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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1338-4139
ISSN
1335-8421
Pierwsze wydanie
03 Jun 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 3 (December 2013)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1338-4139
ISSN
1335-8421
Pierwsze wydanie
03 Jun 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

5 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Apnea in preterm newborns: determinants, pathophysiology, effects on cardiovascular parameters and treatment

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 5 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

Apnea, especially in preterm newborns (AoP) is one of the common problems encountered at neonatal units. Numerous factors are likely to play a role in the etiology of apnea. Recent data sugest a role for genetic predisposition of AoP. It seems, that physiological rather than pathological immaturity of the respiratory, or cardiorespiratory control, play a major part in the pathophysiology of AoP. Immaturity of the brainstem, cerebral cortex, receptors of the lungs and the airways as well as of the chemoreceptors contribute to the development of apnea in preterm newborns. Several neurotransmitters (GABA, adenosin, endorphins) and their maturational changes are including in pathogenesis of apnea, too. The instability of the upper airway in preterm infants, asynchrony of musculature of the upper airway and diaphragm, pathological changes in the upper airway and malformations of the central nervous system might also contribute to the occurrence and severity of AoP. In newborns, apnea occurs more frequently in active sleep than in quiet sleep and the frequency of apnea in active sleep is higher in the warm conditions. Durations of apnea correlate with the body heat loss. Cardiovascular changes during apnea - bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction and various changes in peripheral blood flow and pressure occur together with changes in ECG. The standard clinical management of apnea includes non-pharmacological treatment (eliciting arousal reactions and reflex breathing by mechanical skin, or mucosa stimulations), pharmacological treatment (methylxanthines are preferred) and application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or in severe apnea - mechanical ventilation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • apnea
  • apnea of prematurity
  • newborn
  • immaturity
  • chemoreflexes
  • heart rate
  • bradycardia
  • blood pressure
  • oxygen desaturation
  • methylxanthines
  • treatment of apnea
Otwarty dostęp

Drug resistance to anti-tuberculotics in children - three years status in Slovakia

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 18 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

Drug resistant tuberculosis is a serious and increasing problem worldwide, particularly in countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis and HIV infections. Resistant tuberculosis in children is usually due to the transmission of resistant strains from the environment where they live. Most often it is a transfer from the parents, or other relatives. A paucibacillary nature of the disease in children associated with difficulties in a collection of adequate sputum samples means that the samples are often microscopically negative. If the cultivation is negative, any bacteriological confirmation of the drug resistance is impossible. The aim of this study was to review current diagnostic and therapeutic principles in tuberculosis in children and to demonstrate its incidence in population of the Slovak Republic during 2010-2012. We have retrospectively analyzed all children sputum samples from children with diagnosed tuberculosis in Slovakia. The classical bacteriological analysis (culture on solid eggs-based media) was used to confirm the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and the proportion method was applied to test its susceptibility or resistance to mostly used antituberculotics. In years 2010-2012, three cases of resistant form of tuberculosis have been diagnosed in Slovakia among 16 children with cultivation positive to tuberculosis. In all of the cases the INH mono-resistance was confirmed (with the same strains present in their relatives), suggesting primary resistance origin of infection. To ensure an appropriate and successful treatment of tuberculosis in children, accurate and timely diagnostics and determination of susceptibility to anti-tuberculotics is essential.

Słowa kluczowe

  • tuberculosis
  • children
  • resistance
  • anti-tuberculotics
  • Slovakia
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of high-energy ionizing radiation on organ systems in human medicine

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 23 - 27

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate acute post-radiation changes after therapy with ionizing radiation manifested by erythema or dry, squamous and scurfy skin on a breast. We observed 100 female patients suffering from an early stage of breast carcinoma. The entering criteria were: age below 70 years, 100% of the Karnofsky s Score, no tumor bilaterality, tumor in the stage of T1 or T2. The female patients had finished nonradical surgery consisting from quadrantectomy and deviation of the axilla. Our results showed relationships between the localization and the level of breast skin change as well as between adjuvant chemotherapy and the level of breast skin change and, finally, between the size of the average dose of high energy radiation and the level of breast skin change.

