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AHEAD OF PRINT

Volumen 43 (2022): Heft 3 (November 2022)

Volumen 43 (2022): Heft 2 (July 2022)

Volumen 43 (2022): Heft 1 (March 2022)

Volumen 42 (2021): Heft 3 (December 2021)

Volumen 42 (2021): Heft 2 (October 2021)

Volumen 42 (2021): Heft 1 (April 2021)

Volumen 41 (2020): Heft 3 (November 2020)

Volumen 41 (2020): Heft 2 (September 2020)

Volumen 41 (2020): Heft 1 (June 2020)

Volumen 40 (2019): Heft 3 (December 2019)

Volumen 40 (2019): Heft 2 (October 2019)

Volumen 40 (2019): Heft 1 (May 2019)

Volumen 39 (2018): Heft 2-3 (December 2018)

Volumen 39 (2018): Heft 1 (July 2018)

Volumen 38 (2017): Heft 3 (December 2017)

Volumen 38 (2017): Heft 2 (September 2017)

Volumen 38 (2017): Heft 1 (March 2017)

Volumen 37 (2016): Heft 2-3 (November 2016)

Volumen 37 (2016): Heft 1 (June 2016)

Volumen 36 (2015): Heft 3 (December 2015)

Volumen 36 (2015): Heft 2 (December 2015)

Volumen 36 (2015): Heft 1 (May 2015)

Volumen 35 (2014): Heft 3 (December 2014)

Volumen 35 (2014): Heft 2 (October 2014)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1857-8985
Erstveröffentlichung
08 Sep 2014
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 43 (2022): Heft 1 (March 2022)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1857-8985
Erstveröffentlichung
08 Sep 2014
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

12 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Personality Profiles for Contemporary Macedonian Actors

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 7 - 15

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Theatre is one of the higher cultural activities that characterise us as imaginative, creative and truly human. In general, theatre is an arena in which participants can mentally play, acting out their own fears and fantasies in an experimental way.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological personal characteristics, using the MMPI questionnaire, applied in a sample of Macedonian professional actors.

MMPI is used as an older form of the questionnaire, standardised in ex-Yugoslavia, and then translated into Macedonian. This is all done with a computer.

This research confirms that our (Macedonian) contemporary actors are normal people who function normally in everyday life and generally do not deviate from what in the psychology of personality are denotes as normal/abnormal. Small exceptions are still a rarity!

Some indexes of interest are included in this analysis of personal characteristics of actors.

Schlüsselwörter

  • theatre
  • actors
  • personality profiles
  • MMPI
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Childbirth-Related Psychological Trauma

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 17 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Traumatic childbirth is an international public health problem because it is supposed that currently up to 45% of new mothers have reported such an experience. International rates of PTSD due to birth trauma range between 1.5 and 9 percent of all births.

Birth trauma is defined as an event occurring during the labour and delivery process that involves actual or threatened serious injury or death of the mother or her infant.

A traumatic event or situation creates psychological trauma when it overwhelms the individual’s ability to cope, and leaves that person fearing death, annihilation, mutilation, or psychosis. The individual may feel emotionally, cognitively, and physically overwhelmed.

The aim of this article is to present a review of published data for childbirth trauma over various periods of time, as well as in different regions of the world. Studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed, PsycInfo, ProQuest and PILOTS (Published International Literature of Traumatic Stress) over the last 20 years.

More than 8000 articles were found. In this article we present and discuss some important findings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • posttraumatic stress disorder
  • traumatic stress
  • stress response and trauma with the terms postpartum
  • postnatal
  • childbirth
  • peripartum
  • perinatal and birth
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Correlation Between the Different Types of Antipsychotics and Serum Cortisol, Dehidroepiandrosterone Sulfat and their Ratio in Schizophrenia

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 29 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Evidence for disturbances in HPA activation and abnormal HPA regulatory mechanisms in schizophrenia is accumulating.

Aim: To compare serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and their ratio between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and among patients before and after treatment with different types of antipsychotics.

