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Rural Sustainability Research

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Rural Sustainability Research

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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2256-0939
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Aug 2012
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 40 (2018): Heft 335 (December 2018)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2256-0939
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Aug 2012
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

5 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Rural Livelihood Strategies and Household Food Security of Farmers Surrounding Derba Cement Factory, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 2 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study examined the livelihood strategies and food security situation of rural households around Derba Cement Factory by taking a randomly selected sample of 215 heads of farm households from three rural kebeles. A mixed research approach was employed to triangulate concurrently collected data through household survey, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Informed by the sustainable rural livelihood framework, descriptive statistics were used to describe rural households’ livelihood strategies and challenges they faced while inferential statistics was employed to explain households’ food security situations with different livelihood combinations. While mixed farming was found to be the mainstay of the household economy, small-scale irrigation and extracting forest products were also used as supplementary economic activities. More than a half of the respondents (52.5%) reported at least one non-farm activity. Land shortage was identified as a major constraint to expand crop production and this was further aggravated by the activities (e.g. querying leading to displacement) of the Derba Cement Factory. This further affected household labor allocation and natural resources utilization. The result of household food (in) security access scale indicated that 59% of the respondents have experienced food access insecurity in 2016. However, respondents who combined agriculture and non-farm activities appeared relatively more food secure than those engaged in agriculture alone or in non-farm activity only. Overall, households with multiple livelihood strategies had diverse food entitlements to maintain sustainable food consumption. Yet, necessity induced diversification was found to affect food access security of households. This calls for inclusive policies and strategies that integrate rural non-farm activities to subsistence farming in order to assure sustainable livelihood in rural communities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • food
  • food security
  • livelihood
  • livelihood strategies
  • assets
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mechanism of Subsidies as an Element of State Support of Livestock Sector’s Development in Ukraine

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 18 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents results of the analysis of the cattle breeding industry’s development in Ukraine, the main trend of which was the decrease in the number of cattle, including the number of cows. A way to support livestock in the industry using the subsidy mechanism is suggested. This approach is aimed at increasing profitability of the cattle breeding industry output per 1 ha of fodder crops in the farm to profitability of barley production from 1 hectare in the area. The results of the proposed approach show that increasing milk profitability from 1 hectare of fodder crops to barley profitability from 1 hectare can be the basis for maintaining the livestock sector. The use of the livestock productivity factor (cow milk yield) in the proposed methodology makes farms more interested in increasing livestock productivity, which in turn increases the number of subsidies in the industry. In addition, an increase in fodder crops area in the farm has an ecological effect.

Schlüsselwörter

  • support
  • subsidies
  • cattle breeding
  • profit
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assessment of Maximum Cross-Sectional Area and Volume of the Canine Biceps Brachii – Brachialis Muscles

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 28 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The biceps brachii - brachialis muscles has attachment on the medial coronoid process (MCP) and proximal radius. It is considered that medial coronoid disease (MCD) can be caused by biceps brachii – brachialis muscle generated force to MCP. Computed tomography data from 31 dogs were analysed. The aim of this study was to compare biceps brachii – brachialis muscle volume and maximum cross-sectional area (mCSA) between clinically normal dogs to dogs with a MCD. Results showed that in dogs with MCD, biceps brachii - brachialis muscle volume and mCSA is smaller than in clinically normal dogs and therefore the generated muscle force cannot be considered as the main or accompanying cause of a MCD.

Schlüsselwörter

  • dysplasia
  • medial coronoid
  • tomography
  • canine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Small Scale Poultry Farmers’ Choice of Adaption Strategies to Climate Change in Ogun State, Nigeria

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 32 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Climate risks constitute an enormous challenge to poultry production and have affected the livelihoods of the people who depend on them. Thus, farmers have adopted various strategies that can help them cope with the adverse effects of climate change. The aim of this study is to examine the factors influencing small scale poultry farmers’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. Data used for this study were obtained from 121 representative farmers selected through a two-stage random sampling procedure. Descriptive Statistics, Likert Scale and the Multinomial Logit Model were the tools used for analysis. Results showed that the mean age and household size of the respondents were 45 years and 5 persons respectively, while the average number of birds per farmer stood at 583 birds. Majority of the respondents had a moderate perception of the impacts of climate change on poultry farming and chose management adaptation strategies in their fight against climate change. Econometric analysis showed that the age, gender and educational status of farmers, number of birds, household size, poultry experience, access to cooperative societies, poultry housing system, access to credit, access to extension services and farm size were the factors influencing farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation strategies in the study area. Therefore, policy should focus on awareness creation on management adaptation strategies through enhancing education and extension services as well as access of poultry farmers to credit facilities to indirectly insure farmers against climate change impacts.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Climate change
  • Adaptation Strategies
  • Poultry Farmers’ choices
  • Nigeria
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Correlates of human capital expenditure among rural households in Nigeria

