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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2284-5623
ISSN
2284-5623
Pubblicato per la prima volta
08 Aug 2013
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 21 (2013): Edizione 2 (June 2013)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2284-5623
ISSN
2284-5623
Pubblicato per la prima volta
08 Aug 2013
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

12 Articoli
Accesso libero

Reciprocal antagonism between inflammation and the protein C system

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 129 - 133

Astratto

Abstract

Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease secreted by the hepatocytes as an inactive zymogen and activated by thrombin bound to endothelial thrombomodulin. An endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is involved in both activation and enhancement of protein C activity, resulting in proteolytic degradation of clotting factors Va and VIIIa, thereby providing an efficient anticoagulant mechanism. Evidence was also provided that proinflammatory cytokines would impair the endothelia-mediated activation and activity of the Protein C system by inducing an internalization and proteolytic degradation of thrombomodulin and by shedding EPCR from the surface of endothelial cells membrane. Clinical and experimental studies also emphasized that an inflammatory acute phase reaction is accompanied by a commuted hepatic protein synthesis leading to an increase of plasma fibrinogen, factor VIII:C and of α1 protease inhibitor, while the plasma level of protein C zymogen decrease. On the other hand infusions of activated protein C were reported to protect from a toxico-septic shock by exerting not only anticoagulant but also anti-inflammatory effects.

Keywords

  • Protein C
  • thrombomodulin
  • endothelial protein C receptor
  • inflammation-dependent depressive effects
  • therapeutic approach with activated protein C

Cuvinte cheie

  • proteina C
  • trombomodulina
  • receptor endotelial al proteinei C
  • efecte depresive ale inflamaţiei
  • abordare terapeutică prin infuzii cu Proteina C activată
Accesso libero

Hypercoagulability risk factors associated with venous thromboembolic events in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and nephrotic syndrome: a prospective observational study

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 135 - 143

Astratto

Abstract

Background: The nephrotic syndrome (NS) is associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic complications due to multiple abnormalities in haemostasis and the coagulation system occurring in these patients. We aimed to assess prospectively the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in a large cohort of NS patients and to identify predictive factors for VTE, especially haemostasis-related parameters. Methods: We performed a prospective observational study including consecutive adult patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and NS. The diagnosis of NS was confirmed by the presence of a daily protein excretion greater than 3.5 g. Clinical and biological data, including coagulation and fibrinolytic system-related parameters, were obtained every 6 months during follow-up. Occurrence of VTE was the primary outcome of the study. Results: We enrolled 56 patients (52±11 years, 64% men). Median follow-up time was 12 [IQR: 12, 33] months. During follow-up 11 VTE occurred, 91 % of them in the first six months. Baseline proteinuria and serum albumin were associated with VTE (p<0.001). As for the haemostatic parameters, antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, protein C activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tisular plasminogen activator (tPA) levels were associated with an increased risk of VTE (all p<0.05), while protein S activity and fibrinogen were not. At multivariable analysis only ATIII activity (Exp(B) 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.98; p = 0.027) and serum albumin (Exp(B) 0.062, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.37; p = 0.002) remained independently associated with VTE. Conclusion: In this prospective study the risk of VTE was higher in the first 6 months of follow-up. Among the haemostasis-related parameters, only ATIII deficiency emerged as VTE independent risk factor in adult patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and NS.

Keywords

  • Antithrombin III
  • D-dimers
  • membranous nephropathy
  • nephrotic syndrome
  • thrombosis

Cuvinte cheie

  • Antitrombina III
  • D-dimeri
  • nefropatie membranoasă
  • sindrom nefrotic
  • tromboză
Accesso libero

Assessment of beta cell function in subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 145 - 160

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess residual beta cell function at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and identify accessible laboratory markers that best estimate it. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in beta cell function 6 months after starting different therapeutical regimens. Materials and methods: Forty seven subjects were included in the study and each performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 6 months. Metabolic and immunologic parameters were determined from fasting samples. According to the degree of metabolic decompensation, specific therapy was started: metformin, metformin plus gliclazide or insulin therapy (with/out metformin). Early and total beta cell function was evaluated by the disposition index (DI) calculated for 30 minutes and 120 minutes, respectively. Results: At diagnosis, fasting blood glucose (BG) and HbA1c varied largely (129-521 mg/dl and 5.5-14%, respectively). The DI30 and DI120 decreased with more severe glycemic decompensation. For both DI30 and DI120 significant negative correlations were found for glycemic markers (HbA1c, 2-hour BG and maximal BG amplitude) and positive correlation for 2- hour C peptide (p<0.0001 for all). HbA1c value of 7% discriminated an important decrease of DI30 and DI120. Insulin and combined therapy significantly improved DI120 at 6 months (p: 0.0062 and 0.01, respectively), while DI30 was improved only with insulin therapy (p: 0.0326). Conclusions: Beta cell function at onset correlated with HbA1c, 2-hour BG and C peptide during OGTT. Thus OGTT and HbA1c are pivotal for evaluation of beta cell function. Insulin therapy improved early and total insulin secretion at 6 months.