Material and methods: In this clinical prospective study, 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects were included. All patients experienced an acute exacerbation of the illness (PANSS: P1 and P3 ≥ 4). Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. Serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and their ratio were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks, respectively, of the antipsychotic treatment with different types of antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia.

Results: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. There was no significant difference in serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and their ratio between patients treated with different types of antipsychotics (typical/atypical). Serum levels of the analyzed hormones significantly reduce during the 6-week period of examination in both subgroups treated with different types of antipsychotics.

Conclusion: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S in schizophrenic patients might be associated with their role in the pathophysiology of the disorder. There is no significant difference in serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and their ratio among the patients treated with different types of antipsychotics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • schizophrenia
  • cortisol
  • DHEA-S
  • typical/atypical antipsychotics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prophylactic Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interfaces in Elective Lower Limb Amputations

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 41 - 48

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Regenerative peripheral nerve interface (RPNI) is a relatively new surgical technique to manage neuromas and phantom pain after limb amputation. This study evaluates prophylactic RPNI efficacy in managing post-amputation pain and neuroma formation in amputees compared with patients in which lower limb amputation was performed without this procedure. We included 28 patients who underwent above the knee amputation (AKA) or below the knee amputation (BKA) for severe soft tissue infection from July 2019 till December 2020. All patients had insulin-dependent diabetes. The patients were divided into two groups, 14 patients with primary RPNI and 14 patients without. We analyzed the demographic data, level of amputation, number of RPNIs, operative time, postoperative complications and functional outcome on the defined follow up period. The mean patient age was 68.6 years (range 49–85), 19 (67.9 %) male and 9 (32.1 %) female patients. In this study 11 (39.3 %) AKA and 17 (60.7 %) BKA were performed. Overall, 37 RPNIs were made. The mean follow-up period was 49 weeks. PROMIS T-score decreased by 15.9 points in favor for the patients with RPNI. The VAS score showed that, in the RPNI group, all 14 patients were without pain compared to the group of patients without RPNI, where the 11 (78.6 %) patients described their pain as severe. Patients with RPNI used prosthesis significantly more (p < 0.005). Data showed significant reduction in pain and high patient satisfaction after amputation with RPNIs. This technique is oriented as to prevent neuroma formation with RPNI surgery, performed at the time of amputation. RPNI surgery did not provoke complications or significant lengthening of operative time and it should be furthermore exploited as a surgical technique.

Schlüsselwörter

  • RPNI
  • Phantom Limb Pain
  • neuroma
  • amputation
  • prosthesis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Vaccine-Inducted Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia and Covid-19 Vaccines: Case Series

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 49 - 55

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a condition similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), but it is associated with prior administration of COVID-19 vaccines without prior exposure to heparin. The incidence of VITT is not certain, but it appears to be extremely rare. Reports of unusual and severe thrombotic events, including cerebral and splanchnic venous thrombosis and other autoimmune adverse reactions, such as immune thrombocytopenia or thrombotic microangiopathies in connection with some of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, have caused a great deal of concern within the population and the medical community. We would like to present 4 clinical cases of VITT, hospitalized and treated in intensive care unit (ICU) of University clinic of cardiology in Skopje.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia
  • COVID-19
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in Renal Transplantat Recipients: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 57 - 63

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases are autoimmune disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract and producing a wide variety of extraintestinal manifestations. Kidneys are a rare target organ of their extraintestinal activity, but if affected, renal function could deteriorate to end-stage kidney disease, which is curable only by organ transplantation. Renal calculi are the most common pathological kidney manifestation in IBD patients, followed by tubulointerstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis, and other kidney pathologies.

The liver is the most commonly transplanted organ in IBD patients (primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis), and a scarcity of literature on kidney recipients is present to date regarding the incidence of renal insufficiency, kidney transplantations, post-transplant IBD course and further complications such as graft rejection or infections in this specific group of patients. De novo IBD is a paradoxical entity in the setting of rigorous post-transplant immunosuppression.

