Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 26 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Volume 25 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 24 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 23 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 22 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 21 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 20 (2016): Issue 3 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Issue 2 (November 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 19 (2015): Issue 3 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Issue 2 (October 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Issue 1 (May 2015)

Volume 18 (2014): Issue 3 (December 2014)
Children's Language and Communicative Knowledge, Part Two. In childhood and beyond, Issue Editor: Barbara Bokus

Volume 18 (2014): Issue 2 (August 2014)
Children's Language and Communicative Knowledge, Part One. In Memory of Professor Grace Wales Shugar, Issue Editor: Barbara Bokus

Volume 18 (2014): Issue 1 (May 2014)

Volume 17 (2013): Issue 3 (December 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Issue 2 (September 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Volume 16 (2012): Issue 3 (December 2012)

Volume 16 (2012): Issue 2 (December 2012)
Language as a Tool for Interaction, Issue Editor: Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi

Volume 16 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 15 (2011): Issue 2 (December 2011)

Volume 15 (2011): Issue 1 (June 2011)

Volume 14 (2010): Issue 2 (December 2010)

Volume 14 (2010): Issue 1 (June 2010)

Volume 13 (2009): Issue 2 (December 2009)

Volume 13 (2009): Issue 1 (June 2009)

Volume 12 (2008): Issue 2 (December 2008)

Volume 12 (2008): Issue 1 (June 2008)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-8506
First Published
01 Jan 1997
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 26 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-8506
First Published
01 Jan 1997
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

11 Articles
Open Access

Stuttering frequency on content and function words in pre-school and school-age Jordanian Arabic-speaking children who stutter

Published Online: 31 Jan 2022
Page range: 1 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigated the influence of loci of content and function words on stuttering frequency in the speech of Arabic children who stutter. Participants were 85 children who stutter (24 preschool, 61 school age). The preschool children who stutter were 17 males and 7 females with a mean age of 4.58 ± 0.50 (range: 4-5 years old). The school age children who stutter were 56 males and 5 females with a mean age of 10.64 ± 2.76 (range: 6-16 years old). No significant difference was found between the preschool and school age children who stutter in the mean percentage of stuttering on both content and function words. For school age children who stutter, results showed a significantly higher percentage of stuttering on function words compared to content words in the mild level of stuttering (p = .010). Taking severity as a continuous variable, results indicated a significant positive correlation between scores on the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4 (SSI-4) and loci of stuttering on both content and function words. The results also revealed a significant negative correlation between age (as a continuous variable) and loci of stuttering in the category of function words. The findings of the current study provide new information about the impact of word type (function vs. content words) on stuttering in Arabic-speaking children.

Keywords

  • stuttering frequency
  • Arabic-speaking stutterers
  • content words
  • function words
Open Access

Understanding gender bias toward physicians using online doctor reviews

Published Online: 18 Feb 2022
Page range: 18 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Gender bias continues to be an ongoing issue in the field of medicine. While bias may come in many forms, patients’ biases and perceptions have been understudied and may impact adherence to treatment, leading to unequal outcomes. Online reviews for doctors are a naturalistic way to study gender bias. In this study, we leveraged the LIWC psychological linguistic analysis tool to analyze the language styles of ZocDoc and RateMDs reviews and understand the potential role of gender in patients’ perceptions of their doctors. Mean differences were calculated using bootstrapped hierarchical linear modeling. We found that reviews for female physicians are generally more informal and emotional than those for male physicians. While our study was exploratory, the results suggest that both patients and physicians need to increase their awareness of how their biases may be affecting how they give and receive vital health information.

Keywords

  • interpersonal communication
  • LIWC
  • gender bias
  • naturalistic language analysis
  • gendered references
Open Access

Identity markers in the Internet usernames adopted by female users of a Persian public discussion forum: A sociolinguistic analysis

Published Online: 07 Mar 2022
Page range: 42 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Drawing on the feminist poststructuralist perspective, the current study explored the usernames adopted by female users of Ninisite, that is, a Persian discussion forum, and aimed at identifying their identity markers. To this end, a corpus of 947 usernames in Ninisite was compiled. Using thematic analysis, the recurrent themes in the usernames were pinpointed, which led to the identification of six themes as identity markers, namely, gender, religion/ideology, ethnicity, occupation/profession, being humorous, and sense of uniqueness. With regard to the socioculturally unique context of Iran, a continuum of specificity versus generality can be observed in the usernames on Ninisite, with specificity emphasizing differences, sense of uniqueness, and individualization of the users, and generality highlighting neutrality, commonalities, and conventionality.