Keywords

  • type 2 diabetes
  • beta cell function
  • biological markers
  • insulin therapy

Cuvinte-cheie

  • diabet zaharat tip 2
  • funcţia beta celulară
  • markeri biologici
  • insulinoterapie
Accesso libero

The antioxidant potential of Brassica rapa L. on glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase enzymes and total antioxidant status

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 161 - 169

Astratto

Abstract

Research on antioxidant potential from vegetables is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. However, relatively little work has been done to investigate the antioxidant effect of crude extract and/or different fractions from Brassica rapa L. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of crude extract and its fractions from Brassica rapa L. fruit part was tested for glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and total antioxidant status (TAS) in blood samples. Our results reveal the fact that crude extract and each analyzed fraction (i.e. aqueous, ethyl acetate and chloroform) showed a concentration dependent effects on GPx, SOD and TAS in respect with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) used as negative control and vitamin C, as positive control. Therefore, GPx levels showed a highest value in crude extract and chloroform fraction (6981 U/L both at 10 mg/ml), SOD levels showed the same results in aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions (220 U/ml both at 10 mg/ml) and TAS in crude extract and all three fractions (i.e. aqueous, ethyl acetate and chloroform, 1.68 mmol/L at 10 mg/ml for all three fractions) in respect with saline solution (p<0.05). Furthermore, vitamin C showed the highest values on all three analyzed enzymes (8769 U/L for GPx, 223 U/ml for SOD and 1.8 mmol/L for TAS at 100 μg/ml). Our investigations have been proved to be promising in terms of future potential applications of crude extract and its fractions as components in a range of phytochemicals composition and/or different pharmaceutical usage, owing to their antioxidant potential.

Keywords

  • Brassica rapa L.
  • glutathione peroxidase
  • superoxide dismutase
  • total antioxidant status
  • enzymes

Cuvinte cheie

  • Brassica rapa L.
  • glutation peroxidaza
  • superoxid dismutaza
  • status total antioxidant
  • enzime
Accesso libero

Evaluation of the gametotoxic effect of nandrolone decanoate on the gametogenic function of male rabbit

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 171 - 177

Astratto

Abstract

The research was conducted on a number of 24 sexually mature male rabbits of common breed, divided into two numerically equal groups. The subjects from the experimental group were given 20 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate, intramuscularly, twice a week for four consecutive weeks. The control group did not receive any treatment. At the end of the experiment the testes were harvested through bilateral orchiectomy and processed for carrying out histopathological investigations. Testicular fragments were fixated in Stieve’s mixture for 24 hours, dehydrated with alcohol, clarified with butyl alcohol and included in paraffin. Serial sections of 5 μ thickness were stained by Masson's trichrome method modified by Goldner. The testes taken from the control animals showed no detectable changes in optical microscopy. In the case of the animals belonging to experimental lots, there were alterations revealed evidenced by vacuolar dystrophy in the spermatocytes and spermatids, apoptosis, the edema of sperm head, spermatids syncytialization and cell necrosis followed by the disintegration of the seminal cell line with the formation of cellular debris in the seminiferous tubules lumen. These changes have affected part of the seminal cell line from the adluminal compartment (primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoids), but not those from the basal compartment (type A1 and B spermatogonia), which proved to be resistant in the conditions of 30 days exposure, at a dose of 20 mg/kg. In this context spermatogenesis is affected only for the period of drug action, but the risk of nandrolone decanoate transmission to humans through animal origin food consumption remains, with negative consequences on the spermatogenesis.

Keywords

  • gametogenesis
  • gametotoxicity
  • nandrolonone decanoat
  • histopatology

Cuvinte-cheie

  • gametogeneză
  • gametotoxicitate
  • nortestosteron decanoat
  • histopatologie
Accesso libero

The role of the sialic acid in monitoring the evolution of malignant melanoma. From murine models to human research

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 179 - 188

Astratto

Abstract

Purpose: To identify sialic acid as a tumor marker to be used in experimental models. Obtained data will be extrapolated to humans, so that this marker can be used in clinical practice. Materials and methods: We used B16 melanoma cells. The lot was composed of 30 male C57Bl6 mice, which received subcutaneous injections of 5x105 B16 melanoma cells into the right flank. Tumor volume was measured with a vernier caliper. Sialic acid was determined from the serum obtained by cardiac puncture. The second step of our research was performed on a number of 25 patients with cutaneous melanoma. Determination of sialic acid was performed using the Kattermann colorimetric method. The correlation between sialic acid and disease progression was exemplified in two clinical cases. Sialic acid determination was performed dynamically from diagnosis, following disease progression. Results: In murine models tumors increased after a lag period of up to 10 days. Tumor growth was recorded by measuring the tumor’s diameters and calculating its volume. We observed a progressive increase of sialic acid in parallel with tumor volume. In human subjects, sialic acid levels increase in metastatic disease and are common in localized disease. In the two clinical cases there was a very strong correlation between sialic acid and disease progression. Conclusions: B16 melanoma cells are highly metastatic. Sialic acid level was increased in metastatic tumor animals compared to normal animals. Higher levels of sialic acid have been shown to correlate with the metastatic potential of tumor cells. For humans, determination of total serum sialic acid would be more useful for diagnosis of advanced melanoma stage rather than for early detection and screening.