In this case series, we present three patients who underwent kidney transplantation with a history of an IBD and one patient who developed de novo Crohn’s disease after the deceased donor organ transplant was performed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • end-stage kidney disease
  • 5-aminosalicylate toxicity
  • tubulointerstitial nephritis
  • kidney transplantation
  • de novo IBD
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Antioxidative Effects of Rosuvastatin in Low-to-Moderate Cardiovascular Risk Subjects

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 65 - 75

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Although vast clinical evidence supports the oxidative CVD hypothesis, little is known on the effects of statins on LDL/HDL oxidative functionality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effects of rosuvastatin by monitoring the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and the antioxidative HDL potential in low-to-moderate CV risk subjects.

Methods: 40 adult ambulatory patients (aged 53.8±10.9 years, 27 women and 13 men) were included in the study. Data was collected from patients’ records, physical examination, and blood sampling. Subjects were prescribed rosuvastatin at 20mg/day. Traditional risk-factors/indicators, lipid parameters, inflammatory/immune markers, LDL susceptibility to oxidation and HDL antioxidative potential were monitored and statistically analyzed with t-test, Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were made. Results were considered significant when p≤0.05.

Results: 67% of the patients showed lower susceptibility of LDL to oxidation after rosuvastatin treatment (p=0.03), with no significant effect on baseline LDL oxidation and lag time. All three LDL oxidative indices were seen to be dependent on the subjects’ lipid profile, hemoglobin levels and the IL-1α and IL-8 pro-inflammatory marker levels. 53% of the patients showed higher HDL antioxidative capacity after treatment, but without statistical significance (p=0.07). Increased antioxidative potential of HDL with rosuvastatin treatment was more likely in males (OR=9.350; p=0.010), and subjects achieving lower post-treatment CV relative risk levels (higher CV risk reduction) (OR=0.338; p=0.027).

Conclusions: This study suggests the need of a comprehensive approach when investigating oxidative stress and LDL/HDL functions, especially in low-to-moderate CVD risk subjects.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CVD risk
  • rosuvastatin
  • LDL-oxidation
  • HDL antioxidative capacity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) in Term and Preterm Infants

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 77 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Hypoxic-ischemic syndrome (HIS) and Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are conditions that affect term and premature babies, with different pathophysiology and different brain disorders. HIE appears in 1-6 / 1000 live births and 26/1000 live births in developing countries. 15-20% die in the early neonatal period, while surviving babies have severe neurological impairment, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, visual and hearing impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual, behavioural, and social disorders. The hypoxic-ischemic event occurs before, during or after birth. The reasons may be related to the mother, the way of birth, the placenta, and the newborn. The criteria for diagnosis of HIE include a combination of perinatal factors, the need for resuscitation, standard neurological examinations, neurophysiological monitoring, neuroimaging methods and biochemical markers. The most effective treatment for HIE is hypothermia in combination with pharmacological therapy. HIE and HIS are problem that still persist in developing countries due to inadequate obstetric care, neonatal resuscitation, and hypothermia. Current and emerging research for HIE examines new markers for early recognition, treatment, and appropriate neuroprotection of high-risk term and premature infants.

Schlüsselwörter

  • hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • Hypoxic-ischemic syndrome
  • term newborn
  • premature newborn
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Chronic Abdominal Pain, an Overlooked Diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome (MALS)

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 95 - 99

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare condition that is often overlooked as a result of its nonspecific symptoms. It is usually presented with nausea, bloating, abdominal postprandial pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis of MALS is usually delayed and made by excluding other causes for the symptoms. The diagnosis of this syndrome is based on clinical presentation and radiological findings on computer tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Surgery is treatment of choice, with promising results from laparoscopic surgery.

Schlüsselwörter

  • median arcuate ligament syndrome
  • MALS
  • abdominal pain
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Continuous Peripheral Block as a Pain Treatment for Redressment and Physical Therapy in a 7-Year-Old Child – A Case Report

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 99 - 104

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Continuous peripheral nerve block, also known as “local anesthetic perineural infusion,” refers to percutaneous placement of a catheter near a peripheral nerve or plexus followed by administration of a local anesthetic through a catheter to provide anesthesia, or analgesia for several days, in some cases even for a month.

