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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-8733
Erstveröffentlichung
25 Nov 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 18 (2018): Heft 1 (January 2018)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-8733
Erstveröffentlichung
25 Nov 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

20 Artikel

Review

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A molecular characteristic of the Anatidae mitochondrial control region – a review

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 3 - 15

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a molecular tool that is very effective in genetic research, including phylogenetic analysis. The non-coding region is the most variable fragment of mtDNA, showing variability in length and nucleobase composition and containing three domains: two hypervariable peripheral regions and the conserved domain (D-loop) in the middle. The Anseriformes are amongst the best studied avian groups, including approximately 150 species and containing geese, swans, ducks (Anatidae), the Magpie goose (Anseranatidae) and screamers (Anhimidae). The most numerous family is the Anatidae, appearing in close relationships within the phylogenetic branches of the species. There are differences between the non-coding region of the Anatidae in comparison to other avian control regions. In the article presented below the control region sequences and the phylogeny of the Anatidae were reviewed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • mitochondrial DNA
  • control region
  • Anseriformes
  • Anatidae
  • goose
  • swan
  • duck
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Freshwater turtle nutrition – a review of scientific and practical knowledge

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 17 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Freshwater turtles are commonly kept in captivity as pets, bred in zoos for conservation programs, and commercially farmed for pet markets and human consumption, but their nutrition can be challenging. However, based on practical experience, two main strategies may be identified: the use of non-calculated raw diets and the use of balanced commercial feeds. Raw diets are based on fresh, frozen and dried components including invertebrates, fish, rodents and plant matter; they imitate the variety of foods that are accessible to turtles in the wild and are considered most useful when turtles are bred for reintroduction into their natural habitat as part of conservation programs. Granulated, pelleted or extruded commercial diets are frequently used for farmed and pet turtles; they contain animal- and plant-based materials supplemented with vitamin and mineral premixes and calculated to reach the nutrient levels assumed to be optimal for most species. Until more species-specific information on the nutritional requirements of freshwater turtles is available, the Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), a commonly commercially farmed species for human consumption, may be used as a reference for other species in terms of suggested nutrient levels. Based on experimental data, the most important nutrients and their levels that should be included in turtle diets are crude protein (39.0-46.5%), crude fat (8.8%), Ca (5.7%), P (3.0%), methionine (1.03%), and cysteine (0.25%). The diet composition for freshwater turtles should be based on scientific knowledge and practical experience, so this paper aimed to present and discuss the available data on the nutrient requirements of turtles and the characteristics of the feed materials used in their nutrition.

Schlüsselwörter

  • freshwater turtles
  • turtle nutrition
  • nutrient requirements
  • metabolic diseases
  • Pelodiscus sinensis

Animal genetics and breeding

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic variability in equine GDF9 and BMP15 genes in Arabian and Thoroughbred mares

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 39 - 52

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In horses, multiple ovulation resulting in implantation of multiple embryos is adverse. However, understanding the mechanisms underlying initiation of multiple ovulation (MO) is advantageous and is related to an increase in efficiency of embryo transfer techniques. It has been postulated that MO may have a genetic background. Two major genes: bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are considered to play a crucial role in folliculogenesis and controlling the ovulation rate. Thus, the aim of the presented study was to identify the variation within equine BMP15 and GDF9 genes to verify their potential role on spontaneous, repetitive multiple ovulations in mares. In addition, variation screening of investigated genes in population of Thoroughbred and Arabian breeds was performed together with establishment of transcript abundance of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in equine ovarian tissue. Sanger sequencing of Arabian and Thoroughbred mares divided according to ovulation rate, revealed occurrence of 3 SNPs in BMP15 and STS in GDF9 genes. The PCR-RLFP and statistical analysis indicated that none of the genotype frequencies were significant in any breeds and none of them were claimed as functional according to ovulation rate. Furthermore, evaluation of transcript abundance by RT -PCR of both genes in ovarian tissues showed that expression of both genes was similar but GDF9 was significantly expressed in growing follicles with 21-30 mm diameter and in ovarian parenchyma, which suggest their potential role in folliculogenesis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • horse
  • ovary
  • ERE
  • BMP15
  • GDF9

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of physical exercise on cortisol concentration and neutrophil oxygen metabolism in peripheral blood of horses

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 53 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of regular physical exercise on cortisol concentration and oxygen-dependent bactericidal activity of neutrophils in peripheral blood in recreational and competitive sport horses (racehorses - Ra, trotters - T, jumping horses - J, driving horses - D). The study was conducted on 55 clinically healthy horses. Blood samples were collected from the external jugular vein three times: before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after 30-min rest. Blood samples were subjected to haematological examination, cortisol concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and neutrophil oxygen metabolism of neutrophils was determined using a chemiluminescence method. The analysis showed that cortisol concentration was significantly higher (P<0.05) post-exercise only in the blood of sport horses. This finding, along with a significant correlation (P<0.00005) with the heart and respiratory rates, suggests that the magnitude of cortisol secretion is associated with the intensity and duration of exercise. The relatively small post-exercise increase in cortisol concentration during different exercises of horses resulted in a transient increase of chemiluminescence activity of neutrophils, mainly in D (P<0.00001) and J horses (P<0.01). In the studied groups analysis of the correlation between cortisol concentration and other parameters showed significant correlation only in the case of the CL total in T (P<0.02) and D horses (P<0.004). It is therefore apparent that in a limited concentration, this hormone may stimulate the activity of these cells, although the effect of other neurohormonal factors cannot be excluded. This result confirms that regular and moderate training loads have a beneficial effect on the immunological status of horses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • horses
  • physical exercise
  • cortisol
  • chemiluminescence of neutrophils
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (40 MPa and 60 MPa) on the apoptosis rates and functional activity of cryopreserved porcine mesenchymal stem cells

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 69 - 86

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of two varied high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) values on the apoptosis (assessing caspase-8, survivin, CAD, Bax, BclxL and BclxS) and functional activity (using cocultures with bovine embryos) of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pBMSCs). pBMSCs were isolated from porcine bone marrow and cultured in vitro. Before cryopreservation and storage in liquid nitrogen, pBMSCs were subjected to HHP values of 40 MPa and 60 MPa for 1 h at 24°C. After thawing, the cells were analysed for caspase-8 activity and protein expression of survivin, CAD, Bax, BclxL and BclxS. To indirectly test the influence of HHP on the functional activity of pBMSCs, in vitro maturated bovine oocytes were fertilized in vitro, and the obtained embryos were cultured under 4 different conditions: 1. monoculture in SOF medium; 2. coculture with pBMSCs in SOF medium; 3. coculture with pBMSCs subjected to 40 MPa HHP in SOF medium and 4. coculture with pBMSCs subjected to 60 MPa HHP in SOF medium. The quality of the developed blastocysts was analysed by TUNEL assay. HHP did not induce apoptosis in pBMSCs, as no significant difference was noted in the expression of any of the analysed apoptosis- related proteins between pBMSCs subjected to HHP (40 MPa or 60 MPa) and control. The highest number of obtained blastocysts was observed when the embryos were cultured in SOF. A highly significant difference (P<0.005) was noted between embryos cultured in SOF and embryos cultured in the presence of pBMSCs subjected to 60 MPa HHP or untreated pBMSCs. A significant difference (P<0.05) was noted between embryos cultured in SOF and embryos cultured in the presence of pBMSCs subjected to 40 MPa HHP. In conclusion, HHP does not induce apoptosis in pBMSCs. The obtained results of the blastocysts cocultured in vitro with pBMSCs (HHP-treated and untreated cells) imply that coculture with pBMSCs has a negative impact on the developmental rates of blastocysts.