Keywords

  • melanoma
  • sialic acid
  • marker
  • murine models
  • metastatic

Cuvinte cheie

  • melanom
  • acid sialic
  • marker
  • modele murine
  • metastaze
Accesso libero

Comparative analysis of GSTM1/GSTT1 null alleles and Ile105Val GSTP1 variant in patients with Nasal Polyposis and hyposmia in a Romanian population group

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 189 - 196

Astratto

Abstract

Background. Polymorphisms for genes encoding glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1/GSTT1/GSTP1) might be one of the factors that can influence the variability in susceptibility for hyposmia in normal and ENT pathology associated individuals. The role of GST family enzyme might be important in exposure to xenobiotic induced damage of nasal mucosa. Objectives. To evaluate of distribution of GST variants (GSTM1/GSTT1 null alleles and Ile105Val GSTP1 polymorphism) among patients with hyposmia and normal individuals by using a case-control study. Subjects The study included 75 cases of hyposmic patients (evaluated with “Sniffin’ Sticks” olfaction Test), recruited from the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Emergency County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca and 124 healthy unrelated controls. Methods. GSTM1 and GSTT1 variants genotyping was accomplished using a Multiplex PCR method, followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. GSTP1 Ile105Val gene variant was genotyped using PCR-RLFP technique. Results. Comparative analysis for Ile105Val variant of GSTP1 gene revealed no statistical differences among patients and controls (χ2 = 3.012, p = 0.087, OR = 1.514, CI = 0.491 to 1.572). Molecular analysis did not reveal an increased frequency for GSTT1 and GSTM1 null alleles in the patients group compared to controls (GSTT1 - 95% CI = 0.332 to 1.261, p = 0.192, OR = 0.641, χ2 = 2.120, GSTM1 - 95% CI = 0.171 to 0.592, χ2 = 2.017, OR = 0.321, p = 0.062). Significant statistical differences were found when combined GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes (double-null genotypes) were compared between patients and controls (p=0.0015, OR=4.0351; CI=1.706-9.543) and when comparing allergic NP patients with non-allergic NP patients (p=0.027, OR=3.455, CI=1.147-10.406). Conclusions. The presence of both GSTM1/GSTT1 null genotypes (double null genotypes) is considered to be a risk factor for NP and hyposmia development in allergic individuals. The results of our study show no correlation between Ile105Val polymorphism of GSTP1 gene and nasal polyposis associated hyposmia in this Romanian group population.

Keywords

  • GST
  • Polymorphism
  • Nasal polyposis
  • Hyposmia

Cuvinte cheie

  • GST
  • polimorfism
  • polipoză nazală
  • hiposmie
Accesso libero

Contributions of ENDOBACT multicentric study to the infective endocarditis etiology in Romania

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 197 - 208

Astratto

Abstract

The multicenter ENDOBACT study aimed at implementing molecular methods for identification of bacterial species encountered in infective endocarditis, and at attempting to reduce the number of cases with unknown etiology. For eighty seven cases was established a diagnosis of definite infective endocarditis. Thirty two of these cases had negative blood cultures. For nine cases out of 32, valve pieces were available and an attempt was made to identify the etiological agent by molecular techniques. Thirty seven available isolates were identified by phenotypical and molecular comparative methods: 16S rRNA (all available isolates), rpoB (staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci), sodA (streptococci and enterococci) genes sequencing. For eight isolates, the comparative results were discrepant. Species identification of one coagulase negative staphylococcal strain was assigned using molecular methods. Molecular identification methods applied here might represent an added value for clinical and conventional microbiological diagnosis of infective endocarditis in Romania.

Keywords

  • infective endocarditis
  • ENDOBACT
  • DNA sequencing

Cuvinte cheie

  • endocardita infecţioasă
  • ENDOBACT
  • secvenţiere ADN
Accesso libero

Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, demographic and laboratory correlations

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 209 - 215

Astratto

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus is known to be a risk factor for the development of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Studies investigating the prevalence of hepatitis C virus in lymphoma report controversial results, depending on the geographical area. Monoclonal B lymphocytosis is an asymptomatic condition which can evolve into malignant lymphoma, characterized by the presence of a circulating clonal B population. It can be detected by flow cytometry and it is found at higher prevalence in hepatitis C virus-infected patients than in the general population. In the literature, there are only a few studies investigating its prevalence in hepatitis C infected patients and in Romania, such a study hasn’t been carried out before. We conducted a prospective study on 50 hepatitis C virus-infected patients from the Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Prof. Dr. Octavian Fodor. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the medical files. Flow cytometric analysis was carried out at the Immunology Department of the Emergency County Hospital Cluj Napoca. We have found a prevalence of 22% of monoclonal B lymphocytosis. There were no statistical differences between patients with or without monoclonality, except for the lower leucocyte count (p=0.04) and the more increased liver echogenicity in patients with monoclonality (p=0.02). All of the 3 subtypes of monoclonal B lymphocytosis were found. Increased prevalence of monoclonal B lymphocytosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection sustains the virus role in lymphomagenesis, but further studies are needed to analyze the rate of transformation into lymphoma in these patients.