This report describes the case of a 7 year old boy with left elbow contracture with limited flexion and extension who was admitted to the Clinic of Pediatric Surgery for redressment of the elbow and physical therapy. An ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block was performed, with placement of a non-tunneled perineural catheter. Redressment of the left elbow was performed twice and before each redressment boluses of local anesthetic were applied through the perineural catheter. Physical therapy was performed painlessly with continuous perineural infusion. On the 5th day of catheter placement, the perineural catheter was removed without any prior complications such as hematoma, infection, catheter dislocation or leakage of local anesthetic.

Our goal is to minimize the psychological and physical trauma to the patient, no matter how immature the patient is. Continuous regional anesthesia in children is a safe technique in postoperative pain management that facilitates early mobilization due to its sufficient analgesia and better comfort. It can provide in-home treatment, with adequate education for patients and parents, and improve rehabilitation in children.

Schlüsselwörter

  • continuous peripheral nerve block
  • axillary nerve block
  • perineural catheter
  • pediatric patient
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effects of CNI and Mtori-Based Regimens on Bone Mineral Density After Renal Transplantation

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 101 - 107

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Since glucocorticoids are used in low maintenance doses today, the relationship between calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and osteoporosis has become clinically significant in osteoporosis after solid organ transplantation. However, there is evidence that the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) may be beneficial via osteoclast inhibition.

Objective: The bone mineral density (BMD) changes are investigated in renal transplant patients under CNI or mTORi-based maintenance regimens during the first five-year post-transplant course.

Methods: This study consists of thirty-three renal allograft recipients with less than one year of dialysis history. The exclusion criteria were: being older than 50 years old, history of bisphosphonate use, parathyroidectomy, CNI-mTORi switch after the post-transplant third month, diuretic use, and history of malignancy. First and fifth-year BMD scores and simultaneous laboratory parameters were evaluated.

Results: CNI (n=21) and mTORi group (n=12) had similar demographics, dialysis vintages, first and fifth-year serum parathormone, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-OH-vitamin D levels. The femur neck scores of the CNI group decreased from -0.82 (±0.96) to -1.52 (±0.92) (p=0.020). We observed a significant decrease in the CNI group compared to the mTORi group [-0.70 (±0.68) and 0.30 (±0.36), respectively; p<0.01] when the BMD score changes were evaluated among years. The mean femur neck score of the mTORi group increased insignificantly from -1.13 (±0.65) to -0.82 (±0.56) at the fifth-year DXA scan (p=0.230). Similar trends were also observed in L1-4 scores.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that CNI-based treatment is associated with decreased femur neck BMD scores, and mTORi-based treatment tends to be beneficial in the post-transplant five-year follow-up.

Schlüsselwörter

  • calcineurin inhibitors
  • mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors
  • bone mineral density
  • renal transplantation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Author’s Response to Letter to the Editor: Is Opioid-Free General Anesthesia More Superior for Postoperative Pain Versus Opioid General Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 107 - 107

Zusammenfassung

12 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Personality Profiles for Contemporary Macedonian Actors

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 7 - 15

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Theatre is one of the higher cultural activities that characterise us as imaginative, creative and truly human. In general, theatre is an arena in which participants can mentally play, acting out their own fears and fantasies in an experimental way.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological personal characteristics, using the MMPI questionnaire, applied in a sample of Macedonian professional actors.

MMPI is used as an older form of the questionnaire, standardised in ex-Yugoslavia, and then translated into Macedonian. This is all done with a computer.

This research confirms that our (Macedonian) contemporary actors are normal people who function normally in everyday life and generally do not deviate from what in the psychology of personality are denotes as normal/abnormal. Small exceptions are still a rarity!

Some indexes of interest are included in this analysis of personal characteristics of actors.

Schlüsselwörter

  • theatre
  • actors
  • personality profiles
  • MMPI
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Childbirth-Related Psychological Trauma

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 17 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Traumatic childbirth is an international public health problem because it is supposed that currently up to 45% of new mothers have reported such an experience. International rates of PTSD due to birth trauma range between 1.5 and 9 percent of all births.

Birth trauma is defined as an event occurring during the labour and delivery process that involves actual or threatened serious injury or death of the mother or her infant.

