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Volume 15 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 14 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 13 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 12 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 11 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 10 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 9 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)
Special Issue Title: International Conference on the Conservation of the Lesser Spotted Eagle, Košická Belá, Slovakia, 2014

Volume 8 (2014): Issue 2014 (January 2014)
Proceedings from VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2013

Volume 8 (2014): Issue 2 (December 2014)

Volume 7 (2013): Issue 2013 (January 2013)

Volume 6 (2012): Issue 2012 (January 2012)

Volume 5 (2011): Issue 2011 (January 2011)

Volume 4 (2010): Issue 2010 (January 2010)

Volume 3 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Volume 2 (2008): Issue 2008 (January 2008)

Volume 1 (2007): Issue 2007 (January 2007)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2644-5247
ISSN
1337-3463
First Published
09 Nov 2012
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 2 (2008): Issue 2008 (January 2008)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2644-5247
ISSN
1337-3463
First Published
09 Nov 2012
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

13 Articles
Open Access

Diet of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 1 - 18

Abstract

Diet of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) in Slovakia

In the period 1964-2007, data on 1472 ex. of prey was acquired from whole Slovakia. It was confirmed that the location of the breeding population on the foothills and mountains of the Carpathian Arc has a cardinal contribution to diet diversity. The breeding sites and hunting-grounds were found from 100 to 1 000 meters above sea level. The dominant part of the diet created mammalian species (88.11 %, 19 species and Sorex sp., Apodemus sp., undetermined Artiodactyla). Birds were less represented but with higher diversity of species (6.25 %, 24 species and Columba sp., undetermined Passeriformes). In comparison with birds, the share of Amphibia, Reptilia and Pisces together (4.89 %, 5 species and Rana sp., Lacerta sp., undetermined Serpentes and Reptilia) was lower. Pisces constituted only 0.007 % with 1 ex. of prey species Cyprinus carpio. Evertebrata constituted 0.75 % and species from orders Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera were found. The dominant prey of A. pomarina in Slovakia was Microtus arvalis (69.57 %), followed by Arvicola terrestris (5.16 %) and Microtus agrestis (3.94 %) constituting significantly lower proportion. These three species from the category small rodents composed 75.67 % of diet. Less abundant species in range 2.24-1.00 % were Talpa europaea (2.31 %), Rana temporaria (2.24 %), Cricetus cricetus (1.70 %), Phasianus colchicus (1.15 %), and Lepus europaeus (1.09 %). In lesser extent (1.0-0.5 %) also other mammalian species such as Apodemus flavicollis (0.88 %) and Mustela nivalis (0.88 %) were represented. The most frequently encountered birds were Galliformes such as P. colchicus (1.15 %), Gallus gallus domesticus (0.48 %), and Coturnix coturnix (0.54 %). Other more abundant prey bird species were Alauda arvensis (0.48 %), Columba sp. (0.48 %), and Crex crex (0.34 %). From the class Reptilia relatively high share of Anguis fragilis (0.95 %) and Lacerta sp. (0.68 %; most probably Lacerta agilis) were recorded. Other species with representation lower than 0.3 % were a random prey of A. pomarina.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • diet
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Records of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) nests with two fledged young without human intervention in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 19 - 26

Abstract

Records of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) nests with two fledged young without human intervention in Slovakia

An intensive research of the Lesser Spotted Eagle biology is conducted in Slovakia since the 80ties of the 20th century. A lot of attention has been paid to the process of cainism. Despite this strong feature in the species bionomy, scarcely cainism is overcome and 2 young fledge from a single nest without human intervention. In 1981 the first finding of this kind was recorded in Slovakia. Since then until the year 2008 there were 64 records of this kind out of 1775 surveyed productive breedings recorded in Slovakia. In the mentioned time period, it represents 3.61 % on average (in individual years it varied from 1.15-9.65 %) when 2 young fledged from a single nest without human intervention.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • two chicks
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) colour ringing programme and its first results in the period 2000-2008 in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 27 - 36