Keywords

  • monoclonal B lymphocytosis
  • hepatitis C virus
  • non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Cuvinte cheie

  • limfocitoză monoclonală B
  • virus hepatitic C
  • limfom non-Hodgkin
  • leucemie limfatică cronică
Accesso libero

Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and absolute CD4 cell count in long term survivors HIV-1 infected patients from Giurgiu, Romania

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 217 - 224

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction: Prior studies assessing sex differences correlated with the levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA and absolute CD4 cell count in adults and children, treated or untreated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy presented conflicting results. Objective: To assess comparative HIV RNA levels and absolute CD4 cell count in men and women from a large cohort of HIV-infected long term survivors patients. Methods: 462 HIV infected patients were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally after being split into three groups: 156 naïve deceased patients, median age at death 10 years, 197 ARV treated patients, median age 17 years and 109 ARV treated patients, median age 23 years followed up until 2011. HIV RNA and absolute CD4 cell count were measured in all patients enrolled in the study. Results: In cross-sectional analysis of 156 naïve patients HIV RNA median levels were lower in females comparing to males, 4.95 vs. 5.73 HIV RNA log10 (copies/ml). Female absolute CD4 cell count was slightly higher, (median 97 vs. 65.5 cells/μL; P = 0.0001). Cross-sectional analysis of 197 ARV treated patients showed a lower log10 HIV RNA level in females compared to males, (P=0.0001), and also lower median CD4 count values in women, 336 cells/μL vs 456 cells/μL in men, P=.0001. Longitudinal analysis revealed statistically significant results: mean log viral loads were lower in females (F=13.90, P= 0.0009) and absolute CD4 cell count was lower in malse (F=16.72, P<0.0001), almost across all tested ages. Conclusion: We report steady sex differences in HIV RNA levels and absolute CD4 cell count in ART-treated HIV-infected patients, a fact that may suggest a reevaluation of our current treatment strategies according to sex.

Keywords

  • HIV
  • sex differences
  • absolute CD4 cell count
  • viral load HIV RNA level

Cuvinte cheie

  • HIV
  • numărătoare absolută de celule CD4+
  • încărcătură virală HIV
Accesso libero

A case of sporadic Creutzfeldt – Jakob disease and discussion on diagnostic biomarkers

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 225 - 230

Astratto

Abstract

Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by prions, characterized by a progressive dementia with rapid onset, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms (myoclonus, cerebellar, pyramidal, extrapyramidal and visual signs), with an invariable course to exitus. There are three general forms: sporadic or spontaneous, genetic or familial, and acquired form, including a variant form of CJD. The diagnosis can be confirmed only by histological examination of brain tissue, showing non-inflammatory spongiform changes and neuronal loss. We present the case of a 64 years old male who was admitted in our department for a rapidly progressive cognitive decline, hallucinations and myoclonus. Autopsy brain histology confirmed the diagnosis showing incipient spongiform vacuolization and astrogliosis. This paper illustrates a very rapid course of a sporadic CJD with discussion upon literature regarding the laboratory and pathology biomarkers of diagnosis.

Keywords

  • Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease
  • prions
  • biomarkers

Cuvinte cheie

  • Boală Creutzfeldt - Jakob
  • prioni
  • biomarkeri
Accesso libero

Molecular markers in cervical screening – a promise for the future

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 231 - 239

Astratto

Abstract

Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women worldwide. The detection and diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions, called cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN), represents the main goal in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In the majority of cases CIN resolve spontaneously. Only a minor part of the lesions develop to high-grade lesions and eventually invasive cancer and it is important to detect those CIN with potential to progress to cervical cancer. For clinical management it is important to distinguish the cervical dysplasia with regression potential in order to avoid unnecessary treatments. Many potential biomarkers have been analyzed for the characterization of cervical cancer and pre-cancer. So far, detection of HPV has been the most promising clinical application. Several new markers have been evaluated intensively and might be used in some clinical settings, mainly p16, MCM5/CDC6 and HPV RNA, integration of HPV DNA into the host genome, chromosomal imbalances. In this article, representative examples of these markers are presented in the context of improved cervical disease detection and progression.