A traumatic event or situation creates psychological trauma when it overwhelms the individual’s ability to cope, and leaves that person fearing death, annihilation, mutilation, or psychosis. The individual may feel emotionally, cognitively, and physically overwhelmed.

The aim of this article is to present a review of published data for childbirth trauma over various periods of time, as well as in different regions of the world. Studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed, PsycInfo, ProQuest and PILOTS (Published International Literature of Traumatic Stress) over the last 20 years.

More than 8000 articles were found. In this article we present and discuss some important findings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • posttraumatic stress disorder
  • traumatic stress
  • stress response and trauma with the terms postpartum
  • postnatal
  • childbirth
  • peripartum
  • perinatal and birth
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Correlation Between the Different Types of Antipsychotics and Serum Cortisol, Dehidroepiandrosterone Sulfat and their Ratio in Schizophrenia

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 29 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Evidence for disturbances in HPA activation and abnormal HPA regulatory mechanisms in schizophrenia is accumulating.

Aim: To compare serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and their ratio between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and among patients before and after treatment with different types of antipsychotics.

Material and methods: In this clinical prospective study, 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects were included. All patients experienced an acute exacerbation of the illness (PANSS: P1 and P3 ≥ 4). Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. Serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and their ratio were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks, respectively, of the antipsychotic treatment with different types of antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia.

Results: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. There was no significant difference in serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and their ratio between patients treated with different types of antipsychotics (typical/atypical). Serum levels of the analyzed hormones significantly reduce during the 6-week period of examination in both subgroups treated with different types of antipsychotics.

Conclusion: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S in schizophrenic patients might be associated with their role in the pathophysiology of the disorder. There is no significant difference in serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and their ratio among the patients treated with different types of antipsychotics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • schizophrenia
  • cortisol
  • DHEA-S
  • typical/atypical antipsychotics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prophylactic Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interfaces in Elective Lower Limb Amputations

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 41 - 48

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Regenerative peripheral nerve interface (RPNI) is a relatively new surgical technique to manage neuromas and phantom pain after limb amputation. This study evaluates prophylactic RPNI efficacy in managing post-amputation pain and neuroma formation in amputees compared with patients in which lower limb amputation was performed without this procedure. We included 28 patients who underwent above the knee amputation (AKA) or below the knee amputation (BKA) for severe soft tissue infection from July 2019 till December 2020. All patients had insulin-dependent diabetes. The patients were divided into two groups, 14 patients with primary RPNI and 14 patients without. We analyzed the demographic data, level of amputation, number of RPNIs, operative time, postoperative complications and functional outcome on the defined follow up period. The mean patient age was 68.6 years (range 49–85), 19 (67.9 %) male and 9 (32.1 %) female patients. In this study 11 (39.3 %) AKA and 17 (60.7 %) BKA were performed. Overall, 37 RPNIs were made. The mean follow-up period was 49 weeks. PROMIS T-score decreased by 15.9 points in favor for the patients with RPNI. The VAS score showed that, in the RPNI group, all 14 patients were without pain compared to the group of patients without RPNI, where the 11 (78.6 %) patients described their pain as severe. Patients with RPNI used prosthesis significantly more (p < 0.005). Data showed significant reduction in pain and high patient satisfaction after amputation with RPNIs. This technique is oriented as to prevent neuroma formation with RPNI surgery, performed at the time of amputation. RPNI surgery did not provoke complications or significant lengthening of operative time and it should be furthermore exploited as a surgical technique.