Abstract

Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) colour ringing programme and its first results in the period 2000-2008 in Slovakia

In Slovakia during 2000-2008, 636 Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) were marked with readable colour rings with double figure code. This is the highest number of Lesser Spotted Eagles marked in such a way in Europe. From this sample, 621 ind. (97.6 %) were chicks at the nest and 15 ind. (2.4 %) were adult birds which were trapped and consequently ringed. In this period, 2 colour series of rings have been used in Slovakia. In 2000 the ringing started with yellow rings, and up until the end of 2008, 631 ex. (616 young and 15 adults) were ringed. In 2008, the ringing started with light blue series of rings and 5 young at the nest were ringed. In addition to readable rings, aluminium ornithological rings of the Ringing Centres of Czech Republic (NM Praha) and Slovakia (NM Bratislava) have been used. The yellow series was used in fewer numbers also in Germany and Poland for marking the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina), the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga), and eventually their hybrids. In this article the authors reported first observations in Slovakia of such marked Lesser Spotted Eagles in the field. Observed eagles were 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 years old. Some of them were already breeding and were observed taking care of their chicks.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • colour-ringing
  • colour rings
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Colour ringing of the Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina, Aquila clanga and their hybrids) in Europe - a review

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 37 - 52

Abstract

Colour ringing of the Spotted Eagles (<italic>Aquila pomarina, Aquila clanga</italic> and their hybrids) in Europe - a review

During the years 2000-2008 1377 Spotted Eagles (SE) (Aquila pomarina, Aquila clanga and their hybrids) have been colour ringed in Europe. Out of these, 1303 (94.6 %) were young birds and 74 (5.4 %) were adults. Out of the total, 1290 (93.7 %) were the Aquila pomarina Lesser Spotted Eagles (LSE) - 1229 (95.3 %) young and 61 (4.7 %) adults, 50 (3.6 %) were the Aquila clanga Greater Spotted Eagles (GSE) - 44 (88.0 %) young and 6 (12.0 %) adults and 37 (2.7 %) were the Aquila pomarina x Aquila clanga hybrids (LSE x GSE) - 30 (81.1 %) young and 7 (18.9 %) adults. With respect to the individual European countries the following SE species and numbers were ringed: Slovakia 636 (46.2 %), Poland 333 (24.2 %), Estonia 153 (11.1 %), Germany 116 (8.4 %), Lithuania 68 (4.9 %), Latvia 45 (3.3 %) and Belarus 26 (1.9 %). In the article authors presents a review on Spotted Eagle colour ringing programmes running in individual European countries.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • Greater Spotted Eagle
  • hybrids
  • colour-ringing
  • SECR
Open Access

Cainism, nestling management in Germany in 2004-2007 and satellite tracking of juveniles in the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina)

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 53 - 72

Abstract

Cainism, nestling management in Germany in 2004-2007 and satellite tracking of juveniles in the Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>)

The Lesser Spotted Eagle belongs to a species with obligatory cainism, which means that in the natural state it is rare that two young eagles fledge, although as a rule two chick's hatch. The breeding population in Germany is at the western edge of the species' range and is declining (a 23% decrease between 1993 and 2007). Local extinction can be anticipated and therefore nestling management has been implemented in the German federal state of Brandenburg since 2004 as a conservation measure by using human intervention to prevent the death of the younger sibling. This is in addition to other methods such as nest-site protection, habitat preservation, legislation etc. Furthermore, in 2007, second hatched eagle chicks (Abels) from Latvia were translocated for the first time. The managed pairs (nests physically inspected) were on average more successful than the unmanaged pairs (nests not physically inspected). It cannot be determined as to whether the inspection of the nests had a negative effect on breeding. Breeding success of the pairs present in Brandenburg, including non-breeders, increased by 57 % in 2007 due to nestling management, and that of the managed pairs alone by 67 %. In 2007 the behaviour of six young eagles was studied using satellite telemetry. This study determined that the Abels migrated as well as the first hatched eagle chicks (Cains), and that their survival chances were equally good. The Abels imported from Latvia migrated in two out of three cases along the same route as the German Lesser Spotted Eagles to the Bosporus. One Latvian Abel which fledged in Germany was tracked by satellite to Zambia where many Lesser Spotted Eagles winter. A German Abel wintered North of the Equator in the Sudan and neighbouring countries for over six months and started its return migration on 27 April 2008.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • nestling management
  • cainism
  • Germany
  • satellite telemetry
Open Access