Keywords

  • cervical cancer
  • cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • HPV
  • molecular markers
  • p16 marker

Cuvinte cheie

  • cancer cervical
  • displazie de col uterin
  • neoplazia cervicală intraepitelială
  • human papilloma virus
  • markeri moleculari
12 Articoli
Accesso libero

Reciprocal antagonism between inflammation and the protein C system

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 129 - 133

Astratto

Abstract

Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease secreted by the hepatocytes as an inactive zymogen and activated by thrombin bound to endothelial thrombomodulin. An endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is involved in both activation and enhancement of protein C activity, resulting in proteolytic degradation of clotting factors Va and VIIIa, thereby providing an efficient anticoagulant mechanism. Evidence was also provided that proinflammatory cytokines would impair the endothelia-mediated activation and activity of the Protein C system by inducing an internalization and proteolytic degradation of thrombomodulin and by shedding EPCR from the surface of endothelial cells membrane. Clinical and experimental studies also emphasized that an inflammatory acute phase reaction is accompanied by a commuted hepatic protein synthesis leading to an increase of plasma fibrinogen, factor VIII:C and of α1 protease inhibitor, while the plasma level of protein C zymogen decrease. On the other hand infusions of activated protein C were reported to protect from a toxico-septic shock by exerting not only anticoagulant but also anti-inflammatory effects.

Keywords

  • Protein C
  • thrombomodulin
  • endothelial protein C receptor
  • inflammation-dependent depressive effects
  • therapeutic approach with activated protein C

Cuvinte cheie

  • proteina C
  • trombomodulina
  • receptor endotelial al proteinei C
  • efecte depresive ale inflamaţiei
  • abordare terapeutică prin infuzii cu Proteina C activată
Accesso libero

Hypercoagulability risk factors associated with venous thromboembolic events in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and nephrotic syndrome: a prospective observational study

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 135 - 143

Astratto

Abstract

Background: The nephrotic syndrome (NS) is associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic complications due to multiple abnormalities in haemostasis and the coagulation system occurring in these patients. We aimed to assess prospectively the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in a large cohort of NS patients and to identify predictive factors for VTE, especially haemostasis-related parameters. Methods: We performed a prospective observational study including consecutive adult patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and NS. The diagnosis of NS was confirmed by the presence of a daily protein excretion greater than 3.5 g. Clinical and biological data, including coagulation and fibrinolytic system-related parameters, were obtained every 6 months during follow-up. Occurrence of VTE was the primary outcome of the study. Results: We enrolled 56 patients (52±11 years, 64% men). Median follow-up time was 12 [IQR: 12, 33] months. During follow-up 11 VTE occurred, 91 % of them in the first six months. Baseline proteinuria and serum albumin were associated with VTE (p<0.001). As for the haemostatic parameters, antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, protein C activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tisular plasminogen activator (tPA) levels were associated with an increased risk of VTE (all p<0.05), while protein S activity and fibrinogen were not. At multivariable analysis only ATIII activity (Exp(B) 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.98; p = 0.027) and serum albumin (Exp(B) 0.062, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.37; p = 0.002) remained independently associated with VTE. Conclusion: In this prospective study the risk of VTE was higher in the first 6 months of follow-up. Among the haemostasis-related parameters, only ATIII deficiency emerged as VTE independent risk factor in adult patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and NS.

Keywords

  • Antithrombin III
  • D-dimers
  • membranous nephropathy
  • nephrotic syndrome
  • thrombosis

Cuvinte cheie

  • Antitrombina III
  • D-dimeri
  • nefropatie membranoasă
  • sindrom nefrotic
  • tromboză
Accesso libero

Assessment of beta cell function in subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 145 - 160

Astratto

Abstract

Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess residual beta cell function at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and identify accessible laboratory markers that best estimate it. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in beta cell function 6 months after starting different therapeutical regimens. Materials and methods: Forty seven subjects were included in the study and each performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 6 months. Metabolic and immunologic parameters were determined from fasting samples. According to the degree of metabolic decompensation, specific therapy was started: metformin, metformin plus gliclazide or insulin therapy (with/out metformin). Early and total beta cell function was evaluated by the disposition index (DI) calculated for 30 minutes and 120 minutes, respectively. Results: At diagnosis, fasting blood glucose (BG) and HbA1c varied largely (129-521 mg/dl and 5.5-14%, respectively). The DI30 and DI120 decreased with more severe glycemic decompensation. For both DI30 and DI120 significant negative correlations were found for glycemic markers (HbA1c, 2-hour BG and maximal BG amplitude) and positive correlation for 2- hour C peptide (p<0.0001 for all). HbA1c value of 7% discriminated an important decrease of DI30 and DI120. Insulin and combined therapy significantly improved DI120 at 6 months (p: 0.0062 and 0.01, respectively), while DI30 was improved only with insulin therapy (p: 0.0326). Conclusions: Beta cell function at onset correlated with HbA1c, 2-hour BG and C peptide during OGTT. Thus OGTT and HbA1c are pivotal for evaluation of beta cell function. Insulin therapy improved early and total insulin secretion at 6 months.

