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Tom 13 (2022): Zeszyt 2 (December 2022)

Tom 13 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (June 2022)

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Tom 12 (2021): Zeszyt 1 (June 2021)

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2255-7547
Pierwsze wydanie
14 Jun 2012
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 13 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (June 2022)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2255-7547
Pierwsze wydanie
14 Jun 2012
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

12 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Overcoming Disruptions Caused by the Pandemic: Purposeful Leading to a More Sustainable World

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 1 - 4

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Education for Sustainability in the Agriculture and Livestock Sector: Educational Experience in Gibraltar Area (Spain)

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 5 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

If we are to attain a sustainable future, humanity will need to make drastic changes towards a life based on sustainability in all areas, especially in the economic sector, including food production. The task of educating for sustainability needs to include food producers (farmers and livestock breeders). This article describes an educational experience carried out within the framework of a proposal presented in the “Second Call for Grants to Promote University-Company Projects” at the Technological Campus of Algeciras (Spain). It consisted of conducting in-depth interviews with farmers and livestock breeders, identifying the practices in the daily management of their farms, and having them participate in an education and training event in which they shared their knowledge. It was not an easy task because food producers have systematically been attacked by currents of opinion that blame them for causing greenhouse gas emissions. We adopted an approach based on empathy and on encouraging sustainable food production practices.

Słowa kluczowe

  • education for sustainable development
  • non-formal education
  • regenerative livestock farming
  • regenerative agriculture
  • university social responsibility
  • climate change
Otwarty dostęp

Focusing on Sustainable Development of Teachers

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 17 - 36

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study aims to investigate in which areas teachers need Professional Development Activities (PDAs), the barriers that prevent teachers from participating in PDAs, their frequency of participating in collegiality-based PDAs, and the relationship between their views about the effectiveness of PDAs and their professional commitment. The sample of the study comprised 821 teachers working at different grades in public schools. The study draws the following conclusions: The vast majority of teachers were of the opinion that the PDAs they participated in had positive effects. It was found that teachers mostly needed knowledge about the effective use of information technologies in education as well as about subject-specific teaching methods and techniques. It was observed that teachers did not participate sufficiently in collegiality-based PDAs that include peer coaching. Finally, it was found that teachers’ perceptions of barriers to their participation in PDAs, their level of need for PDAs, and their frequency of participation in collegiality-based PDAs had a significant effect on their attitudes towards PD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • professional development
  • teacher improvement
  • learning needs
  • learning barriers
  • collegiality learning
Otwarty dostęp

Sustainable Instrument Development in Educational Research

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 37 - 47

Abstrakt

Abstract

The current study presents an overview of studies investigating educational research instruments development. This study only discusses similar topics in instrument development. The instrument discussed is the assessment of perspective on inclusive education. This research adopted a literature review approach. There are seven research stages: beginning the article, relevant literature identification, review structuring, tone structuring, tense structuring, theoretical development, and evaluating. The current study indicates four main steps in the research and development method: data collection, planning, initial product development, and validation. Simultaneously, the revision or feedback process must be integrated with each step. Research and development is a cycle, so the product development results must be continuously reviewed to remain appropriate and solve current problems. Thus, with the sustainable instrument development method, ideas and innovations in education can be realized.

Słowa kluczowe

  • development research
  • educational research
  • instrument development
  • research instrument
Otwarty dostęp

Problems Encountered by Distance Education Staff in the Emergency Distance Education Process

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 48 - 62

Abstrakt

Abstract

With the effect of the COVID-19 virus, which emerged at the end of 2019 and caused a pandemic in the world, education has experienced a significant interruption and the world has embarked on a quest for alternatives for educational practices. Distance education, where the learner and the teacher can perform education by being in different places, has reached the forefront with its applicability to pandemic conditions and has increased its importance. As a result of these developments, the concept of emergency distance education, which is a temporary transfer of face-to-face education to technological environments, has emerged and has been put into practice. Educational institutions, which had to start distance education practices in a very short time, experienced various problems due to student density and limited time. It is considered important in order to reveal the experiences of distance education staff who are directly faced with these problems, to offer solutions to the problems and to be prepared for extraordinary situations that may occur later. The purpose of this study is to identify the problems experienced by the staff of the distance education center (DEC) in the distance education applications carried out during the pandemic and to make suggestions for the solution of these problems. In line with this purpose, focus group interviews were conducted with a total of eight personnel, three of whom were administrative, four of whom were academic and one of whom was technical, working in different positions at the distance education center of a university. The sample was determined in accordance with the convenience sampling. The data obtained in the study using phenomenology, which is one of the qualitative research designs, were analysed by content analysis method. As a result of the study, it was determined that the problems experienced by DEC staff in this process were grouped under four categories as student-centred, instructor-centred, system-centred, and other problems, and solution suggestions were presented within the framework of these problems.