The latest results of ringing the Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 73 - 75

Abstract

The latest results of ringing the Lesser Spotted Eagles (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) in Slovakia

Nine new ringing recoveries of Lesser Spotted Eagles have been collected from abroad and 4 ornithological rings have been successfully read in Slovakia using a monocular up to the end of August 2008. Three of the nine records were from the wintering grounds in Botswana and Zambia (2x), 2 come from a traditional autumn migrating route (Turkey, Israel), 1 ringing recovery represents an autumn spotting in Greece, 1 comes from the spring migration from Turkey and two incomplete records from Hungary. In Slovakia, observation of an adult male shows its fidelity of to the breeding territory even after 6 or 7 years; another male has in his 5th year been nesting 18 km from the site he hatched at. The next observation in Slovakia is represented by a 3 year old non-breeding individual which occured 50 km from the site he hatched at. The final record was of a year old individual that stayed 40 km from the site he originated from. This data suggests that young birds return to Europe right after their first wintering in South Africa.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • Slovakia
  • ring recoveries
Open Access

Nesting of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) at its hatching site

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 77 - 80

Abstract

Nesting of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) at its hatching site

Colour rings with alphanumeric codes have been used on the Lesser Spotted Eagles since 2000. On April 24, 2007 an eagle with a yellow ring I9 was photographed in the "Ondavská vrchovina" highlands near the village of Lieskovec in Humenné district. It was found out that the eagle was ringed on the same site on July 4, 2002 as a chick on the nest. After further observations the adult male was spotted feeding its chick in the nest, which was located only 130 m from the one it hatched at. If it could be proved that the female at the nesting site, which has been regularly surveyed since 1985 has not changed, nesting of a son and a mother could not to be ruled out in this case.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • ring recovery
  • fidelity
  • Slovakia
Open Access

The diet of the Common Kestrel in the urban environment of the city of Nitra

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 81 - 85

Abstract

The diet of the Common Kestrel in the urban environment of the city of Nitra

The diet of the urban Common Kestrel population was studied in Nitra during 2003-2005. Totally, 671 prey items were identified by the analysis of pellets and prey remains collected under the nesting sites. Insect, mainly represented by order Coleoptera, was found to be the most abundant prey. Regarding biomass, the Common Vole (Microtus arvalis) was predominated. In comparison with other articles published, the studied sample was rather rich in the Lesser White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) and the House Mouse (Mus cf. musculus).

Keywords

  • Kestrel
  • food
  • Slovakia
Open Access

First breeding of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in the "Borská nížina" lowland (SW Slovakia)

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 87 - 90

Abstract

First breeding of the Imperial Eagle (<italic>Aquila heliaca</italic>) in the "Borská nížina" lowland (SW Slovakia)

In 2007, breeding of the Imperial Eagle in locality "Devínske jazero" lake (near the village of "Vysoká pri Morave", SW Slovakia) was observed. The pair fledged 2 young. This was the first recorded breeding of this species in the "Záhorie" region. The eagles also bred the following year, 2008. During breeding, a change of male occurred so the nest remained unproductive (one fertile egg was found in the nest). Both cases suggest the current trend of occupying new sites in the Southwestern part of its breeding range.