Schlüsselwörter

  • pBMSCs
  • HHP
  • cryopreservation
  • apoptosis
  • IVF
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Quercetin improves developmental competence of mouse oocytes by reducing oxidative stress during in vitro maturation

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 87 - 98

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with strong antioxidant activity. In the present study, we evaluate the influence of different concentrations of quercetin (QT) on intracytoplasmic oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) concentration, during in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization in mouse oocytes. IVM was carried out in the presence of control (QT0), 5 (QT5), 10 (QT10), and 20 (QT20) μg/mL of QT. Nuclear maturation, intracellular GSH and ROS content were evaluated following the IVM. In these oocytes, we subsequently evaluated the effect of QT supplementation on embryo development, including 2-cell, 8-cell, and blastocyst rate. The results of the present study showed that the supplementation of 10 μg/mL QT in maturation medium increased the number of MII oocytes. In addition, fertilization and blastocyst rate in QT10 treatment group were significantly higher in comparison to the other groups, and elevated the amount of intracellular GSH content compared to other QT concentrations and control groups. The intracellular ROS level was the lowest among oocytes matured in Q5 and Q10 treatment groups. This result suggested that quercetin dose-dependently improves nuclear maturation and embryo development, via reducing intracytoplasmic oxidative stress in mature oocyte.

Schlüsselwörter

  • in vitro maturation
  • quercetin
  • oxidative stress
  • glutathione
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Three-year monitoring of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle by pooled faecal culture and individual prevalence estimation

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 99 - 111

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the implementation of a three-year Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis monitoring programme using pooled faecal culture in small and mediumsized dairy herds to classify them as infected or non-infected and apply proper hygiene and biosecurity measures. Over a three-year period, 35 dairy herds were analysed annually by faecal culture of ten pooled samples. In addition, proper hygiene and biosecurity protocols were implemented in the farms after the first testing round. Considering a herd as infected with at least one culture positive in any of the three years, the accumulated percentage of infected herds was 25.7%, 40% and 45.7%, for each year respectively. Assuming that all infected herds had been detected at the end of the study, the percentage of infected herds detected each year was 56.25% and 87.5% for the first and second year, respectively. Using frequentist and Bayesian approaches, the estimated individual prevalence revealed a downward trend from 3.30-3.65% in the first year to 1.66-1.86% in the third year. The results of this study indicate that pooled faecal culture allowed for proper classification of the herds and can be a useful tool for monitoring dairy herds against paratuberculosis. In addition, statistical analysis of pooled faecal culture results can be used to evaluate the evolution of individual prevalence in the population and therefore the function of the implemented control programmes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bayesian estimation
  • cattle
  • monitoring
  • paratuberculosis
  • pooled faecal culture
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of ostrich egg lipoproteins and hen egg yolk on the quality of dog sperm during liquid storage at 5°C

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 113 - 124

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the impact of the addition of lipoproteins from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo) and hen egg yolk (HEY) to a Tris-citric acid-fructose (TCF) extender on the quality of dog sperm preserved at 5°C for 7 days. The sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate was manually collected and extended using the following extenders: control (TCF), TCF+ 5% addition of LPFo (TCF-LPFo) and TCF+ 20% of addition HEY (TCF-HEY). The analysis of quality included: sperm motility parameters (TMOT, PMOT, VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH, BCF, STR, LIN), normal apical ridge acrosome (NAR), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and ATP content. The addition of LPFo and HEY to the TCF extender had a beneficial effect on all quality parameters of the stored sperm compared with the TCF extender. However, the analysis of sperm motility parameters revealed differences (P≤0.05) between TCF-LPFo and TCF-HEY extenders as affected by storage day. Semen extended in TCF-LPFo was characterized by lower values of TMOT and VAP on Day 5 and by lower values of TMOT and VCL on Day 7, compared to that extended in TCF-HEY. The analysis of PMOT, VSL, ALH, BCF, STR, LIN, PMI, MMP and ATP content showed no differences (P≥0.05) between TCF-LPFo and TCF-HEY extenders. The results suggest that TCF extender supplementation with LPFo or HEY improves the quality of dog sperm stored at 5°C. Both LPFo and HEY protect motility, membrane integrity and can contribute to the improvement of the energy status of stored dog sperm. LPFo can be alternatively used instead of HEY for dog semen preservation in the liquid state.

Schlüsselwörter

  • dog
  • sperm
  • quality
  • egg yolk
  • lipoproteins

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Dose-response effects of sage (Salvia officinalis) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) essential oils on rumen fermentation in vitro

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 125 - 142

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study aimed at determining the chemical composition of sage essential oil (SEO) and yarrow essential oil (YEO), and investigate in vitro their impacts on gas production kinetics, ruminal digestibility and fermentation, and rumen methanogenesis at different dosages (0, 250, 500 and 750 mg L-1 for SEO; and 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg L−1 for YEO). Alpha-pinene and 1,8 cineol were two major constituents of both SEO and YEO. Both SEO and YEO had a linear and quadratic effect on asymptotic gas production (P<0.05). The gas production rate increased linearly with SEO and curve-linearly with YEO dosages (P<0.05). In vitro degradability of dry matter and organic matter decreased only by YEO. The partitioning factor (PF) and the microbial biomass (MB) decreased and increased linearly with YEO and SEO dosages, respectively (P<0.05). Total volatile fatty acids (VFA ) were not affected by SEO, but decreased in a linear and quadratic manner with YEO dosage (P<0.05). The VFA pattern was modified in a linear and quadratic manner by both SEO and YEO (P<0.05). Ammonia concentration increased linearly only with YEO increasing doses. The methane to total gas (TG) ratio decreased quadratically only by SEO with reductions of 6.7, 13 and 4.2% at the doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg L−1, respectively. These results revealed that SEO modifies the rumen fermentation positively towards producing more MB and less methane in the dose range of 0-750 mg L−1, however, YEO adversely affected the rumen fermentation at all the tested doses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • essential oil
  • sage
  • yarrow
  • gas production
  • rumen fermentation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of different dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios on growth performance, blood lipid profiles, fatty acid composition of pork, carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 143 - 154

