evaluated by caloric test. The degree of reduced vestibular response rates as an indicators of the vestibular function were compared before and after surgery.

Results: The preoperative audition was already altered in all cases except in 8 patients who had no significant changes in hearing threshold. The mean value of vertigo attacks before operation was 8.6. After 3 years of surgery only one patient (3.8%) had one vertigo attack. Functional level was highly ameliorated except in two patients who presented functional level 2 or B in the late postoperative period. The mean caloric testing duration after 3 years postoperatively showed that the 50% of the patients approaching the normal results.

Conclusion: Based on the results of simultaneous endolymphatic sac surgery and posterior canal fenestration, they are effective methods for treatment of the refractory Meniere’s disease. Endolymphatic sac surgery enables drainage of endolymphatic fluid and the fenestration of the posterior semicircular canal enables the distension or dilatation of the membranous canal in the decompressed perilymphatic space across the perilymphatic leak at the level of the new fenestra, and, so, appearing of certain decrease of the endolymphatic pressure. Both techniques at the same time decrease the pressure in the case of the endolymphatic hydrops.

Keywords

  • Meniere’s disease
  • refractory vertigo
  • endolymphatic sac surgery
  • posterior semicircular canal fenestration
Open Access

International Conference: “Renal Aspects of Disaster Relief”, Ohrid, R. Macedonia, May 24–26, 1996

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 149 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

The International Conference Renal Aspects of Disaster Relief, Ohrid, R. Macedonia, May 24–26, 1996 united doctors and engineers in order to better build settlements, and in case of an earthquake, how to help the injured.

Plans have been proposed for the treatment of the injured with fluid and dialysis, as well as how to organize the non-governmental organizations and the population to assist the medical staff in optimizing the treatment of the injured.

Members of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology and the European Renal Best Practice were tasked with preparing guidelines for medical staff and the population to address earthquake injuries.

Keywords

  • Renal Aspects of Disaster Relief
  • earthquake
  • trauma
  • crush syndrome
  • dialysis

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