Keywords

  • Imperial Eagle
  • breeding
  • south-west Slovakia
Open Access

Latest data on distribution of the Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) in Bulgaria and Slovakia including population density comparison

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 91 - 106

Abstract

Latest data on distribution of the Pygmy Owl (<italic>Glaucidium passerinum</italic>) in Bulgaria and Slovakia including population density comparison

The authors provide an outline of actual knowledge on the distribution of the Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) in Bulgaria from 1900 until 2008. The most recent estimates of the species population in Bulgaria are 150-200 and in Slovakia 1500-2000 breeding pairs. On the basis of quantitative samples obtained in the Rila Mts (Bulgaria) and in the High and Western Tatra Mts, Low Tatra Mts, "Krivánska Malá Fatra" Mts, "Veľká Fatra" Mts, "Chočské vrchy" Mts, "Stolické vrchy" Mts (Slovakia) obtained densities in Bulgaria are compared with ascertained densities in similar elevations in Slovakia. In the Rila Mts, 9 territories were found / 23 km2 and average density 0.39 territories / 1 km2 was found, in 1350-2000 m elevation. In Slovakia 75-82 territories were found / 79 km2 and average density 0.95-1.04 territories / 1 km2 was found, in 800-1650 m elevation. The density of Pygmy Owls in the mountains of Bulgaria is twice as low as in the mountains of Slovakia in Western Carpathians. This is probably caused by the distribution at the edge of the distribution area of the species and an higher isolation level in the Balkans. Other evaluated factors, such as habitat quality, health of forest stands, shorter twilight and shorter owl activity in the Balkans than in the Carpathians, negative effect of streams on voice activity of the Pygmy Owls, lack of food supply or lack of breeding holes, or even possible competition with other owl species were not regarded as reasons causing differences in Pygmy Owl densities in compared areas.

Keywords

  • Pygmy Owl
  • population estimates
  • density
  • Bulgaria
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Seasonal changes in food composition of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the northern part of the "Záhorie" region

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 107 - 112

Abstract

Seasonal changes in food composition of the Barn Owl (<italic>Tyto alba</italic>) in the northern part of the "Záhorie" region

33 prey species (10 296 individuals) were recovered from pellets of the Barn Owl in northern part of the "Záhorie" region (Western Slovakia) during period 2002-2006. The family Arvicolidae constituted 65.68 % of recoveries, Soricidae 17.86 %, Muridae 16.64 %, Talpidae 0.04 %, Gliridae 0.02 %, Mustelidae 0.02 %, Vespertilionidae 0.04 % and Aves 4.7 %. Microtus arvalis was predominantly represented by 65.2 %. For evaluation of diet data "The marked differences from the mean method" was used. The results of pellet analyses provide, besides information about owl diet, also new data about occurrence and geographical distribution of small mammalian species and importance of predators in agricultural landscape.

Keywords

  • Barn Owl
  • food ecology
  • seasonal changes
  • Záhorie
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Summary on raptors and owls ringing in Slovakia in the period 2005-2006

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 113 - 117

Abstract

Summary on raptors and owls ringing in Slovakia in the period 2005-2006

This report provides a summary on raptors and owls ringing in Slovakia in 2005-2006. In 2005, from a total of 21 132 ringed birds, raptors and owls represented 964 ind. (4.5 %). There were 26 species of raptors and owls, which equates 15.5 % of all species recorded. In 2006, there were 29 075 ringed in Slovakia, from this number raptors and owls were represented by 703 ind. (2.4 %) and 23 species (14 %). This paper also contains a summary on the ringing recoveries including data on raptors and owls.

Keywords

  • raptors
  • ringing
  • recovery
Open Access

Bibliography on birds of prey and owls in Slovakia. Part 1. Order Accipitriformes, genera Aquila, Hieraaetus & Haliaeetus

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 119 - 142

Abstract

Bibliography on birds of prey and owls in Slovakia. Part 1. Order Accipitriformes, genera <italic>Aquila, Hieraaetus</italic> & <italic>Haliaeetus</italic>

The aim of the bibliography is to provide a list of publications on raptors and owls of Slovakia. More parts will follow this first one, which is focused on genera Aquila, Hieraaetus and Haliaeetus. In total 332 citations are listed - 172 (51.8 %) scientific and research articles, 106 (31.9 %) popular articles, 3 (0.9 %) qualification papers, 22 (6.6 %) conference abstracts and 29 (8.7 %) reports or other papers. The register of species, objective index and the author register enable better overview.