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A total of 72 crossbred pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an average initial BW of 51.59±1.59 kg were used in this 10-wk feeding trial to investigate the effects of different dietary n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratios in finishing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments (each n=24) with 6 replications and 4 pigs per pen (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated by replacing soybean oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6:n-3 close to 5:1, 10:1 and 15:1, respectively. The growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality parameters (meat color, sensory evaluation, cooking loss, drip loss, pH, longissimus muscle area and water holding capacity) were not influenced (P>0.10) by various dietary n-6:n-3 ratios. Pigs fed dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 had a lower (P<0.05) serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The concentrations of n-3 PUFA , including C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were improved (P<0.05) in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pigs fed dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1. Furthermore, pigs fed dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 decreased (P<0.05) the n-6 concentrations (C18:2n-6 and C20:4n-6) of longissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6:n-3 ratios to 5:1 could be beneficial for the blood lipid profiles, and improve the nutritional value of pork, without adverse effect on growth performance and meat quality parameters that are related to the consumer acceptance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blood lipid profiles
  • fatty acid composition
  • finishing pigs
  • n-6:n-3 ratios
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Blood hormones, metabolic parameters and fatty acid proportion in dairy cows fed condensed tannins and oils blend

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 155 - 166

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to track the changes in blood parameters of mid-lactation multiparous Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in response to a diet supplemented with a mixture of fish-soybean oils blend and tannin-containing lingonberry shrub (Vaccinium vitis idaea; VVI) extract. Twelve lactating cows were randomly assigned to a crossover design of two treatments (6 cows per treatment) which consisted of a control diet containing no supplement (CON) and CON supplemented with a mixture of 99 g of VVI leaves extract and 660 g of blended fish-soybean oils (MIX) daily. The obtained results showed a significant increase in plasma glucose level, as well as C18:1t11 and n-3 fatty acids proportion. A significant decrease was also observed in insulin concentration, triglyceride and C18:0 proportion. Generally, the saturated fatty acid proportion decreased while the unsaturated fatty acid significantly increased with the MIX diet. In conclusion, using supplements of a mixture of VVI extract and fish-soybean oils blend modulated the unsaturated fatty acid proportion in blood, without affecting the dairy cows’ blood parameters which were all within the normal ranges.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ruminants
  • condensed tannin
  • oil
  • blood
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of selected feed additives on egg performance and eggshell quality in laying hens fed a diet with standard or decreased calcium content

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 167 - 183

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the experiment with 240 ISA Brown hens fed the diets with standard or decreased Ca level was to evaluate the effect of selected feed additives on laying performance and eggshell quality. The hens were allocated to 10 treatments, each containing 12 cages (replicates) of 2 birds. A 2 × 5 experimental arrangement was used. From 26 to 70 wks of age, experimental diets containing 3.20 or 3.70% Ca were used. The diets were either not supplemented, or supplemented with sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria, herb extracts blend or chitosan. The decreased dietary Ca reduced eggshell quality indices in older hens (43-69 wks) (P<0.05) without effect on performance indices. The addition of the probiotic, herb extracts, or chitosan increased the laying rate (P<0.05). In older hens, i.e. at 69 wk, chitosan increased eggshell thickness and breaking strength, while herb extracts increased eggshell thickness (P<0.05). There was no interaction between the experimental factors in performance and eggshell quality. The used feed additives had no influence on fatty acid profile of egg lipids, however diet supplementation with chitosan decreased cholesterol concentration in egg yolk lipids (P<0.05). It can be concluded that such feed additives as probiotic, herb extracts, or chitosan may positively affect performance and eggshell quality, irrespective of Ca dietary level.

Schlüsselwörter

  • laying hens
  • calcium
  • feed additives
  • eggshell quality
  • yolk fatty acid profile

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Does road transport influence plasma leptin concentrations in horses? Preliminary study

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 185 - 193

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Transport is one of the most common stressors for horses leading to an increase in cortisol secretion. Cortisol promotes leptin synthesis and release. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of short transport on circulating leptin and cortisol concentrations. A total of 16 crossbred naïve horses (7 geldings, 9 mares) aged 2-11 years, and weighing 530-680 kg were included in the study. The horses were transported in a commercial horse-truck to an unknown holding pen for temporary housing. To measure plasma leptin and cortisol concentrations, three blood samples were collected from each horse: before transport, immediately after unloading from the truck, and nine hours after transport at the arrival point. Transport caused a significant increase in mean plasma cortisol concentration determined at unloading, and after nine hours of unloading, in comparison to values obtained before loading. Plasma leptin concentrations did not change during the study. In conclusion, transportation procedures did not influence plasma leptin concentration in horses, despite significantly increased cortisol release.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cortisol
  • horses
  • leptin
  • stress
  • transport
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of the duration of high air temperature on cow’s milking performance in moderate climate conditions

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 195 - 207

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main aim of the presented investigation was to determine the effect of the air thermal conditions variability on cow’s milking performance in summer in a moderate climate. The analyses covered the summer months of 2012-2013 (June-September) and shorter, several-day periods characterized by the times of elevated or high air temperatures and by the declines and increases in milking performance. The research was conducted in a free stall barn for Holstein-Friesian cows. The study showed that the thermoneutral temperature for high yielding cows decreases gradually with the registered increasingly warmer summer periods. The decreases in milk yield already commence at an air temperature equal to 20°C and also depend on the dairy cattle sensitivity. July and August, with a high number of hot days, caused that in September the cows responded faster to a worsening of thermal conditions and the decline in milking performance happened almost simultaneously with the air temperature change, at milking yield recovery after the period of 3-4 d (r=-0.84, P<0.04). The percent duration in the individual temperature ranges which caused a decrease of milk yield was also determined. In June, and at the beginning of July, this was 90% of the time with temperatures above 20°C, and simultaneously 45% above 25°C occurred to milking performance decrease (r=-0.89, P<0.02). In September, this was only 30% of the time with temperatures above 20°C (r=-0.91, P<0.01).

Schlüsselwörter

  • dairy cows
  • heat stress
  • air temperature
  • milking yield

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of some factors on championship results and performance in Hucul horses

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 209 - 224

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of some factors on the breeding and performance championship results of Hucul horses. The study material were results of the national finals of the breeding and performance championships for Hucul horses held during 2009-2015. These included breeding champion, the Hucul path as well as the endurance-condition tests. The one-way ANOVA and GLM procedure (multivariate ANOVA with interaction effects) were employed to estimate the impact of the analysed variables on the results of the breeding and performance assessment. The current results were, for the Hucul path and endurance-condition tests, significantly lower than for 2013. Individuals that were held in the foothills and mountain areas attained significantly higher scores at the breeding and performance championships. Strong impacts of breeding environment on levels of inbreeding were only observed in cases where the scores in respect of horse movement were at walk (η2p=0.13; P=0.04), trot (η2p=0.17; P=0.003) and the results for Hucul path (η2p=0.18, P=0.002). By far the strongest impact on the assessment for type (η2p=0.36, P=0.000) and conformation (η2p=0.32, P=0.006) was exercised by the interaction of age with male line and breeding environment, but in case of rating for movement at walk and trot, it was for the interaction of age with inbreeding and the breeding environment, namely η2p=0.31, P=0.04; η2p=0.33, P=0.01 respectively. Dependencies between components of assessment for Hucul horses were correlated at low and medium levels.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Hucul horses
  • performance value
  • breeding environment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of slaughter weight and sex on slaughter traits and meat quality of Polish autochthonous ZLotnicka Spotted pigs crossbred with Duroc