Słowa kluczowe

  • radiotherapy
  • breast skin change
  • skin erythema
  • total dose of radiation
Otwarty dostęp

The spread of infection through the danger space to the mediastinum case report

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 28 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Deep neck infection is an infection in the potential space and fascial planes of the neck, either with abscess formation or cellulitis. Cervical fascias create space and plane, which define and limit the spread of infection. Danger space is the area of thin connective tissue extending from the skull base down to the diaphragm. This space is enclosed on all sides, therefore inflammation in this area arises from penetration and spreads of infection from surrounding structures. This risk is in the rapid spread of infection in the chest, due to the low resistance of thin connective tissue. Formation of the descending necrotizing mediastinitis is the most common and most feared complication of danger space. Authors describe a case of extensive dental infection that despite intensive surgical and antibiotic treatement spread to other anatomical areas and caused descending necrotizing mediastinitis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • danger space
  • deep neck infection
  • descending necrotizing mediastinitis
Otwarty dostęp

Primary yolk sac tumour of liver with unusual clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 33 - 37

Abstrakt

Abstract

Primary hepatic yolk sac tumour (YST) is an extremely rare tumour of the liver. The exact etiology of primary hepatic YST is still unclear. This tumour is very aggressive with ability to spread into distant sites, where it can lead to the first clinical presentation. The authors present a case of a 20-year-old woman with fever and pain in the epigastrium, which later on moved to the right hypogastrium clinically resembling acute appendicitis. Ultrasound revealed tumorous mass in the liver and hypoechogenous tumorous mass in the area of right adnexes and terminal ileum. Tumorous mass in the liver was confirmed on the CT scan. Markedly raised levels of serum α-fetoprotein concentration were detected. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed and there was bioptically verified a diagnosis of YST. Afterwards, patient underwent right hemihepatectomy, right hemicolectomy and right adnexectomy. There was found no evidence of the gonadal, mediastinal, retroperitoneal and central nervous system origin of the YST. Histological findings from the liver proved primary yolk sac tumour of the liver with the metastatic spread into the appendix, caecum and regional lymph nodes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • liver neoplasm
  • yolk sac tumour
  • endodermal sinus tumour
  • alpha-fetoprotein
5 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Apnea in preterm newborns: determinants, pathophysiology, effects on cardiovascular parameters and treatment

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 5 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

Apnea, especially in preterm newborns (AoP) is one of the common problems encountered at neonatal units. Numerous factors are likely to play a role in the etiology of apnea. Recent data sugest a role for genetic predisposition of AoP. It seems, that physiological rather than pathological immaturity of the respiratory, or cardiorespiratory control, play a major part in the pathophysiology of AoP. Immaturity of the brainstem, cerebral cortex, receptors of the lungs and the airways as well as of the chemoreceptors contribute to the development of apnea in preterm newborns. Several neurotransmitters (GABA, adenosin, endorphins) and their maturational changes are including in pathogenesis of apnea, too. The instability of the upper airway in preterm infants, asynchrony of musculature of the upper airway and diaphragm, pathological changes in the upper airway and malformations of the central nervous system might also contribute to the occurrence and severity of AoP. In newborns, apnea occurs more frequently in active sleep than in quiet sleep and the frequency of apnea in active sleep is higher in the warm conditions. Durations of apnea correlate with the body heat loss. Cardiovascular changes during apnea - bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction and various changes in peripheral blood flow and pressure occur together with changes in ECG. The standard clinical management of apnea includes non-pharmacological treatment (eliciting arousal reactions and reflex breathing by mechanical skin, or mucosa stimulations), pharmacological treatment (methylxanthines are preferred) and application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or in severe apnea - mechanical ventilation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • apnea
  • apnea of prematurity
  • newborn
  • immaturity
  • chemoreflexes
  • heart rate
  • bradycardia
  • blood pressure
  • oxygen desaturation
  • methylxanthines
  • treatment of apnea
Otwarty dostęp

Drug resistance to anti-tuberculotics in children - three years status in Slovakia

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 18 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