Keywords

  • Slovakia
  • bibliography
  • Aquila
  • Hieraaetus
  • Haliaeetus
13 Articles
Open Access

Diet of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 1 - 18

Abstract

Diet of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) in Slovakia

In the period 1964-2007, data on 1472 ex. of prey was acquired from whole Slovakia. It was confirmed that the location of the breeding population on the foothills and mountains of the Carpathian Arc has a cardinal contribution to diet diversity. The breeding sites and hunting-grounds were found from 100 to 1 000 meters above sea level. The dominant part of the diet created mammalian species (88.11 %, 19 species and Sorex sp., Apodemus sp., undetermined Artiodactyla). Birds were less represented but with higher diversity of species (6.25 %, 24 species and Columba sp., undetermined Passeriformes). In comparison with birds, the share of Amphibia, Reptilia and Pisces together (4.89 %, 5 species and Rana sp., Lacerta sp., undetermined Serpentes and Reptilia) was lower. Pisces constituted only 0.007 % with 1 ex. of prey species Cyprinus carpio. Evertebrata constituted 0.75 % and species from orders Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera were found. The dominant prey of A. pomarina in Slovakia was Microtus arvalis (69.57 %), followed by Arvicola terrestris (5.16 %) and Microtus agrestis (3.94 %) constituting significantly lower proportion. These three species from the category small rodents composed 75.67 % of diet. Less abundant species in range 2.24-1.00 % were Talpa europaea (2.31 %), Rana temporaria (2.24 %), Cricetus cricetus (1.70 %), Phasianus colchicus (1.15 %), and Lepus europaeus (1.09 %). In lesser extent (1.0-0.5 %) also other mammalian species such as Apodemus flavicollis (0.88 %) and Mustela nivalis (0.88 %) were represented. The most frequently encountered birds were Galliformes such as P. colchicus (1.15 %), Gallus gallus domesticus (0.48 %), and Coturnix coturnix (0.54 %). Other more abundant prey bird species were Alauda arvensis (0.48 %), Columba sp. (0.48 %), and Crex crex (0.34 %). From the class Reptilia relatively high share of Anguis fragilis (0.95 %) and Lacerta sp. (0.68 %; most probably Lacerta agilis) were recorded. Other species with representation lower than 0.3 % were a random prey of A. pomarina.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • diet
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Records of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) nests with two fledged young without human intervention in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 19 - 26

Abstract

Records of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) nests with two fledged young without human intervention in Slovakia

An intensive research of the Lesser Spotted Eagle biology is conducted in Slovakia since the 80ties of the 20th century. A lot of attention has been paid to the process of cainism. Despite this strong feature in the species bionomy, scarcely cainism is overcome and 2 young fledge from a single nest without human intervention. In 1981 the first finding of this kind was recorded in Slovakia. Since then until the year 2008 there were 64 records of this kind out of 1775 surveyed productive breedings recorded in Slovakia. In the mentioned time period, it represents 3.61 % on average (in individual years it varied from 1.15-9.65 %) when 2 young fledged from a single nest without human intervention.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • two chicks
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) colour ringing programme and its first results in the period 2000-2008 in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 27 - 36

Abstract

Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) colour ringing programme and its first results in the period 2000-2008 in Slovakia