Słowa kluczowe

  • distance education
  • COVID-19
  • DEC staff
  • pandemic
Otwarty dostęp

Employers’ Assessment of Graduates’ Utilization of Employability Skills: Influence on Organizational Growth and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 63 - 76

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study determined how employers’ assessment of graduates’ utilization of employability skills influences organizational growth and sustainable development in Nigeria. The design was ex-post facto with a population of 42 registered business organisations in Nigeria. Thirty-five organisation employers and 492 graduate employees were sampled through multistage techniques. Data were collected with “Employers’ Assessment of Graduates’ Employability Skills Utilization Questionnaire” (EAGESUQ) and “Sustainable Development University Education for Graduates’ Skills Acquisition Questionnaire (SUDUEFGSAQ). Validated EAGESAQ and SUDUEFGSAQ were tested for reliability using Cronbach alpha statistic yielded reliability coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. Inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The findings and conclusion showed that graduates skills, gender and fields of specialization significantly influence organization growth and sustainable development in Nigeria. Recommendations include: government agencies need to review university programmes and curriculum in line with labour market required skills; they need to monitor the implementation of internship for students and on-the-job-training of new graduate employees.

Słowa kluczowe

  • employers
  • graduate employees
  • employability skills
  • sustainable organizational growth
Otwarty dostęp

Teaching Sustainability: A Study of Teachers and Conceptual Tensions

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 77 - 87

Abstrakt

Abstract

Teaching sustainability topics puts teachers in a tense relationship: on one hand, they should convey the importance and urgency of the topic, but at the same time, this should be done in such a way that students can form their own judgements. In addition, teachers may themselves become privately involved and interested in the topic, which requires a professional understanding of their role. This concern was pursued in the present study. Teachers who teach sustainability topics were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. This article presents the results by means of case studies that show three contrasting cases. There are two ways of avoiding the tensions and one that takes the tension as an inherent part of the topic.

Słowa kluczowe

  • education for sustainable development
  • teacher professionalization
  • student evaluation
Otwarty dostęp

Towards Sustainable Assessment in Higher Education: Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 88 - 103

Abstrakt

Abstract

Assessing students’ knowledge and skills has been widely discussed among educators. The present study investigates lecturers’ and learners’ views on the assessment practices implemented in two higher education institutions. Their perceptions on providing feedback, variety of assessment tasks, use of peer-evaluation, and promotion of learning through the assessment activities have been explored. Twenty-one students and thirteen teachers from the Uzbek university and ten students and eight lecturers from the Latvian university participated in the semi-structured interviews. The comparative analysis revealed participants’ similar opinions on the importance of varying assessment assignments and feedback-giving practices. However, different views on the peer review, assessment and students’ learning processes were observed. The study has identified that despite some differences teachers at both universities promote sustainable assessment practices.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sustainable assessment
  • assignments
  • higher education
  • feedback
  • peer review
  • learning process
  • continuous assessment
Otwarty dostęp

Dealing With Cruelty Without Emotions? Sustainable Holocaust Education as a Constructive Coping With Emotions

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 104 - 111

Abstrakt

Abstract

The following study presents an example of Holocaust education for the 21st century by evaluating the “Wannsee-conference” 80 years ago (January 20, 1942) from a religious psychological perspective of 2022. After a general survey concerning Holocaust education in Germany, it focuses on emotional regulation as a coping strategy with emotionally loaded situations, demonstrated by the conference participants but also by the trials 1946 in Nuremberg, and 1961 in Jerusalem (Eichmann). The main purpose of the study is how students 80 years later can draw benefit from evaluating the documents from a religious (psychological) perspective. The educational focus, therefore, is on reconstructing and deconstructing such strategies to develop intrapersonal, interpersonal, intra- and inter-cultural emotional competencies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • competence
  • education
  • emotions
  • holocaust
  • regulation
  • wannsee
Otwarty dostęp

Attitudes and Evaluations of the Teachers Towards Distance Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 112 - 144

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aims to identify the attitudes and evaluations of the teachers towards distance education which has become compulsory due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Both the attitudes towards distance education and the evaluations regarding this application and process were taken with an online survey prepared in this context. The authors have reached the teachers with the help of various applications and collected the data. The study was performed under the mixed method. It has been determined that the teachersí attitudes towards distance education were negative. This study also examines how teachersí attitudes towards distance education differ according to various parameters and it was found that only the teachers with previous distance education experience have a positive attitude. Apart from these, the views of the teachers were also questioned by various means. It was found out that the teachers have both positive and negative attitudes and evaluations, and suggestions were developed in this regard.