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 225 - 237

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of slaughter weight and sex on slaughter traits and meat quality of Zlotnicka Spotted x Duroc (ZS×D) hybrid fatteners. The material comprised 56 Zlotnicka Spotted × Duroc fatteners (28 barrows and 28 gilts) which were fattened to 245th day of life. Pigs were divided into the following three groups: Group I (n=16) <110 kg; Group II (n=23) ≥110 ≤120 kg, and Group III (n=17) >120 kg. The obtained results revealed influence of the final body weight on slaughter trait values with the exception of meatiness. Fatteners from the group with the highest weight were characterised by the thickest backfat as well as by the greatest height of the loin eye. Slaughter weight exerted a significant impact on protein content, water absorbability as well as on the pH of the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle. As to the influence of sex on slaughter traits, it was found that gilts were characterised by smaller backfat thickness and higher carcass meatiness than barrows. On the other hand, no effect of the slaughter weight and sex on colour parameters and sensory quality of the LTL muscle was ascertained. All the examined parameters were at high level in all slaughter weight and sex groups. The obtained results suggest that the slaughter of ZS×D crossbreds in groups I and II exerts a beneficial influence on slaughter trait levels and, at the same time, allows maintenance of high meat quality.

Schlüsselwörter

  • native swine
  • crossbreed
  • fatteners
  • gilts
  • barrows
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The physicochemical properties of offal from Puławska gilts in relation to carcass meatiness

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 239 - 249

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the meatiness of the Puławska pig carcass and selected physical and chemical parameters of pork offal. The study was conducted on a group of 50 porkers of the native Puławska breed, whose carcasses were classified into five classes: E, U, R, O, and P, covering 10 specimens each. Samples were collected from the tongue, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys, and the pH (pH45, pH24), percentage of free water and chemical composition (ash, fat, protein) were determined. To summarise the obtained results, it can be concluded that the increase of the meat content in carcass significantly and primarily affects the reduction of the offal’s weight and then the reduction of the pH45 as well as the increase of the free water content primarily in the kidney and the lungs. In the case of chemical composition an increase of the meatiness in the carcass affected the reduction of fat content in the kidneys, lungs, heart and liver. The liver and the heart were the offal with the greatest susceptibility to the effects of the carcass meatiness. In this offal the increase of the carcass meatiness significantly decreased the fat content and energy value, and also increased the ash and protein content. Offal from the studied meatiness classes of the pigs’ carcasses was characterised by adequate quality and suitability for processing.

Schlüsselwörter

  • EUROP carcass grading of pig
  • internal organs
  • native breed
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of water vapor pressure on muscle collagen solubility and selected characteristics of the longissimus lumborum muscle in crossbred cattle

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 251 - 260

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Most scientific studies are dedicated to the possibility of preparing beef for consumption under industrial conditions. Few publications are devoted to the issue of collagen thermohydrolysis in conditions available to the consumer. This study has analyzed the effect of small values of water vapor pressure on major culinary indices and chemical components of the longissimus lumborum muscle obtained from bulls with different growth rates. The experiment involved 48 animals. On the basis of the gain during the fattening time, the animals were divided into a low growth intensity group, with a daily body weight gain of ≤900 g, and a high growth intensity group with a daily gain of >900 g/day. A part of the samples of the longissimus lumborum muscle (control) was thermally treated in a water bath at 75°C. Another part was heat treated in a pressure-pot at 150°C, at a pressure of 0.1 MPa. The next part of samples was subjected to the same temperature, but the pressure was 0.2 MPa. The obtained results indicate that the values of the studied indices were largely affected by thermal processing parameters rather than the animals’ growth rate. The highest contents of total protein and water-soluble collagen were obtained in the case of a temperature of 150°C and the highest pressure (0.2 MPa). Water vapor with increased temperature and pressure also created favorable conditions for obtaining better meat tenderness and more favorable values of the water holding capacity. The latter characteristic appeared to be strongly connected with an increasing amount of water-soluble collagen, which was confirmed by relatively high values of the correlation coefficient between these characteristics. A strong positive correlation was also shown between thermal drip and the total collagen content in meat.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bulls
  • growth intensity
  • meat characteristics
  • collagen solubility
  • eating quality
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Meat quality of poulards obtained from three conserved breeds of hens

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 261 - 280

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of genotype (breed/line) and spaying of pullets on body weight, estradiol level, carcass and meat quality. Subjects were Rhode Island Red (R-11), Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Sussex hens (S-66), 100 birds per line, which were divided into 2 groups, each having 50 pullets and 50 poulards. Spaying was performed at 10 wk of age, under local anesthesia by a veterinarian. The present study showed that blood estradiol levels in poulards were much lower than in pullets regardless of genotype. Poulards showed higher body weight and their carcasses higher lightness and yellowness. In the sensory evaluation, poulard breast meat was more tasty and leg meat also more juicy and tender compared to pullet meat. Among the three conserved breeds, Rhode Island Red (R-11) and Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) hens are the best starting material for poulard production. Their carcasses showed good muscling and intense yellowness desirable to the consumers. R-11 birds achieved highest body weight. Spaying of pullets had no significant effect on the profile of fatty acids, but greater and statistically significant differences in this regard were found between hen lines. Compared to S-66 birds, breast muscles of R-11 and Ż-33 birds contained more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The breast and leg muscles of these birds had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (SFA ).

Schlüsselwörter

  • poulards
  • hens
  • native breeds
  • meat quality
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Quality and dietary value of pork meat of the Puławska and Złotnicka Spotted breeds, and commercial fattening pigs

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 281 - 291

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the quality and nutritional value of meat originating from pigs of Polish native pure breeds - the Puławska and Złotnicka Spotted as well as the commercial four-breed crossbreds F1 (Large White × Polish Landrace) × F1 (Duroc × Pietrain). Physicochemical properties of meat were evaluated, such as acidity, water holding capacity, tenderness, and color parameters. In addition, functional properties of meat were determined: nutritional value, mineral content and fatty acid profile. The dietetic indices of meat were also determined. The smallest acidity of muscle tissue was characteristic of the meat of the Puławska breed and the smallest meat drip loss was found in both native breeds (P≤0.01). This can confirm their greater technological suitability. The most tender was meat obtained from pigs of the Puławska breed (36.07 N/cm2). The darker color was characteristic of the pig meat of the Złotnicka Spotted breed (L* = 49.19) (P≤0.01). Meat of all three groups of the tested pigs had the quality characteristics related to normal meat. The highest content of protein was found in the Złotnicka Spotted meat (25.23%) at optimum fat content (2.25%). The high content of ash (1.63%) recorded in the Złotnicka Spotted meat meant higher content of macro and microelements, especially iron and zinc, as compared to meat of the four-breed crossbreds (P≤0.01). The highest amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (52.72%) was recorded in porcine meat of the Puławska breed, while content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was the highest in meat of the four-breed crossbreds (16.77% vs. 9.32% and 15.19%) (P≤0.01). No differences were found between the groups tested for atherogenic index. In terms of most physicochemical and functional characteristics, meat of native pig breeds was superior to the meat of commercial pigs from mass-production.