In Slovakia during 2000-2008, 636 Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) were marked with readable colour rings with double figure code. This is the highest number of Lesser Spotted Eagles marked in such a way in Europe. From this sample, 621 ind. (97.6 %) were chicks at the nest and 15 ind. (2.4 %) were adult birds which were trapped and consequently ringed. In this period, 2 colour series of rings have been used in Slovakia. In 2000 the ringing started with yellow rings, and up until the end of 2008, 631 ex. (616 young and 15 adults) were ringed. In 2008, the ringing started with light blue series of rings and 5 young at the nest were ringed. In addition to readable rings, aluminium ornithological rings of the Ringing Centres of Czech Republic (NM Praha) and Slovakia (NM Bratislava) have been used. The yellow series was used in fewer numbers also in Germany and Poland for marking the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina), the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga), and eventually their hybrids. In this article the authors reported first observations in Slovakia of such marked Lesser Spotted Eagles in the field. Observed eagles were 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 years old. Some of them were already breeding and were observed taking care of their chicks.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • colour-ringing
  • colour rings
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Colour ringing of the Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina, Aquila clanga and their hybrids) in Europe - a review

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 37 - 52

Abstract

Colour ringing of the Spotted Eagles (<italic>Aquila pomarina, Aquila clanga</italic> and their hybrids) in Europe - a review

During the years 2000-2008 1377 Spotted Eagles (SE) (Aquila pomarina, Aquila clanga and their hybrids) have been colour ringed in Europe. Out of these, 1303 (94.6 %) were young birds and 74 (5.4 %) were adults. Out of the total, 1290 (93.7 %) were the Aquila pomarina Lesser Spotted Eagles (LSE) - 1229 (95.3 %) young and 61 (4.7 %) adults, 50 (3.6 %) were the Aquila clanga Greater Spotted Eagles (GSE) - 44 (88.0 %) young and 6 (12.0 %) adults and 37 (2.7 %) were the Aquila pomarina x Aquila clanga hybrids (LSE x GSE) - 30 (81.1 %) young and 7 (18.9 %) adults. With respect to the individual European countries the following SE species and numbers were ringed: Slovakia 636 (46.2 %), Poland 333 (24.2 %), Estonia 153 (11.1 %), Germany 116 (8.4 %), Lithuania 68 (4.9 %), Latvia 45 (3.3 %) and Belarus 26 (1.9 %). In the article authors presents a review on Spotted Eagle colour ringing programmes running in individual European countries.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • Greater Spotted Eagle
  • hybrids
  • colour-ringing
  • SECR
Open Access

Cainism, nestling management in Germany in 2004-2007 and satellite tracking of juveniles in the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina)

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 53 - 72

Abstract

Cainism, nestling management in Germany in 2004-2007 and satellite tracking of juveniles in the Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>)

The Lesser Spotted Eagle belongs to a species with obligatory cainism, which means that in the natural state it is rare that two young eagles fledge, although as a rule two chick's hatch. The breeding population in Germany is at the western edge of the species' range and is declining (a 23% decrease between 1993 and 2007). Local extinction can be anticipated and therefore nestling management has been implemented in the German federal state of Brandenburg since 2004 as a conservation measure by using human intervention to prevent the death of the younger sibling. This is in addition to other methods such as nest-site protection, habitat preservation, legislation etc. Furthermore, in 2007, second hatched eagle chicks (Abels) from Latvia were translocated for the first time. The managed pairs (nests physically inspected) were on average more successful than the unmanaged pairs (nests not physically inspected). It cannot be determined as to whether the inspection of the nests had a negative effect on breeding. Breeding success of the pairs present in Brandenburg, including non-breeders, increased by 57 % in 2007 due to nestling management, and that of the managed pairs alone by 67 %. In 2007 the behaviour of six young eagles was studied using satellite telemetry. This study determined that the Abels migrated as well as the first hatched eagle chicks (Cains), and that their survival chances were equally good. The Abels imported from Latvia migrated in two out of three cases along the same route as the German Lesser Spotted Eagles to the Bosporus. One Latvian Abel which fledged in Germany was tracked by satellite to Zambia where many Lesser Spotted Eagles winter. A German Abel wintered North of the Equator in the Sudan and neighbouring countries for over six months and started its return migration on 27 April 2008.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • nestling management
  • cainism
  • Germany
  • satellite telemetry
Open Access