Schlüsselwörter

  • RPNI
  • Phantom Limb Pain
  • neuroma
  • amputation
  • prosthesis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Vaccine-Inducted Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia and Covid-19 Vaccines: Case Series

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 49 - 55

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a condition similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), but it is associated with prior administration of COVID-19 vaccines without prior exposure to heparin. The incidence of VITT is not certain, but it appears to be extremely rare. Reports of unusual and severe thrombotic events, including cerebral and splanchnic venous thrombosis and other autoimmune adverse reactions, such as immune thrombocytopenia or thrombotic microangiopathies in connection with some of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, have caused a great deal of concern within the population and the medical community. We would like to present 4 clinical cases of VITT, hospitalized and treated in intensive care unit (ICU) of University clinic of cardiology in Skopje.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia
  • COVID-19
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in Renal Transplantat Recipients: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 57 - 63

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases are autoimmune disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract and producing a wide variety of extraintestinal manifestations. Kidneys are a rare target organ of their extraintestinal activity, but if affected, renal function could deteriorate to end-stage kidney disease, which is curable only by organ transplantation. Renal calculi are the most common pathological kidney manifestation in IBD patients, followed by tubulointerstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis, and other kidney pathologies.

The liver is the most commonly transplanted organ in IBD patients (primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis), and a scarcity of literature on kidney recipients is present to date regarding the incidence of renal insufficiency, kidney transplantations, post-transplant IBD course and further complications such as graft rejection or infections in this specific group of patients. De novo IBD is a paradoxical entity in the setting of rigorous post-transplant immunosuppression.

In this case series, we present three patients who underwent kidney transplantation with a history of an IBD and one patient who developed de novo Crohn’s disease after the deceased donor organ transplant was performed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • end-stage kidney disease
  • 5-aminosalicylate toxicity
  • tubulointerstitial nephritis
  • kidney transplantation
  • de novo IBD
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Antioxidative Effects of Rosuvastatin in Low-to-Moderate Cardiovascular Risk Subjects

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 65 - 75

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Although vast clinical evidence supports the oxidative CVD hypothesis, little is known on the effects of statins on LDL/HDL oxidative functionality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effects of rosuvastatin by monitoring the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and the antioxidative HDL potential in low-to-moderate CV risk subjects.

Methods: 40 adult ambulatory patients (aged 53.8±10.9 years, 27 women and 13 men) were included in the study. Data was collected from patients’ records, physical examination, and blood sampling. Subjects were prescribed rosuvastatin at 20mg/day. Traditional risk-factors/indicators, lipid parameters, inflammatory/immune markers, LDL susceptibility to oxidation and HDL antioxidative potential were monitored and statistically analyzed with t-test, Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were made. Results were considered significant when p≤0.05.

Results: 67% of the patients showed lower susceptibility of LDL to oxidation after rosuvastatin treatment (p=0.03), with no significant effect on baseline LDL oxidation and lag time. All three LDL oxidative indices were seen to be dependent on the subjects’ lipid profile, hemoglobin levels and the IL-1α and IL-8 pro-inflammatory marker levels. 53% of the patients showed higher HDL antioxidative capacity after treatment, but without statistical significance (p=0.07). Increased antioxidative potential of HDL with rosuvastatin treatment was more likely in males (OR=9.350; p=0.010), and subjects achieving lower post-treatment CV relative risk levels (higher CV risk reduction) (OR=0.338; p=0.027).

Conclusions: This study suggests the need of a comprehensive approach when investigating oxidative stress and LDL/HDL functions, especially in low-to-moderate CVD risk subjects.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CVD risk
  • rosuvastatin
  • LDL-oxidation
  • HDL antioxidative capacity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) in Term and Preterm Infants

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 77 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Hypoxic-ischemic syndrome (HIS) and Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are conditions that affect term and premature babies, with different pathophysiology and different brain disorders. HIE appears in 1-6 / 1000 live births and 26/1000 live births in developing countries. 15-20% die in the early neonatal period, while surviving babies have severe neurological impairment, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, visual and hearing impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual, behavioural, and social disorders. The hypoxic-ischemic event occurs before, during or after birth. The reasons may be related to the mother, the way of birth, the placenta, and the newborn. The criteria for diagnosis of HIE include a combination of perinatal factors, the need for resuscitation, standard neurological examinations, neurophysiological monitoring, neuroimaging methods and biochemical markers. The most effective treatment for HIE is hypothermia in combination with pharmacological therapy. HIE and HIS are problem that still persist in developing countries due to inadequate obstetric care, neonatal resuscitation, and hypothermia. Current and emerging research for HIE examines new markers for early recognition, treatment, and appropriate neuroprotection of high-risk term and premature infants.