Schlüsselwörter

  • pigs
  • native breeds
  • meat quality
  • nutritional value
20 Artikel

Review

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A molecular characteristic of the Anatidae mitochondrial control region – a review

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 3 - 15

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a molecular tool that is very effective in genetic research, including phylogenetic analysis. The non-coding region is the most variable fragment of mtDNA, showing variability in length and nucleobase composition and containing three domains: two hypervariable peripheral regions and the conserved domain (D-loop) in the middle. The Anseriformes are amongst the best studied avian groups, including approximately 150 species and containing geese, swans, ducks (Anatidae), the Magpie goose (Anseranatidae) and screamers (Anhimidae). The most numerous family is the Anatidae, appearing in close relationships within the phylogenetic branches of the species. There are differences between the non-coding region of the Anatidae in comparison to other avian control regions. In the article presented below the control region sequences and the phylogeny of the Anatidae were reviewed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • mitochondrial DNA
  • control region
  • Anseriformes
  • Anatidae
  • goose
  • swan
  • duck
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Freshwater turtle nutrition – a review of scientific and practical knowledge

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 17 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Freshwater turtles are commonly kept in captivity as pets, bred in zoos for conservation programs, and commercially farmed for pet markets and human consumption, but their nutrition can be challenging. However, based on practical experience, two main strategies may be identified: the use of non-calculated raw diets and the use of balanced commercial feeds. Raw diets are based on fresh, frozen and dried components including invertebrates, fish, rodents and plant matter; they imitate the variety of foods that are accessible to turtles in the wild and are considered most useful when turtles are bred for reintroduction into their natural habitat as part of conservation programs. Granulated, pelleted or extruded commercial diets are frequently used for farmed and pet turtles; they contain animal- and plant-based materials supplemented with vitamin and mineral premixes and calculated to reach the nutrient levels assumed to be optimal for most species. Until more species-specific information on the nutritional requirements of freshwater turtles is available, the Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), a commonly commercially farmed species for human consumption, may be used as a reference for other species in terms of suggested nutrient levels. Based on experimental data, the most important nutrients and their levels that should be included in turtle diets are crude protein (39.0-46.5%), crude fat (8.8%), Ca (5.7%), P (3.0%), methionine (1.03%), and cysteine (0.25%). The diet composition for freshwater turtles should be based on scientific knowledge and practical experience, so this paper aimed to present and discuss the available data on the nutrient requirements of turtles and the characteristics of the feed materials used in their nutrition.

Schlüsselwörter

  • freshwater turtles
  • turtle nutrition
  • nutrient requirements
  • metabolic diseases
  • Pelodiscus sinensis

Animal genetics and breeding

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic variability in equine GDF9 and BMP15 genes in Arabian and Thoroughbred mares

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 39 - 52

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In horses, multiple ovulation resulting in implantation of multiple embryos is adverse. However, understanding the mechanisms underlying initiation of multiple ovulation (MO) is advantageous and is related to an increase in efficiency of embryo transfer techniques. It has been postulated that MO may have a genetic background. Two major genes: bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are considered to play a crucial role in folliculogenesis and controlling the ovulation rate. Thus, the aim of the presented study was to identify the variation within equine BMP15 and GDF9 genes to verify their potential role on spontaneous, repetitive multiple ovulations in mares. In addition, variation screening of investigated genes in population of Thoroughbred and Arabian breeds was performed together with establishment of transcript abundance of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in equine ovarian tissue. Sanger sequencing of Arabian and Thoroughbred mares divided according to ovulation rate, revealed occurrence of 3 SNPs in BMP15 and STS in GDF9 genes. The PCR-RLFP and statistical analysis indicated that none of the genotype frequencies were significant in any breeds and none of them were claimed as functional according to ovulation rate. Furthermore, evaluation of transcript abundance by RT -PCR of both genes in ovarian tissues showed that expression of both genes was similar but GDF9 was significantly expressed in growing follicles with 21-30 mm diameter and in ovarian parenchyma, which suggest their potential role in folliculogenesis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • horse
  • ovary
  • ERE
  • BMP15
  • GDF9

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of physical exercise on cortisol concentration and neutrophil oxygen metabolism in peripheral blood of horses

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 53 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of regular physical exercise on cortisol concentration and oxygen-dependent bactericidal activity of neutrophils in peripheral blood in recreational and competitive sport horses (racehorses - Ra, trotters - T, jumping horses - J, driving horses - D). The study was conducted on 55 clinically healthy horses. Blood samples were collected from the external jugular vein three times: before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after 30-min rest. Blood samples were subjected to haematological examination, cortisol concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and neutrophil oxygen metabolism of neutrophils was determined using a chemiluminescence method. The analysis showed that cortisol concentration was significantly higher (P<0.05) post-exercise only in the blood of sport horses. This finding, along with a significant correlation (P<0.00005) with the heart and respiratory rates, suggests that the magnitude of cortisol secretion is associated with the intensity and duration of exercise. The relatively small post-exercise increase in cortisol concentration during different exercises of horses resulted in a transient increase of chemiluminescence activity of neutrophils, mainly in D (P<0.00001) and J horses (P<0.01). In the studied groups analysis of the correlation between cortisol concentration and other parameters showed significant correlation only in the case of the CL total in T (P<0.02) and D horses (P<0.004). It is therefore apparent that in a limited concentration, this hormone may stimulate the activity of these cells, although the effect of other neurohormonal factors cannot be excluded. This result confirms that regular and moderate training loads have a beneficial effect on the immunological status of horses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • horses
  • physical exercise
  • cortisol
  • chemiluminescence of neutrophils
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (40 MPa and 60 MPa) on the apoptosis rates and functional activity of cryopreserved porcine mesenchymal stem cells

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 69 - 86

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of two varied high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) values on the apoptosis (assessing caspase-8, survivin, CAD, Bax, BclxL and BclxS) and functional activity (using cocultures with bovine embryos) of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pBMSCs). pBMSCs were isolated from porcine bone marrow and cultured in vitro. Before cryopreservation and storage in liquid nitrogen, pBMSCs were subjected to HHP values of 40 MPa and 60 MPa for 1 h at 24°C. After thawing, the cells were analysed for caspase-8 activity and protein expression of survivin, CAD, Bax, BclxL and BclxS. To indirectly test the influence of HHP on the functional activity of pBMSCs, in vitro maturated bovine oocytes were fertilized in vitro, and the obtained embryos were cultured under 4 different conditions: 1. monoculture in SOF medium; 2. coculture with pBMSCs in SOF medium; 3. coculture with pBMSCs subjected to 40 MPa HHP in SOF medium and 4. coculture with pBMSCs subjected to 60 MPa HHP in SOF medium. The quality of the developed blastocysts was analysed by TUNEL assay. HHP did not induce apoptosis in pBMSCs, as no significant difference was noted in the expression of any of the analysed apoptosis- related proteins between pBMSCs subjected to HHP (40 MPa or 60 MPa) and control. The highest number of obtained blastocysts was observed when the embryos were cultured in SOF. A highly significant difference (P<0.005) was noted between embryos cultured in SOF and embryos cultured in the presence of pBMSCs subjected to 60 MPa HHP or untreated pBMSCs. A significant difference (P<0.05) was noted between embryos cultured in SOF and embryos cultured in the presence of pBMSCs subjected to 40 MPa HHP. In conclusion, HHP does not induce apoptosis in pBMSCs. The obtained results of the blastocysts cocultured in vitro with pBMSCs (HHP-treated and untreated cells) imply that coculture with pBMSCs has a negative impact on the developmental rates of blastocysts.