The latest results of ringing the Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 73 - 75

Abstract

The latest results of ringing the Lesser Spotted Eagles (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) in Slovakia

Nine new ringing recoveries of Lesser Spotted Eagles have been collected from abroad and 4 ornithological rings have been successfully read in Slovakia using a monocular up to the end of August 2008. Three of the nine records were from the wintering grounds in Botswana and Zambia (2x), 2 come from a traditional autumn migrating route (Turkey, Israel), 1 ringing recovery represents an autumn spotting in Greece, 1 comes from the spring migration from Turkey and two incomplete records from Hungary. In Slovakia, observation of an adult male shows its fidelity of to the breeding territory even after 6 or 7 years; another male has in his 5th year been nesting 18 km from the site he hatched at. The next observation in Slovakia is represented by a 3 year old non-breeding individual which occured 50 km from the site he hatched at. The final record was of a year old individual that stayed 40 km from the site he originated from. This data suggests that young birds return to Europe right after their first wintering in South Africa.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • Slovakia
  • ring recoveries
Open Access

Nesting of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) at its hatching site

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 77 - 80

Abstract

Nesting of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (<italic>Aquila pomarina</italic>) at its hatching site

Colour rings with alphanumeric codes have been used on the Lesser Spotted Eagles since 2000. On April 24, 2007 an eagle with a yellow ring I9 was photographed in the "Ondavská vrchovina" highlands near the village of Lieskovec in Humenné district. It was found out that the eagle was ringed on the same site on July 4, 2002 as a chick on the nest. After further observations the adult male was spotted feeding its chick in the nest, which was located only 130 m from the one it hatched at. If it could be proved that the female at the nesting site, which has been regularly surveyed since 1985 has not changed, nesting of a son and a mother could not to be ruled out in this case.

Keywords

  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • ring recovery
  • fidelity
  • Slovakia
Open Access

The diet of the Common Kestrel in the urban environment of the city of Nitra

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 81 - 85

Abstract

The diet of the Common Kestrel in the urban environment of the city of Nitra

The diet of the urban Common Kestrel population was studied in Nitra during 2003-2005. Totally, 671 prey items were identified by the analysis of pellets and prey remains collected under the nesting sites. Insect, mainly represented by order Coleoptera, was found to be the most abundant prey. Regarding biomass, the Common Vole (Microtus arvalis) was predominated. In comparison with other articles published, the studied sample was rather rich in the Lesser White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) and the House Mouse (Mus cf. musculus).

Keywords

  • Kestrel
  • food
  • Slovakia
Open Access

First breeding of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in the "Borská nížina" lowland (SW Slovakia)

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 87 - 90

Abstract

First breeding of the Imperial Eagle (<italic>Aquila heliaca</italic>) in the "Borská nížina" lowland (SW Slovakia)

In 2007, breeding of the Imperial Eagle in locality "Devínske jazero" lake (near the village of "Vysoká pri Morave", SW Slovakia) was observed. The pair fledged 2 young. This was the first recorded breeding of this species in the "Záhorie" region. The eagles also bred the following year, 2008. During breeding, a change of male occurred so the nest remained unproductive (one fertile egg was found in the nest). Both cases suggest the current trend of occupying new sites in the Southwestern part of its breeding range.

Keywords

  • Imperial Eagle
  • breeding
  • south-west Slovakia
Open Access

Latest data on distribution of the Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) in Bulgaria and Slovakia including population density comparison

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 91 - 106

Abstract

Latest data on distribution of the Pygmy Owl (<italic>Glaucidium passerinum</italic>) in Bulgaria and Slovakia including population density comparison