Drug resistant tuberculosis is a serious and increasing problem worldwide, particularly in countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis and HIV infections. Resistant tuberculosis in children is usually due to the transmission of resistant strains from the environment where they live. Most often it is a transfer from the parents, or other relatives. A paucibacillary nature of the disease in children associated with difficulties in a collection of adequate sputum samples means that the samples are often microscopically negative. If the cultivation is negative, any bacteriological confirmation of the drug resistance is impossible. The aim of this study was to review current diagnostic and therapeutic principles in tuberculosis in children and to demonstrate its incidence in population of the Slovak Republic during 2010-2012. We have retrospectively analyzed all children sputum samples from children with diagnosed tuberculosis in Slovakia. The classical bacteriological analysis (culture on solid eggs-based media) was used to confirm the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and the proportion method was applied to test its susceptibility or resistance to mostly used antituberculotics. In years 2010-2012, three cases of resistant form of tuberculosis have been diagnosed in Slovakia among 16 children with cultivation positive to tuberculosis. In all of the cases the INH mono-resistance was confirmed (with the same strains present in their relatives), suggesting primary resistance origin of infection. To ensure an appropriate and successful treatment of tuberculosis in children, accurate and timely diagnostics and determination of susceptibility to anti-tuberculotics is essential.

Słowa kluczowe

  • tuberculosis
  • children
  • resistance
  • anti-tuberculotics
  • Slovakia
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of high-energy ionizing radiation on organ systems in human medicine

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 23 - 27

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate acute post-radiation changes after therapy with ionizing radiation manifested by erythema or dry, squamous and scurfy skin on a breast. We observed 100 female patients suffering from an early stage of breast carcinoma. The entering criteria were: age below 70 years, 100% of the Karnofsky s Score, no tumor bilaterality, tumor in the stage of T1 or T2. The female patients had finished nonradical surgery consisting from quadrantectomy and deviation of the axilla. Our results showed relationships between the localization and the level of breast skin change as well as between adjuvant chemotherapy and the level of breast skin change and, finally, between the size of the average dose of high energy radiation and the level of breast skin change.

Słowa kluczowe

  • radiotherapy
  • breast skin change
  • skin erythema
  • total dose of radiation
Otwarty dostęp

The spread of infection through the danger space to the mediastinum case report

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 28 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Deep neck infection is an infection in the potential space and fascial planes of the neck, either with abscess formation or cellulitis. Cervical fascias create space and plane, which define and limit the spread of infection. Danger space is the area of thin connective tissue extending from the skull base down to the diaphragm. This space is enclosed on all sides, therefore inflammation in this area arises from penetration and spreads of infection from surrounding structures. This risk is in the rapid spread of infection in the chest, due to the low resistance of thin connective tissue. Formation of the descending necrotizing mediastinitis is the most common and most feared complication of danger space. Authors describe a case of extensive dental infection that despite intensive surgical and antibiotic treatement spread to other anatomical areas and caused descending necrotizing mediastinitis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • danger space
  • deep neck infection
  • descending necrotizing mediastinitis
Otwarty dostęp

Primary yolk sac tumour of liver with unusual clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis

Data publikacji: 25 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 33 - 37

Abstrakt

Abstract

Primary hepatic yolk sac tumour (YST) is an extremely rare tumour of the liver. The exact etiology of primary hepatic YST is still unclear. This tumour is very aggressive with ability to spread into distant sites, where it can lead to the first clinical presentation. The authors present a case of a 20-year-old woman with fever and pain in the epigastrium, which later on moved to the right hypogastrium clinically resembling acute appendicitis. Ultrasound revealed tumorous mass in the liver and hypoechogenous tumorous mass in the area of right adnexes and terminal ileum. Tumorous mass in the liver was confirmed on the CT scan. Markedly raised levels of serum α-fetoprotein concentration were detected. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed and there was bioptically verified a diagnosis of YST. Afterwards, patient underwent right hemihepatectomy, right hemicolectomy and right adnexectomy. There was found no evidence of the gonadal, mediastinal, retroperitoneal and central nervous system origin of the YST. Histological findings from the liver proved primary yolk sac tumour of the liver with the metastatic spread into the appendix, caecum and regional lymph nodes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • liver neoplasm
  • yolk sac tumour
  • endodermal sinus tumour
  • alpha-fetoprotein

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