Schlüsselwörter

  • pBMSCs
  • HHP
  • cryopreservation
  • apoptosis
  • IVF
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Quercetin improves developmental competence of mouse oocytes by reducing oxidative stress during in vitro maturation

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 87 - 98

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with strong antioxidant activity. In the present study, we evaluate the influence of different concentrations of quercetin (QT) on intracytoplasmic oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) concentration, during in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization in mouse oocytes. IVM was carried out in the presence of control (QT0), 5 (QT5), 10 (QT10), and 20 (QT20) μg/mL of QT. Nuclear maturation, intracellular GSH and ROS content were evaluated following the IVM. In these oocytes, we subsequently evaluated the effect of QT supplementation on embryo development, including 2-cell, 8-cell, and blastocyst rate. The results of the present study showed that the supplementation of 10 μg/mL QT in maturation medium increased the number of MII oocytes. In addition, fertilization and blastocyst rate in QT10 treatment group were significantly higher in comparison to the other groups, and elevated the amount of intracellular GSH content compared to other QT concentrations and control groups. The intracellular ROS level was the lowest among oocytes matured in Q5 and Q10 treatment groups. This result suggested that quercetin dose-dependently improves nuclear maturation and embryo development, via reducing intracytoplasmic oxidative stress in mature oocyte.

Schlüsselwörter

  • in vitro maturation
  • quercetin
  • oxidative stress
  • glutathione
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Three-year monitoring of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle by pooled faecal culture and individual prevalence estimation

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 99 - 111

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the implementation of a three-year Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis monitoring programme using pooled faecal culture in small and mediumsized dairy herds to classify them as infected or non-infected and apply proper hygiene and biosecurity measures. Over a three-year period, 35 dairy herds were analysed annually by faecal culture of ten pooled samples. In addition, proper hygiene and biosecurity protocols were implemented in the farms after the first testing round. Considering a herd as infected with at least one culture positive in any of the three years, the accumulated percentage of infected herds was 25.7%, 40% and 45.7%, for each year respectively. Assuming that all infected herds had been detected at the end of the study, the percentage of infected herds detected each year was 56.25% and 87.5% for the first and second year, respectively. Using frequentist and Bayesian approaches, the estimated individual prevalence revealed a downward trend from 3.30-3.65% in the first year to 1.66-1.86% in the third year. The results of this study indicate that pooled faecal culture allowed for proper classification of the herds and can be a useful tool for monitoring dairy herds against paratuberculosis. In addition, statistical analysis of pooled faecal culture results can be used to evaluate the evolution of individual prevalence in the population and therefore the function of the implemented control programmes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bayesian estimation
  • cattle
  • monitoring
  • paratuberculosis
  • pooled faecal culture
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of ostrich egg lipoproteins and hen egg yolk on the quality of dog sperm during liquid storage at 5°C

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 113 - 124

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the impact of the addition of lipoproteins from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo) and hen egg yolk (HEY) to a Tris-citric acid-fructose (TCF) extender on the quality of dog sperm preserved at 5°C for 7 days. The sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate was manually collected and extended using the following extenders: control (TCF), TCF+ 5% addition of LPFo (TCF-LPFo) and TCF+ 20% of addition HEY (TCF-HEY). The analysis of quality included: sperm motility parameters (TMOT, PMOT, VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH, BCF, STR, LIN), normal apical ridge acrosome (NAR), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and ATP content. The addition of LPFo and HEY to the TCF extender had a beneficial effect on all quality parameters of the stored sperm compared with the TCF extender. However, the analysis of sperm motility parameters revealed differences (P≤0.05) between TCF-LPFo and TCF-HEY extenders as affected by storage day. Semen extended in TCF-LPFo was characterized by lower values of TMOT and VAP on Day 5 and by lower values of TMOT and VCL on Day 7, compared to that extended in TCF-HEY. The analysis of PMOT, VSL, ALH, BCF, STR, LIN, PMI, MMP and ATP content showed no differences (P≥0.05) between TCF-LPFo and TCF-HEY extenders. The results suggest that TCF extender supplementation with LPFo or HEY improves the quality of dog sperm stored at 5°C. Both LPFo and HEY protect motility, membrane integrity and can contribute to the improvement of the energy status of stored dog sperm. LPFo can be alternatively used instead of HEY for dog semen preservation in the liquid state.

Schlüsselwörter

  • dog
  • sperm
  • quality
  • egg yolk
  • lipoproteins

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Dose-response effects of sage (Salvia officinalis) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) essential oils on rumen fermentation in vitro

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 125 - 142

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study aimed at determining the chemical composition of sage essential oil (SEO) and yarrow essential oil (YEO), and investigate in vitro their impacts on gas production kinetics, ruminal digestibility and fermentation, and rumen methanogenesis at different dosages (0, 250, 500 and 750 mg L-1 for SEO; and 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg L−1 for YEO). Alpha-pinene and 1,8 cineol were two major constituents of both SEO and YEO. Both SEO and YEO had a linear and quadratic effect on asymptotic gas production (P<0.05). The gas production rate increased linearly with SEO and curve-linearly with YEO dosages (P<0.05). In vitro degradability of dry matter and organic matter decreased only by YEO. The partitioning factor (PF) and the microbial biomass (MB) decreased and increased linearly with YEO and SEO dosages, respectively (P<0.05). Total volatile fatty acids (VFA ) were not affected by SEO, but decreased in a linear and quadratic manner with YEO dosage (P<0.05). The VFA pattern was modified in a linear and quadratic manner by both SEO and YEO (P<0.05). Ammonia concentration increased linearly only with YEO increasing doses. The methane to total gas (TG) ratio decreased quadratically only by SEO with reductions of 6.7, 13 and 4.2% at the doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg L−1, respectively. These results revealed that SEO modifies the rumen fermentation positively towards producing more MB and less methane in the dose range of 0-750 mg L−1, however, YEO adversely affected the rumen fermentation at all the tested doses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • essential oil
  • sage
  • yarrow
  • gas production
  • rumen fermentation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of different dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios on growth performance, blood lipid profiles, fatty acid composition of pork, carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 143 - 154