The authors provide an outline of actual knowledge on the distribution of the Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) in Bulgaria from 1900 until 2008. The most recent estimates of the species population in Bulgaria are 150-200 and in Slovakia 1500-2000 breeding pairs. On the basis of quantitative samples obtained in the Rila Mts (Bulgaria) and in the High and Western Tatra Mts, Low Tatra Mts, "Krivánska Malá Fatra" Mts, "Veľká Fatra" Mts, "Chočské vrchy" Mts, "Stolické vrchy" Mts (Slovakia) obtained densities in Bulgaria are compared with ascertained densities in similar elevations in Slovakia. In the Rila Mts, 9 territories were found / 23 km2 and average density 0.39 territories / 1 km2 was found, in 1350-2000 m elevation. In Slovakia 75-82 territories were found / 79 km2 and average density 0.95-1.04 territories / 1 km2 was found, in 800-1650 m elevation. The density of Pygmy Owls in the mountains of Bulgaria is twice as low as in the mountains of Slovakia in Western Carpathians. This is probably caused by the distribution at the edge of the distribution area of the species and an higher isolation level in the Balkans. Other evaluated factors, such as habitat quality, health of forest stands, shorter twilight and shorter owl activity in the Balkans than in the Carpathians, negative effect of streams on voice activity of the Pygmy Owls, lack of food supply or lack of breeding holes, or even possible competition with other owl species were not regarded as reasons causing differences in Pygmy Owl densities in compared areas.

Keywords

  • Pygmy Owl
  • population estimates
  • density
  • Bulgaria
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Seasonal changes in food composition of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the northern part of the "Záhorie" region

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 107 - 112

Abstract

Seasonal changes in food composition of the Barn Owl (<italic>Tyto alba</italic>) in the northern part of the "Záhorie" region

33 prey species (10 296 individuals) were recovered from pellets of the Barn Owl in northern part of the "Záhorie" region (Western Slovakia) during period 2002-2006. The family Arvicolidae constituted 65.68 % of recoveries, Soricidae 17.86 %, Muridae 16.64 %, Talpidae 0.04 %, Gliridae 0.02 %, Mustelidae 0.02 %, Vespertilionidae 0.04 % and Aves 4.7 %. Microtus arvalis was predominantly represented by 65.2 %. For evaluation of diet data "The marked differences from the mean method" was used. The results of pellet analyses provide, besides information about owl diet, also new data about occurrence and geographical distribution of small mammalian species and importance of predators in agricultural landscape.

Keywords

  • Barn Owl
  • food ecology
  • seasonal changes
  • Záhorie
  • Slovakia
Open Access

Summary on raptors and owls ringing in Slovakia in the period 2005-2006

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 113 - 117

Abstract

Summary on raptors and owls ringing in Slovakia in the period 2005-2006

This report provides a summary on raptors and owls ringing in Slovakia in 2005-2006. In 2005, from a total of 21 132 ringed birds, raptors and owls represented 964 ind. (4.5 %). There were 26 species of raptors and owls, which equates 15.5 % of all species recorded. In 2006, there were 29 075 ringed in Slovakia, from this number raptors and owls were represented by 703 ind. (2.4 %) and 23 species (14 %). This paper also contains a summary on the ringing recoveries including data on raptors and owls.

Keywords

  • raptors
  • ringing
  • recovery
Open Access

Bibliography on birds of prey and owls in Slovakia. Part 1. Order Accipitriformes, genera Aquila, Hieraaetus & Haliaeetus

Published Online: 04 Jul 2012
Page range: 119 - 142

Abstract

Bibliography on birds of prey and owls in Slovakia. Part 1. Order Accipitriformes, genera <italic>Aquila, Hieraaetus</italic> & <italic>Haliaeetus</italic>

The aim of the bibliography is to provide a list of publications on raptors and owls of Slovakia. More parts will follow this first one, which is focused on genera Aquila, Hieraaetus and Haliaeetus. In total 332 citations are listed - 172 (51.8 %) scientific and research articles, 106 (31.9 %) popular articles, 3 (0.9 %) qualification papers, 22 (6.6 %) conference abstracts and 29 (8.7 %) reports or other papers. The register of species, objective index and the author register enable better overview.

Keywords

  • Slovakia
  • bibliography
  • Aquila
  • Hieraaetus
  • Haliaeetus

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