Słowa kluczowe

  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • distance education
  • teachers
  • attitude
  • evaluation
Otwarty dostęp

Education for Sustainable Development, Curriculum Reform and Implications for Teacher Education in a Small Island Developing State

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 145 - 153

Abstrakt

Abstract

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been identified as a viable means of securing a sustainable present and future. However, the existing body of literature related to Sustainable Development (SD) and ESD varies. Additionally, there is a paucity of studies conducted within the context of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) such as Jamaica which are unique in their biodiversity, culture, economy and society. As a member state of the United Nations, Jamaica is expected to devise and implement strategies towards SD, guided by the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, there is a need for these strategies to be contextually appropriate and relevant as efforts are pursued to engage in curriculum reform seeking to improve learnersí knowledge, values, competencies and dispositions towards sustainable lifestyles. Consequently, curriculum reform should be carefully aligned with teacher education and its implementers. With this in mind, this paper seeks to i) contextualise ESD, ii) review salient components of curriculum reforms in Jamaica and iii) proffer implications for teacher education in a small island developing state in light of ESD curriculum reforms.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Sustainable Development (SD)
  • Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
  • curriculum reform
  • teacher education
Otwarty dostęp

Involvement in the Democratic Life in Europe: A Study on Views and Vision of Youth in Latvia

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 154 - 165

Abstrakt

Abstract

Currently, the educational system in Latvia is undergoing a transition from a traditional to a competence-based curriculum where civic education plays an important place in pupils’ holistic development. In the context of strengthening civic education, it is important to gain experience in practising citizenship in order to promote the active participation and co-responsibility of young people in social and political processes in the country and beyond. The study focuses on the factors that influence the formation of young Latvian people’s civic identity and the role of formal education and their teachers in this process in a broader sustainability context.

The article reflects the results of a study about Latvian youngsters’ involvement in political activities, their attitude and interest about political events in Latvia and the European Union.

Słowa kluczowe

  • youth
  • citizenship
  • civic identity
  • social responsibility
  • interest in politics
12 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Overcoming Disruptions Caused by the Pandemic: Purposeful Leading to a More Sustainable World

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 1 - 4

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Education for Sustainability in the Agriculture and Livestock Sector: Educational Experience in Gibraltar Area (Spain)

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 5 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

If we are to attain a sustainable future, humanity will need to make drastic changes towards a life based on sustainability in all areas, especially in the economic sector, including food production. The task of educating for sustainability needs to include food producers (farmers and livestock breeders). This article describes an educational experience carried out within the framework of a proposal presented in the “Second Call for Grants to Promote University-Company Projects” at the Technological Campus of Algeciras (Spain). It consisted of conducting in-depth interviews with farmers and livestock breeders, identifying the practices in the daily management of their farms, and having them participate in an education and training event in which they shared their knowledge. It was not an easy task because food producers have systematically been attacked by currents of opinion that blame them for causing greenhouse gas emissions. We adopted an approach based on empathy and on encouraging sustainable food production practices.

Słowa kluczowe

  • education for sustainable development
  • non-formal education
  • regenerative livestock farming
  • regenerative agriculture
  • university social responsibility
  • climate change
Otwarty dostęp

Focusing on Sustainable Development of Teachers

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 17 - 36

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study aims to investigate in which areas teachers need Professional Development Activities (PDAs), the barriers that prevent teachers from participating in PDAs, their frequency of participating in collegiality-based PDAs, and the relationship between their views about the effectiveness of PDAs and their professional commitment. The sample of the study comprised 821 teachers working at different grades in public schools. The study draws the following conclusions: The vast majority of teachers were of the opinion that the PDAs they participated in had positive effects. It was found that teachers mostly needed knowledge about the effective use of information technologies in education as well as about subject-specific teaching methods and techniques. It was observed that teachers did not participate sufficiently in collegiality-based PDAs that include peer coaching. Finally, it was found that teachers’ perceptions of barriers to their participation in PDAs, their level of need for PDAs, and their frequency of participation in collegiality-based PDAs had a significant effect on their attitudes towards PD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • professional development
  • teacher improvement
  • learning needs
  • learning barriers
  • collegiality learning
Otwarty dostęp