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 41 - 53

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Human capital development is increasingly gaining policy relevance especially with the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study examined the correlates of human capital expenditure in rural Nigeria. General Household Survey dataset collected by the National Bureau of Statistics was used for this study. Descriptive statistical tools, principal components analysis and the Heckman selection model were used to analyse relevant data. The study found majority of the households were male-headed, with an average size of 7 people. In terms of access to education, 62.1% of the surveyed households had access to education and spent an average of NGN 12,570.56 on education. The age of household head, access to loans, marital status and household size were the correlates of human capital expenditure in rural Nigeria. Also, school fees and registration accounted for 41.2% of households’ expenditure on education. The study found paucity of funds, low priority placed on education and low interest were the main constraints to human capital expenditure. The study recommended the design and implementation of pro-poor educational interventions especially for children from rural households. Also, there is the need for government, multilateral organisations and financial institutions to position rural households for financial inclusion.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Expenditure on education
  • socio-economics
  • rural Nigeria
5 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Rural Livelihood Strategies and Household Food Security of Farmers Surrounding Derba Cement Factory, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 2 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study examined the livelihood strategies and food security situation of rural households around Derba Cement Factory by taking a randomly selected sample of 215 heads of farm households from three rural kebeles. A mixed research approach was employed to triangulate concurrently collected data through household survey, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Informed by the sustainable rural livelihood framework, descriptive statistics were used to describe rural households’ livelihood strategies and challenges they faced while inferential statistics was employed to explain households’ food security situations with different livelihood combinations. While mixed farming was found to be the mainstay of the household economy, small-scale irrigation and extracting forest products were also used as supplementary economic activities. More than a half of the respondents (52.5%) reported at least one non-farm activity. Land shortage was identified as a major constraint to expand crop production and this was further aggravated by the activities (e.g. querying leading to displacement) of the Derba Cement Factory. This further affected household labor allocation and natural resources utilization. The result of household food (in) security access scale indicated that 59% of the respondents have experienced food access insecurity in 2016. However, respondents who combined agriculture and non-farm activities appeared relatively more food secure than those engaged in agriculture alone or in non-farm activity only. Overall, households with multiple livelihood strategies had diverse food entitlements to maintain sustainable food consumption. Yet, necessity induced diversification was found to affect food access security of households. This calls for inclusive policies and strategies that integrate rural non-farm activities to subsistence farming in order to assure sustainable livelihood in rural communities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • food
  • food security
  • livelihood
  • livelihood strategies
  • assets
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mechanism of Subsidies as an Element of State Support of Livestock Sector’s Development in Ukraine

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 18 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents results of the analysis of the cattle breeding industry’s development in Ukraine, the main trend of which was the decrease in the number of cattle, including the number of cows. A way to support livestock in the industry using the subsidy mechanism is suggested. This approach is aimed at increasing profitability of the cattle breeding industry output per 1 ha of fodder crops in the farm to profitability of barley production from 1 hectare in the area. The results of the proposed approach show that increasing milk profitability from 1 hectare of fodder crops to barley profitability from 1 hectare can be the basis for maintaining the livestock sector. The use of the livestock productivity factor (cow milk yield) in the proposed methodology makes farms more interested in increasing livestock productivity, which in turn increases the number of subsidies in the industry. In addition, an increase in fodder crops area in the farm has an ecological effect.

Schlüsselwörter

  • support
  • subsidies
  • cattle breeding
  • profit
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assessment of Maximum Cross-Sectional Area and Volume of the Canine Biceps Brachii – Brachialis Muscles

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 28 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The biceps brachii - brachialis muscles has attachment on the medial coronoid process (MCP) and proximal radius. It is considered that medial coronoid disease (MCD) can be caused by biceps brachii – brachialis muscle generated force to MCP. Computed tomography data from 31 dogs were analysed. The aim of this study was to compare biceps brachii – brachialis muscle volume and maximum cross-sectional area (mCSA) between clinically normal dogs to dogs with a MCD. Results showed that in dogs with MCD, biceps brachii - brachialis muscle volume and mCSA is smaller than in clinically normal dogs and therefore the generated muscle force cannot be considered as the main or accompanying cause of a MCD.

Schlüsselwörter

  • dysplasia
  • medial coronoid
  • tomography
  • canine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Small Scale Poultry Farmers’ Choice of Adaption Strategies to Climate Change in Ogun State, Nigeria

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 32 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Climate risks constitute an enormous challenge to poultry production and have affected the livelihoods of the people who depend on them. Thus, farmers have adopted various strategies that can help them cope with the adverse effects of climate change. The aim of this study is to examine the factors influencing small scale poultry farmers’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. Data used for this study were obtained from 121 representative farmers selected through a two-stage random sampling procedure. Descriptive Statistics, Likert Scale and the Multinomial Logit Model were the tools used for analysis. Results showed that the mean age and household size of the respondents were 45 years and 5 persons respectively, while the average number of birds per farmer stood at 583 birds. Majority of the respondents had a moderate perception of the impacts of climate change on poultry farming and chose management adaptation strategies in their fight against climate change. Econometric analysis showed that the age, gender and educational status of farmers, number of birds, household size, poultry experience, access to cooperative societies, poultry housing system, access to credit, access to extension services and farm size were the factors influencing farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation strategies in the study area. Therefore, policy should focus on awareness creation on management adaptation strategies through enhancing education and extension services as well as access of poultry farmers to credit facilities to indirectly insure farmers against climate change impacts.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Climate change
  • Adaptation Strategies
  • Poultry Farmers’ choices
  • Nigeria
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Correlates of human capital expenditure among rural households in Nigeria

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 41 - 53

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Human capital development is increasingly gaining policy relevance especially with the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study examined the correlates of human capital expenditure in rural Nigeria. General Household Survey dataset collected by the National Bureau of Statistics was used for this study. Descriptive statistical tools, principal components analysis and the Heckman selection model were used to analyse relevant data. The study found majority of the households were male-headed, with an average size of 7 people. In terms of access to education, 62.1% of the surveyed households had access to education and spent an average of NGN 12,570.56 on education. The age of household head, access to loans, marital status and household size were the correlates of human capital expenditure in rural Nigeria. Also, school fees and registration accounted for 41.2% of households’ expenditure on education. The study found paucity of funds, low priority placed on education and low interest were the main constraints to human capital expenditure. The study recommended the design and implementation of pro-poor educational interventions especially for children from rural households. Also, there is the need for government, multilateral organisations and financial institutions to position rural households for financial inclusion.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Expenditure on education
  • socio-economics
  • rural Nigeria

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