Schlüsselwörter

  • hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • Hypoxic-ischemic syndrome
  • term newborn
  • premature newborn
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Chronic Abdominal Pain, an Overlooked Diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome (MALS)

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 95 - 99

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare condition that is often overlooked as a result of its nonspecific symptoms. It is usually presented with nausea, bloating, abdominal postprandial pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis of MALS is usually delayed and made by excluding other causes for the symptoms. The diagnosis of this syndrome is based on clinical presentation and radiological findings on computer tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Surgery is treatment of choice, with promising results from laparoscopic surgery.

Schlüsselwörter

  • median arcuate ligament syndrome
  • MALS
  • abdominal pain
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Continuous Peripheral Block as a Pain Treatment for Redressment and Physical Therapy in a 7-Year-Old Child – A Case Report

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 99 - 104

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Continuous peripheral nerve block, also known as “local anesthetic perineural infusion,” refers to percutaneous placement of a catheter near a peripheral nerve or plexus followed by administration of a local anesthetic through a catheter to provide anesthesia, or analgesia for several days, in some cases even for a month.

This report describes the case of a 7 year old boy with left elbow contracture with limited flexion and extension who was admitted to the Clinic of Pediatric Surgery for redressment of the elbow and physical therapy. An ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block was performed, with placement of a non-tunneled perineural catheter. Redressment of the left elbow was performed twice and before each redressment boluses of local anesthetic were applied through the perineural catheter. Physical therapy was performed painlessly with continuous perineural infusion. On the 5th day of catheter placement, the perineural catheter was removed without any prior complications such as hematoma, infection, catheter dislocation or leakage of local anesthetic.

Our goal is to minimize the psychological and physical trauma to the patient, no matter how immature the patient is. Continuous regional anesthesia in children is a safe technique in postoperative pain management that facilitates early mobilization due to its sufficient analgesia and better comfort. It can provide in-home treatment, with adequate education for patients and parents, and improve rehabilitation in children.

Schlüsselwörter

  • continuous peripheral nerve block
  • axillary nerve block
  • perineural catheter
  • pediatric patient
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effects of CNI and Mtori-Based Regimens on Bone Mineral Density After Renal Transplantation

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 101 - 107

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Since glucocorticoids are used in low maintenance doses today, the relationship between calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and osteoporosis has become clinically significant in osteoporosis after solid organ transplantation. However, there is evidence that the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) may be beneficial via osteoclast inhibition.

Objective: The bone mineral density (BMD) changes are investigated in renal transplant patients under CNI or mTORi-based maintenance regimens during the first five-year post-transplant course.

Methods: This study consists of thirty-three renal allograft recipients with less than one year of dialysis history. The exclusion criteria were: being older than 50 years old, history of bisphosphonate use, parathyroidectomy, CNI-mTORi switch after the post-transplant third month, diuretic use, and history of malignancy. First and fifth-year BMD scores and simultaneous laboratory parameters were evaluated.

Results: CNI (n=21) and mTORi group (n=12) had similar demographics, dialysis vintages, first and fifth-year serum parathormone, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-OH-vitamin D levels. The femur neck scores of the CNI group decreased from -0.82 (±0.96) to -1.52 (±0.92) (p=0.020). We observed a significant decrease in the CNI group compared to the mTORi group [-0.70 (±0.68) and 0.30 (±0.36), respectively; p<0.01] when the BMD score changes were evaluated among years. The mean femur neck score of the mTORi group increased insignificantly from -1.13 (±0.65) to -0.82 (±0.56) at the fifth-year DXA scan (p=0.230). Similar trends were also observed in L1-4 scores.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that CNI-based treatment is associated with decreased femur neck BMD scores, and mTORi-based treatment tends to be beneficial in the post-transplant five-year follow-up.

Schlüsselwörter

  • calcineurin inhibitors
  • mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors
  • bone mineral density
  • renal transplantation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Author’s Response to Letter to the Editor: Is Opioid-Free General Anesthesia More Superior for Postoperative Pain Versus Opioid General Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: 107 - 107

Zusammenfassung

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