Keywords

  • type 2 diabetes
  • beta cell function
  • biological markers
  • insulin therapy

Cuvinte-cheie

  • diabet zaharat tip 2
  • funcţia beta celulară
  • markeri biologici
  • insulinoterapie
Accesso libero

The antioxidant potential of Brassica rapa L. on glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase enzymes and total antioxidant status

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 161 - 169

Astratto

Abstract

Research on antioxidant potential from vegetables is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. However, relatively little work has been done to investigate the antioxidant effect of crude extract and/or different fractions from Brassica rapa L. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of crude extract and its fractions from Brassica rapa L. fruit part was tested for glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and total antioxidant status (TAS) in blood samples. Our results reveal the fact that crude extract and each analyzed fraction (i.e. aqueous, ethyl acetate and chloroform) showed a concentration dependent effects on GPx, SOD and TAS in respect with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) used as negative control and vitamin C, as positive control. Therefore, GPx levels showed a highest value in crude extract and chloroform fraction (6981 U/L both at 10 mg/ml), SOD levels showed the same results in aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions (220 U/ml both at 10 mg/ml) and TAS in crude extract and all three fractions (i.e. aqueous, ethyl acetate and chloroform, 1.68 mmol/L at 10 mg/ml for all three fractions) in respect with saline solution (p<0.05). Furthermore, vitamin C showed the highest values on all three analyzed enzymes (8769 U/L for GPx, 223 U/ml for SOD and 1.8 mmol/L for TAS at 100 μg/ml). Our investigations have been proved to be promising in terms of future potential applications of crude extract and its fractions as components in a range of phytochemicals composition and/or different pharmaceutical usage, owing to their antioxidant potential.

Keywords

  • Brassica rapa L.
  • glutathione peroxidase
  • superoxide dismutase
  • total antioxidant status
  • enzymes

Cuvinte cheie

  • Brassica rapa L.
  • glutation peroxidaza
  • superoxid dismutaza
  • status total antioxidant
  • enzime
Accesso libero

Evaluation of the gametotoxic effect of nandrolone decanoate on the gametogenic function of male rabbit

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 171 - 177

Astratto

Abstract

The research was conducted on a number of 24 sexually mature male rabbits of common breed, divided into two numerically equal groups. The subjects from the experimental group were given 20 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate, intramuscularly, twice a week for four consecutive weeks. The control group did not receive any treatment. At the end of the experiment the testes were harvested through bilateral orchiectomy and processed for carrying out histopathological investigations. Testicular fragments were fixated in Stieve’s mixture for 24 hours, dehydrated with alcohol, clarified with butyl alcohol and included in paraffin. Serial sections of 5 μ thickness were stained by Masson's trichrome method modified by Goldner. The testes taken from the control animals showed no detectable changes in optical microscopy. In the case of the animals belonging to experimental lots, there were alterations revealed evidenced by vacuolar dystrophy in the spermatocytes and spermatids, apoptosis, the edema of sperm head, spermatids syncytialization and cell necrosis followed by the disintegration of the seminal cell line with the formation of cellular debris in the seminiferous tubules lumen. These changes have affected part of the seminal cell line from the adluminal compartment (primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoids), but not those from the basal compartment (type A1 and B spermatogonia), which proved to be resistant in the conditions of 30 days exposure, at a dose of 20 mg/kg. In this context spermatogenesis is affected only for the period of drug action, but the risk of nandrolone decanoate transmission to humans through animal origin food consumption remains, with negative consequences on the spermatogenesis.

Keywords

  • gametogenesis
  • gametotoxicity
  • nandrolonone decanoat
  • histopatology

Cuvinte-cheie

  • gametogeneză
  • gametotoxicitate
  • nortestosteron decanoat
  • histopatologie
Accesso libero

The role of the sialic acid in monitoring the evolution of malignant melanoma. From murine models to human research

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 179 - 188

Astratto

Abstract

Purpose: To identify sialic acid as a tumor marker to be used in experimental models. Obtained data will be extrapolated to humans, so that this marker can be used in clinical practice. Materials and methods: We used B16 melanoma cells. The lot was composed of 30 male C57Bl6 mice, which received subcutaneous injections of 5x105 B16 melanoma cells into the right flank. Tumor volume was measured with a vernier caliper. Sialic acid was determined from the serum obtained by cardiac puncture. The second step of our research was performed on a number of 25 patients with cutaneous melanoma. Determination of sialic acid was performed using the Kattermann colorimetric method. The correlation between sialic acid and disease progression was exemplified in two clinical cases. Sialic acid determination was performed dynamically from diagnosis, following disease progression. Results: In murine models tumors increased after a lag period of up to 10 days. Tumor growth was recorded by measuring the tumor’s diameters and calculating its volume. We observed a progressive increase of sialic acid in parallel with tumor volume. In human subjects, sialic acid levels increase in metastatic disease and are common in localized disease. In the two clinical cases there was a very strong correlation between sialic acid and disease progression. Conclusions: B16 melanoma cells are highly metastatic. Sialic acid level was increased in metastatic tumor animals compared to normal animals. Higher levels of sialic acid have been shown to correlate with the metastatic potential of tumor cells. For humans, determination of total serum sialic acid would be more useful for diagnosis of advanced melanoma stage rather than for early detection and screening.