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A total of 72 crossbred pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an average initial BW of 51.59±1.59 kg were used in this 10-wk feeding trial to investigate the effects of different dietary n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratios in finishing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments (each n=24) with 6 replications and 4 pigs per pen (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated by replacing soybean oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6:n-3 close to 5:1, 10:1 and 15:1, respectively. The growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality parameters (meat color, sensory evaluation, cooking loss, drip loss, pH, longissimus muscle area and water holding capacity) were not influenced (P>0.10) by various dietary n-6:n-3 ratios. Pigs fed dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 had a lower (P<0.05) serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The concentrations of n-3 PUFA , including C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were improved (P<0.05) in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pigs fed dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1. Furthermore, pigs fed dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 decreased (P<0.05) the n-6 concentrations (C18:2n-6 and C20:4n-6) of longissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6:n-3 ratios to 5:1 could be beneficial for the blood lipid profiles, and improve the nutritional value of pork, without adverse effect on growth performance and meat quality parameters that are related to the consumer acceptance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blood lipid profiles
  • fatty acid composition
  • finishing pigs
  • n-6:n-3 ratios
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Blood hormones, metabolic parameters and fatty acid proportion in dairy cows fed condensed tannins and oils blend

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 155 - 166

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to track the changes in blood parameters of mid-lactation multiparous Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in response to a diet supplemented with a mixture of fish-soybean oils blend and tannin-containing lingonberry shrub (Vaccinium vitis idaea; VVI) extract. Twelve lactating cows were randomly assigned to a crossover design of two treatments (6 cows per treatment) which consisted of a control diet containing no supplement (CON) and CON supplemented with a mixture of 99 g of VVI leaves extract and 660 g of blended fish-soybean oils (MIX) daily. The obtained results showed a significant increase in plasma glucose level, as well as C18:1t11 and n-3 fatty acids proportion. A significant decrease was also observed in insulin concentration, triglyceride and C18:0 proportion. Generally, the saturated fatty acid proportion decreased while the unsaturated fatty acid significantly increased with the MIX diet. In conclusion, using supplements of a mixture of VVI extract and fish-soybean oils blend modulated the unsaturated fatty acid proportion in blood, without affecting the dairy cows’ blood parameters which were all within the normal ranges.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ruminants
  • condensed tannin
  • oil
  • blood
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of selected feed additives on egg performance and eggshell quality in laying hens fed a diet with standard or decreased calcium content

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 167 - 183

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the experiment with 240 ISA Brown hens fed the diets with standard or decreased Ca level was to evaluate the effect of selected feed additives on laying performance and eggshell quality. The hens were allocated to 10 treatments, each containing 12 cages (replicates) of 2 birds. A 2 × 5 experimental arrangement was used. From 26 to 70 wks of age, experimental diets containing 3.20 or 3.70% Ca were used. The diets were either not supplemented, or supplemented with sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria, herb extracts blend or chitosan. The decreased dietary Ca reduced eggshell quality indices in older hens (43-69 wks) (P<0.05) without effect on performance indices. The addition of the probiotic, herb extracts, or chitosan increased the laying rate (P<0.05). In older hens, i.e. at 69 wk, chitosan increased eggshell thickness and breaking strength, while herb extracts increased eggshell thickness (P<0.05). There was no interaction between the experimental factors in performance and eggshell quality. The used feed additives had no influence on fatty acid profile of egg lipids, however diet supplementation with chitosan decreased cholesterol concentration in egg yolk lipids (P<0.05). It can be concluded that such feed additives as probiotic, herb extracts, or chitosan may positively affect performance and eggshell quality, irrespective of Ca dietary level.

Schlüsselwörter

  • laying hens
  • calcium
  • feed additives
  • eggshell quality
  • yolk fatty acid profile

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Does road transport influence plasma leptin concentrations in horses? Preliminary study

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 185 - 193

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Transport is one of the most common stressors for horses leading to an increase in cortisol secretion. Cortisol promotes leptin synthesis and release. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of short transport on circulating leptin and cortisol concentrations. A total of 16 crossbred naïve horses (7 geldings, 9 mares) aged 2-11 years, and weighing 530-680 kg were included in the study. The horses were transported in a commercial horse-truck to an unknown holding pen for temporary housing. To measure plasma leptin and cortisol concentrations, three blood samples were collected from each horse: before transport, immediately after unloading from the truck, and nine hours after transport at the arrival point. Transport caused a significant increase in mean plasma cortisol concentration determined at unloading, and after nine hours of unloading, in comparison to values obtained before loading. Plasma leptin concentrations did not change during the study. In conclusion, transportation procedures did not influence plasma leptin concentration in horses, despite significantly increased cortisol release.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cortisol
  • horses
  • leptin
  • stress
  • transport
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of the duration of high air temperature on cow’s milking performance in moderate climate conditions

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 195 - 207

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main aim of the presented investigation was to determine the effect of the air thermal conditions variability on cow’s milking performance in summer in a moderate climate. The analyses covered the summer months of 2012-2013 (June-September) and shorter, several-day periods characterized by the times of elevated or high air temperatures and by the declines and increases in milking performance. The research was conducted in a free stall barn for Holstein-Friesian cows. The study showed that the thermoneutral temperature for high yielding cows decreases gradually with the registered increasingly warmer summer periods. The decreases in milk yield already commence at an air temperature equal to 20°C and also depend on the dairy cattle sensitivity. July and August, with a high number of hot days, caused that in September the cows responded faster to a worsening of thermal conditions and the decline in milking performance happened almost simultaneously with the air temperature change, at milking yield recovery after the period of 3-4 d (r=-0.84, P<0.04). The percent duration in the individual temperature ranges which caused a decrease of milk yield was also determined. In June, and at the beginning of July, this was 90% of the time with temperatures above 20°C, and simultaneously 45% above 25°C occurred to milking performance decrease (r=-0.89, P<0.02). In September, this was only 30% of the time with temperatures above 20°C (r=-0.91, P<0.01).

Schlüsselwörter

  • dairy cows
  • heat stress
  • air temperature
  • milking yield

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of some factors on championship results and performance in Hucul horses

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 209 - 224

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of some factors on the breeding and performance championship results of Hucul horses. The study material were results of the national finals of the breeding and performance championships for Hucul horses held during 2009-2015. These included breeding champion, the Hucul path as well as the endurance-condition tests. The one-way ANOVA and GLM procedure (multivariate ANOVA with interaction effects) were employed to estimate the impact of the analysed variables on the results of the breeding and performance assessment. The current results were, for the Hucul path and endurance-condition tests, significantly lower than for 2013. Individuals that were held in the foothills and mountain areas attained significantly higher scores at the breeding and performance championships. Strong impacts of breeding environment on levels of inbreeding were only observed in cases where the scores in respect of horse movement were at walk (η2p=0.13; P=0.04), trot (η2p=0.17; P=0.003) and the results for Hucul path (η2p=0.18, P=0.002). By far the strongest impact on the assessment for type (η2p=0.36, P=0.000) and conformation (η2p=0.32, P=0.006) was exercised by the interaction of age with male line and breeding environment, but in case of rating for movement at walk and trot, it was for the interaction of age with inbreeding and the breeding environment, namely η2p=0.31, P=0.04; η2p=0.33, P=0.01 respectively. Dependencies between components of assessment for Hucul horses were correlated at low and medium levels.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Hucul horses
  • performance value
  • breeding environment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of slaughter weight and sex on slaughter traits and meat quality of Polish autochthonous ZLotnicka Spotted pigs crossbred with Duroc