Sustainable Instrument Development in Educational Research

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 37 - 47

Abstrakt

Abstract

The current study presents an overview of studies investigating educational research instruments development. This study only discusses similar topics in instrument development. The instrument discussed is the assessment of perspective on inclusive education. This research adopted a literature review approach. There are seven research stages: beginning the article, relevant literature identification, review structuring, tone structuring, tense structuring, theoretical development, and evaluating. The current study indicates four main steps in the research and development method: data collection, planning, initial product development, and validation. Simultaneously, the revision or feedback process must be integrated with each step. Research and development is a cycle, so the product development results must be continuously reviewed to remain appropriate and solve current problems. Thus, with the sustainable instrument development method, ideas and innovations in education can be realized.

Słowa kluczowe

  • development research
  • educational research
  • instrument development
  • research instrument
Otwarty dostęp

Problems Encountered by Distance Education Staff in the Emergency Distance Education Process

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 48 - 62

Abstrakt

Abstract

With the effect of the COVID-19 virus, which emerged at the end of 2019 and caused a pandemic in the world, education has experienced a significant interruption and the world has embarked on a quest for alternatives for educational practices. Distance education, where the learner and the teacher can perform education by being in different places, has reached the forefront with its applicability to pandemic conditions and has increased its importance. As a result of these developments, the concept of emergency distance education, which is a temporary transfer of face-to-face education to technological environments, has emerged and has been put into practice. Educational institutions, which had to start distance education practices in a very short time, experienced various problems due to student density and limited time. It is considered important in order to reveal the experiences of distance education staff who are directly faced with these problems, to offer solutions to the problems and to be prepared for extraordinary situations that may occur later. The purpose of this study is to identify the problems experienced by the staff of the distance education center (DEC) in the distance education applications carried out during the pandemic and to make suggestions for the solution of these problems. In line with this purpose, focus group interviews were conducted with a total of eight personnel, three of whom were administrative, four of whom were academic and one of whom was technical, working in different positions at the distance education center of a university. The sample was determined in accordance with the convenience sampling. The data obtained in the study using phenomenology, which is one of the qualitative research designs, were analysed by content analysis method. As a result of the study, it was determined that the problems experienced by DEC staff in this process were grouped under four categories as student-centred, instructor-centred, system-centred, and other problems, and solution suggestions were presented within the framework of these problems.

Słowa kluczowe

  • distance education
  • COVID-19
  • DEC staff
  • pandemic
Otwarty dostęp

Employers’ Assessment of Graduates’ Utilization of Employability Skills: Influence on Organizational Growth and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 63 - 76

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study determined how employers’ assessment of graduates’ utilization of employability skills influences organizational growth and sustainable development in Nigeria. The design was ex-post facto with a population of 42 registered business organisations in Nigeria. Thirty-five organisation employers and 492 graduate employees were sampled through multistage techniques. Data were collected with “Employers’ Assessment of Graduates’ Employability Skills Utilization Questionnaire” (EAGESUQ) and “Sustainable Development University Education for Graduates’ Skills Acquisition Questionnaire (SUDUEFGSAQ). Validated EAGESAQ and SUDUEFGSAQ were tested for reliability using Cronbach alpha statistic yielded reliability coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. Inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The findings and conclusion showed that graduates skills, gender and fields of specialization significantly influence organization growth and sustainable development in Nigeria. Recommendations include: government agencies need to review university programmes and curriculum in line with labour market required skills; they need to monitor the implementation of internship for students and on-the-job-training of new graduate employees.

Słowa kluczowe

  • employers
  • graduate employees
  • employability skills
  • sustainable organizational growth
Otwarty dostęp

Teaching Sustainability: A Study of Teachers and Conceptual Tensions

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 77 - 87

Abstrakt

Abstract

Teaching sustainability topics puts teachers in a tense relationship: on one hand, they should convey the importance and urgency of the topic, but at the same time, this should be done in such a way that students can form their own judgements. In addition, teachers may themselves become privately involved and interested in the topic, which requires a professional understanding of their role. This concern was pursued in the present study. Teachers who teach sustainability topics were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. This article presents the results by means of case studies that show three contrasting cases. There are two ways of avoiding the tensions and one that takes the tension as an inherent part of the topic.