Keywords

  • melanoma
  • sialic acid
  • marker
  • murine models
  • metastatic

Cuvinte cheie

  • melanom
  • acid sialic
  • marker
  • modele murine
  • metastaze
Accesso libero

Comparative analysis of GSTM1/GSTT1 null alleles and Ile105Val GSTP1 variant in patients with Nasal Polyposis and hyposmia in a Romanian population group

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 189 - 196

Astratto

Abstract

Background. Polymorphisms for genes encoding glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1/GSTT1/GSTP1) might be one of the factors that can influence the variability in susceptibility for hyposmia in normal and ENT pathology associated individuals. The role of GST family enzyme might be important in exposure to xenobiotic induced damage of nasal mucosa. Objectives. To evaluate of distribution of GST variants (GSTM1/GSTT1 null alleles and Ile105Val GSTP1 polymorphism) among patients with hyposmia and normal individuals by using a case-control study. Subjects The study included 75 cases of hyposmic patients (evaluated with “Sniffin’ Sticks” olfaction Test), recruited from the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Emergency County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca and 124 healthy unrelated controls. Methods. GSTM1 and GSTT1 variants genotyping was accomplished using a Multiplex PCR method, followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. GSTP1 Ile105Val gene variant was genotyped using PCR-RLFP technique. Results. Comparative analysis for Ile105Val variant of GSTP1 gene revealed no statistical differences among patients and controls (χ2 = 3.012, p = 0.087, OR = 1.514, CI = 0.491 to 1.572). Molecular analysis did not reveal an increased frequency for GSTT1 and GSTM1 null alleles in the patients group compared to controls (GSTT1 - 95% CI = 0.332 to 1.261, p = 0.192, OR = 0.641, χ2 = 2.120, GSTM1 - 95% CI = 0.171 to 0.592, χ2 = 2.017, OR = 0.321, p = 0.062). Significant statistical differences were found when combined GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes (double-null genotypes) were compared between patients and controls (p=0.0015, OR=4.0351; CI=1.706-9.543) and when comparing allergic NP patients with non-allergic NP patients (p=0.027, OR=3.455, CI=1.147-10.406). Conclusions. The presence of both GSTM1/GSTT1 null genotypes (double null genotypes) is considered to be a risk factor for NP and hyposmia development in allergic individuals. The results of our study show no correlation between Ile105Val polymorphism of GSTP1 gene and nasal polyposis associated hyposmia in this Romanian group population.

Keywords

  • GST
  • Polymorphism
  • Nasal polyposis
  • Hyposmia

Cuvinte cheie

  • GST
  • polimorfism
  • polipoză nazală
  • hiposmie
Accesso libero

Contributions of ENDOBACT multicentric study to the infective endocarditis etiology in Romania

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 197 - 208

Astratto

Abstract

The multicenter ENDOBACT study aimed at implementing molecular methods for identification of bacterial species encountered in infective endocarditis, and at attempting to reduce the number of cases with unknown etiology. For eighty seven cases was established a diagnosis of definite infective endocarditis. Thirty two of these cases had negative blood cultures. For nine cases out of 32, valve pieces were available and an attempt was made to identify the etiological agent by molecular techniques. Thirty seven available isolates were identified by phenotypical and molecular comparative methods: 16S rRNA (all available isolates), rpoB (staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci), sodA (streptococci and enterococci) genes sequencing. For eight isolates, the comparative results were discrepant. Species identification of one coagulase negative staphylococcal strain was assigned using molecular methods. Molecular identification methods applied here might represent an added value for clinical and conventional microbiological diagnosis of infective endocarditis in Romania.

Keywords

  • infective endocarditis
  • ENDOBACT
  • DNA sequencing

Cuvinte cheie

  • endocardita infecţioasă
  • ENDOBACT
  • secvenţiere ADN
Accesso libero

Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, demographic and laboratory correlations

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 209 - 215

Astratto

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus is known to be a risk factor for the development of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Studies investigating the prevalence of hepatitis C virus in lymphoma report controversial results, depending on the geographical area. Monoclonal B lymphocytosis is an asymptomatic condition which can evolve into malignant lymphoma, characterized by the presence of a circulating clonal B population. It can be detected by flow cytometry and it is found at higher prevalence in hepatitis C virus-infected patients than in the general population. In the literature, there are only a few studies investigating its prevalence in hepatitis C infected patients and in Romania, such a study hasn’t been carried out before. We conducted a prospective study on 50 hepatitis C virus-infected patients from the Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Prof. Dr. Octavian Fodor. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the medical files. Flow cytometric analysis was carried out at the Immunology Department of the Emergency County Hospital Cluj Napoca. We have found a prevalence of 22% of monoclonal B lymphocytosis. There were no statistical differences between patients with or without monoclonality, except for the lower leucocyte count (p=0.04) and the more increased liver echogenicity in patients with monoclonality (p=0.02). All of the 3 subtypes of monoclonal B lymphocytosis were found. Increased prevalence of monoclonal B lymphocytosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection sustains the virus role in lymphomagenesis, but further studies are needed to analyze the rate of transformation into lymphoma in these patients.