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 225 - 237

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of slaughter weight and sex on slaughter traits and meat quality of Zlotnicka Spotted x Duroc (ZS×D) hybrid fatteners. The material comprised 56 Zlotnicka Spotted × Duroc fatteners (28 barrows and 28 gilts) which were fattened to 245th day of life. Pigs were divided into the following three groups: Group I (n=16) <110 kg; Group II (n=23) ≥110 ≤120 kg, and Group III (n=17) >120 kg. The obtained results revealed influence of the final body weight on slaughter trait values with the exception of meatiness. Fatteners from the group with the highest weight were characterised by the thickest backfat as well as by the greatest height of the loin eye. Slaughter weight exerted a significant impact on protein content, water absorbability as well as on the pH of the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle. As to the influence of sex on slaughter traits, it was found that gilts were characterised by smaller backfat thickness and higher carcass meatiness than barrows. On the other hand, no effect of the slaughter weight and sex on colour parameters and sensory quality of the LTL muscle was ascertained. All the examined parameters were at high level in all slaughter weight and sex groups. The obtained results suggest that the slaughter of ZS×D crossbreds in groups I and II exerts a beneficial influence on slaughter trait levels and, at the same time, allows maintenance of high meat quality.

Schlüsselwörter

  • native swine
  • crossbreed
  • fatteners
  • gilts
  • barrows
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The physicochemical properties of offal from Puławska gilts in relation to carcass meatiness

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 239 - 249

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the meatiness of the Puławska pig carcass and selected physical and chemical parameters of pork offal. The study was conducted on a group of 50 porkers of the native Puławska breed, whose carcasses were classified into five classes: E, U, R, O, and P, covering 10 specimens each. Samples were collected from the tongue, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys, and the pH (pH45, pH24), percentage of free water and chemical composition (ash, fat, protein) were determined. To summarise the obtained results, it can be concluded that the increase of the meat content in carcass significantly and primarily affects the reduction of the offal’s weight and then the reduction of the pH45 as well as the increase of the free water content primarily in the kidney and the lungs. In the case of chemical composition an increase of the meatiness in the carcass affected the reduction of fat content in the kidneys, lungs, heart and liver. The liver and the heart were the offal with the greatest susceptibility to the effects of the carcass meatiness. In this offal the increase of the carcass meatiness significantly decreased the fat content and energy value, and also increased the ash and protein content. Offal from the studied meatiness classes of the pigs’ carcasses was characterised by adequate quality and suitability for processing.

Schlüsselwörter

  • EUROP carcass grading of pig
  • internal organs
  • native breed
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of water vapor pressure on muscle collagen solubility and selected characteristics of the longissimus lumborum muscle in crossbred cattle

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 251 - 260

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Most scientific studies are dedicated to the possibility of preparing beef for consumption under industrial conditions. Few publications are devoted to the issue of collagen thermohydrolysis in conditions available to the consumer. This study has analyzed the effect of small values of water vapor pressure on major culinary indices and chemical components of the longissimus lumborum muscle obtained from bulls with different growth rates. The experiment involved 48 animals. On the basis of the gain during the fattening time, the animals were divided into a low growth intensity group, with a daily body weight gain of ≤900 g, and a high growth intensity group with a daily gain of >900 g/day. A part of the samples of the longissimus lumborum muscle (control) was thermally treated in a water bath at 75°C. Another part was heat treated in a pressure-pot at 150°C, at a pressure of 0.1 MPa. The next part of samples was subjected to the same temperature, but the pressure was 0.2 MPa. The obtained results indicate that the values of the studied indices were largely affected by thermal processing parameters rather than the animals’ growth rate. The highest contents of total protein and water-soluble collagen were obtained in the case of a temperature of 150°C and the highest pressure (0.2 MPa). Water vapor with increased temperature and pressure also created favorable conditions for obtaining better meat tenderness and more favorable values of the water holding capacity. The latter characteristic appeared to be strongly connected with an increasing amount of water-soluble collagen, which was confirmed by relatively high values of the correlation coefficient between these characteristics. A strong positive correlation was also shown between thermal drip and the total collagen content in meat.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bulls
  • growth intensity
  • meat characteristics
  • collagen solubility
  • eating quality
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Meat quality of poulards obtained from three conserved breeds of hens

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 261 - 280

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of genotype (breed/line) and spaying of pullets on body weight, estradiol level, carcass and meat quality. Subjects were Rhode Island Red (R-11), Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Sussex hens (S-66), 100 birds per line, which were divided into 2 groups, each having 50 pullets and 50 poulards. Spaying was performed at 10 wk of age, under local anesthesia by a veterinarian. The present study showed that blood estradiol levels in poulards were much lower than in pullets regardless of genotype. Poulards showed higher body weight and their carcasses higher lightness and yellowness. In the sensory evaluation, poulard breast meat was more tasty and leg meat also more juicy and tender compared to pullet meat. Among the three conserved breeds, Rhode Island Red (R-11) and Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) hens are the best starting material for poulard production. Their carcasses showed good muscling and intense yellowness desirable to the consumers. R-11 birds achieved highest body weight. Spaying of pullets had no significant effect on the profile of fatty acids, but greater and statistically significant differences in this regard were found between hen lines. Compared to S-66 birds, breast muscles of R-11 and Ż-33 birds contained more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The breast and leg muscles of these birds had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (SFA ).

Schlüsselwörter

  • poulards
  • hens
  • native breeds
  • meat quality
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Quality and dietary value of pork meat of the Puławska and Złotnicka Spotted breeds, and commercial fattening pigs

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Jan 2018
Seitenbereich: 281 - 291

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the quality and nutritional value of meat originating from pigs of Polish native pure breeds - the Puławska and Złotnicka Spotted as well as the commercial four-breed crossbreds F1 (Large White × Polish Landrace) × F1 (Duroc × Pietrain). Physicochemical properties of meat were evaluated, such as acidity, water holding capacity, tenderness, and color parameters. In addition, functional properties of meat were determined: nutritional value, mineral content and fatty acid profile. The dietetic indices of meat were also determined. The smallest acidity of muscle tissue was characteristic of the meat of the Puławska breed and the smallest meat drip loss was found in both native breeds (P≤0.01). This can confirm their greater technological suitability. The most tender was meat obtained from pigs of the Puławska breed (36.07 N/cm2). The darker color was characteristic of the pig meat of the Złotnicka Spotted breed (L* = 49.19) (P≤0.01). Meat of all three groups of the tested pigs had the quality characteristics related to normal meat. The highest content of protein was found in the Złotnicka Spotted meat (25.23%) at optimum fat content (2.25%). The high content of ash (1.63%) recorded in the Złotnicka Spotted meat meant higher content of macro and microelements, especially iron and zinc, as compared to meat of the four-breed crossbreds (P≤0.01). The highest amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (52.72%) was recorded in porcine meat of the Puławska breed, while content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was the highest in meat of the four-breed crossbreds (16.77% vs. 9.32% and 15.19%) (P≤0.01). No differences were found between the groups tested for atherogenic index. In terms of most physicochemical and functional characteristics, meat of native pig breeds was superior to the meat of commercial pigs from mass-production.

Schlüsselwörter

  • pigs
  • native breeds
  • meat quality
  • nutritional value

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