Słowa kluczowe

  • education for sustainable development
  • teacher professionalization
  • student evaluation
Otwarty dostęp

Towards Sustainable Assessment in Higher Education: Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 88 - 103

Abstrakt

Abstract

Assessing students’ knowledge and skills has been widely discussed among educators. The present study investigates lecturers’ and learners’ views on the assessment practices implemented in two higher education institutions. Their perceptions on providing feedback, variety of assessment tasks, use of peer-evaluation, and promotion of learning through the assessment activities have been explored. Twenty-one students and thirteen teachers from the Uzbek university and ten students and eight lecturers from the Latvian university participated in the semi-structured interviews. The comparative analysis revealed participants’ similar opinions on the importance of varying assessment assignments and feedback-giving practices. However, different views on the peer review, assessment and students’ learning processes were observed. The study has identified that despite some differences teachers at both universities promote sustainable assessment practices.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sustainable assessment
  • assignments
  • higher education
  • feedback
  • peer review
  • learning process
  • continuous assessment
Otwarty dostęp

Dealing With Cruelty Without Emotions? Sustainable Holocaust Education as a Constructive Coping With Emotions

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 104 - 111

Abstrakt

Abstract

The following study presents an example of Holocaust education for the 21st century by evaluating the “Wannsee-conference” 80 years ago (January 20, 1942) from a religious psychological perspective of 2022. After a general survey concerning Holocaust education in Germany, it focuses on emotional regulation as a coping strategy with emotionally loaded situations, demonstrated by the conference participants but also by the trials 1946 in Nuremberg, and 1961 in Jerusalem (Eichmann). The main purpose of the study is how students 80 years later can draw benefit from evaluating the documents from a religious (psychological) perspective. The educational focus, therefore, is on reconstructing and deconstructing such strategies to develop intrapersonal, interpersonal, intra- and inter-cultural emotional competencies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • competence
  • education
  • emotions
  • holocaust
  • regulation
  • wannsee
Otwarty dostęp

Attitudes and Evaluations of the Teachers Towards Distance Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 112 - 144

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aims to identify the attitudes and evaluations of the teachers towards distance education which has become compulsory due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Both the attitudes towards distance education and the evaluations regarding this application and process were taken with an online survey prepared in this context. The authors have reached the teachers with the help of various applications and collected the data. The study was performed under the mixed method. It has been determined that the teachersí attitudes towards distance education were negative. This study also examines how teachersí attitudes towards distance education differ according to various parameters and it was found that only the teachers with previous distance education experience have a positive attitude. Apart from these, the views of the teachers were also questioned by various means. It was found out that the teachers have both positive and negative attitudes and evaluations, and suggestions were developed in this regard.

Słowa kluczowe

  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • distance education
  • teachers
  • attitude
  • evaluation
Otwarty dostęp

Education for Sustainable Development, Curriculum Reform and Implications for Teacher Education in a Small Island Developing State

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 145 - 153

Abstrakt

Abstract

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been identified as a viable means of securing a sustainable present and future. However, the existing body of literature related to Sustainable Development (SD) and ESD varies. Additionally, there is a paucity of studies conducted within the context of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) such as Jamaica which are unique in their biodiversity, culture, economy and society. As a member state of the United Nations, Jamaica is expected to devise and implement strategies towards SD, guided by the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, there is a need for these strategies to be contextually appropriate and relevant as efforts are pursued to engage in curriculum reform seeking to improve learnersí knowledge, values, competencies and dispositions towards sustainable lifestyles. Consequently, curriculum reform should be carefully aligned with teacher education and its implementers. With this in mind, this paper seeks to i) contextualise ESD, ii) review salient components of curriculum reforms in Jamaica and iii) proffer implications for teacher education in a small island developing state in light of ESD curriculum reforms.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Sustainable Development (SD)
  • Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
  • curriculum reform
  • teacher education
Otwarty dostęp

Involvement in the Democratic Life in Europe: A Study on Views and Vision of Youth in Latvia

Data publikacji: 14 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 154 - 165

Abstrakt

Abstract

Currently, the educational system in Latvia is undergoing a transition from a traditional to a competence-based curriculum where civic education plays an important place in pupils’ holistic development. In the context of strengthening civic education, it is important to gain experience in practising citizenship in order to promote the active participation and co-responsibility of young people in social and political processes in the country and beyond. The study focuses on the factors that influence the formation of young Latvian people’s civic identity and the role of formal education and their teachers in this process in a broader sustainability context.

The article reflects the results of a study about Latvian youngsters’ involvement in political activities, their attitude and interest about political events in Latvia and the European Union.

Słowa kluczowe

  • youth
  • citizenship
  • civic identity
  • social responsibility
  • interest in politics

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