Keywords

  • monoclonal B lymphocytosis
  • hepatitis C virus
  • non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Cuvinte cheie

  • limfocitoză monoclonală B
  • virus hepatitic C
  • limfom non-Hodgkin
  • leucemie limfatică cronică
Accesso libero

Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and absolute CD4 cell count in long term survivors HIV-1 infected patients from Giurgiu, Romania

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 217 - 224

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction: Prior studies assessing sex differences correlated with the levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA and absolute CD4 cell count in adults and children, treated or untreated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy presented conflicting results. Objective: To assess comparative HIV RNA levels and absolute CD4 cell count in men and women from a large cohort of HIV-infected long term survivors patients. Methods: 462 HIV infected patients were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally after being split into three groups: 156 naïve deceased patients, median age at death 10 years, 197 ARV treated patients, median age 17 years and 109 ARV treated patients, median age 23 years followed up until 2011. HIV RNA and absolute CD4 cell count were measured in all patients enrolled in the study. Results: In cross-sectional analysis of 156 naïve patients HIV RNA median levels were lower in females comparing to males, 4.95 vs. 5.73 HIV RNA log10 (copies/ml). Female absolute CD4 cell count was slightly higher, (median 97 vs. 65.5 cells/μL; P = 0.0001). Cross-sectional analysis of 197 ARV treated patients showed a lower log10 HIV RNA level in females compared to males, (P=0.0001), and also lower median CD4 count values in women, 336 cells/μL vs 456 cells/μL in men, P=.0001. Longitudinal analysis revealed statistically significant results: mean log viral loads were lower in females (F=13.90, P= 0.0009) and absolute CD4 cell count was lower in malse (F=16.72, P<0.0001), almost across all tested ages. Conclusion: We report steady sex differences in HIV RNA levels and absolute CD4 cell count in ART-treated HIV-infected patients, a fact that may suggest a reevaluation of our current treatment strategies according to sex.

Keywords

  • HIV
  • sex differences
  • absolute CD4 cell count
  • viral load HIV RNA level

Cuvinte cheie

  • HIV
  • numărătoare absolută de celule CD4+
  • încărcătură virală HIV
Accesso libero

A case of sporadic Creutzfeldt – Jakob disease and discussion on diagnostic biomarkers

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 225 - 230

Astratto

Abstract

Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by prions, characterized by a progressive dementia with rapid onset, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms (myoclonus, cerebellar, pyramidal, extrapyramidal and visual signs), with an invariable course to exitus. There are three general forms: sporadic or spontaneous, genetic or familial, and acquired form, including a variant form of CJD. The diagnosis can be confirmed only by histological examination of brain tissue, showing non-inflammatory spongiform changes and neuronal loss. We present the case of a 64 years old male who was admitted in our department for a rapidly progressive cognitive decline, hallucinations and myoclonus. Autopsy brain histology confirmed the diagnosis showing incipient spongiform vacuolization and astrogliosis. This paper illustrates a very rapid course of a sporadic CJD with discussion upon literature regarding the laboratory and pathology biomarkers of diagnosis.

Keywords

  • Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease
  • prions
  • biomarkers

Cuvinte cheie

  • Boală Creutzfeldt - Jakob
  • prioni
  • biomarkeri
Accesso libero

Molecular markers in cervical screening – a promise for the future

Pubblicato online: 21 Jun 2013
Pagine: 231 - 239

Astratto

Abstract

Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women worldwide. The detection and diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions, called cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN), represents the main goal in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In the majority of cases CIN resolve spontaneously. Only a minor part of the lesions develop to high-grade lesions and eventually invasive cancer and it is important to detect those CIN with potential to progress to cervical cancer. For clinical management it is important to distinguish the cervical dysplasia with regression potential in order to avoid unnecessary treatments. Many potential biomarkers have been analyzed for the characterization of cervical cancer and pre-cancer. So far, detection of HPV has been the most promising clinical application. Several new markers have been evaluated intensively and might be used in some clinical settings, mainly p16, MCM5/CDC6 and HPV RNA, integration of HPV DNA into the host genome, chromosomal imbalances. In this article, representative examples of these markers are presented in the context of improved cervical disease detection and progression.

Keywords

  • cervical cancer
  • cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • HPV
  • molecular markers
  • p16 marker

Cuvinte cheie

  • cancer cervical
  • displazie de col uterin
  • neoplazia cervicală intraepitelială
  • human papilloma virus
  • markeri moleculari

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