Keywords

  • identity
  • sociolinguistics
  • Ninisite
  • linguistic analysis
Open Access

Testing the impact of paraverbal irony signals. Experimental study on verbal irony identification in face-to-face and computer-mediated communication

Published Online: 24 Mar 2022
Page range: 65 - 84

Abstract

Abstract

This paper reports the results of an experimental study with a between subject design (N = 122) whose aim was to compare irony comprehension rates in face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC), and examine the influence of paraverbal irony signals on irony identification rates. An irony comprehension test was intersemiotically translated to three conditions: FTF (n = 46), paraverbal signal-rich CMC (n = 30), and paraverbal signal-poor CMC (n = 46). The study adopted a relevance theoretic account of irony. There was a statistically significant difference between the signal-rich CMC and FTF conditions - irony identification rates were higher in the signal-rich CMC condition. The results are important since they suggest that paraverbal irony signals are not essential for correct irony identification if relevant contextual information is available, and the CMC medium is not only unlikely to be an obstacle in communicating the ironic intent, but with the addition of the medium-specific irony signals, may be significantly better.

Keywords

  • irony
  • computer-mediated communication
  • paralanguage
  • relevance theory
Open Access

An extension of the QWERTY effect: Not just the right hand, expertise and typeability predict valence ratings of words

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 85 - 101

Abstract

Abstract

Typing is a ubiquitous daily action for many individuals; yet, research on how these actions have changed our perception of language is limited. One such influence, deemed the QWERTY effect, is an increase in valence ratings for words typed more with the right hand on a traditional keyboard (Jasmin & Casasanto, 2012). Although this finding is intuitively appealing given both right-handed dominance and the smaller number of letters typed with the right hand, an extension and replication of the right-side advantage is warranted. The present paper re-examined the QWERTY effect expanding to other embodied cognition variables (Barsalou, 1999). First, we found that the right-side advantage is replicable to new valence stimuli. Further, when examining expertise, right-side advantage interacted with typing speed and typeability (i.e., alternating hand key presses or finger switches), portraying that both skill and procedural actions play a role in judgment of valence on words.

Keywords

  • expertise
  • embodied cognition
  • valence
  • QWERTY effect
Open Access

How does prosodic deficit impact naïve listeners recognition of emotion? An analysis with speakers affected by Parkinson’s disease

Published Online: 06 May 2022
Page range: 102 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

This study aimed to understand the impact of the prosodic deficit in Parkinson’s disease (PD) on the communicative effectiveness of vocal expression of emotion. Fourteen patients with PD and 13 healthy control subjects (HC) uttered the phrase “non è possible, non ora” (“It is not possible, not now”) six times reading different emotional narrations. Three experts evaluated the PD subjects’ vocal production in terms of their communicative effectiveness. The PD patients were divided into two groups: PD+ (with residual effectiveness) and PD− (with impaired effectiveness). The vocal productions were administered to 30 naïve listeners. They were requested to label the emotion they recognized and to make judgments about their communicative effectiveness. The PD speakers were perceived as less effective than the HC speakers in conveying emotions (especially fear and anger). The PD− group was the most impaired in the expression of emotion, suggesting that speech disorders impact differently at the same stage of the disease with varying degrees of severity.

Keywords

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • emotional prosody
  • communicative effectiveness
  • speech pathology
Open Access

The relationship between narrative microstructure and macrostructure: Differences between six- and eight-year-olds

Published Online: 16 May 2022
Page range: 126 - 153

Abstract

Abstract

The current study aimed to investigate age-related differences in narrative abilities at the macrostructural and microstructural levels and to examine which microstructural aspects explain narrative macrostructure at ages six and eight. Oral narratives were elicited from 89 Croatian monolingual children using the Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (MAIN). At the microstructural level, the measure of lexical diversity D, clausal density, and mean length of clause were assessed. Macrostructure was assessed using the standardized MAIN scoring procedure. We found differences between the two age groups in lexical diversity, clausal density, and macrostructure, with eight-year-olds scoring higher on all measures. Variance in the macrostructure was explained to a significant extent by lexical diversity in the case of six-year-olds, and by both lexical diversity and clausal density in the case of eight-year-olds. Our results suggest that six-year-olds rely mostly on lexical abilities when telling a story, while eight-year-olds also draw on syntactic abilities.

Keywords

  • microstructure
  • macrostructure
  • narrative analysis
  • children
  • age-related differences
Open Access

How children with developmental language disorders solve nonverbal tasks

Published Online: 06 Jun 2022
Page range: 154 - 168

Abstract

Abstract

While solving tasks that test their intelligence, children suffering from developmental language disorders (DLD) usually receive lower scores than their typically developing (TD) peers. The present study aimed to assess how children with DLD solve typical nonverbal tasks. Sixty-five children (ages 6-9 years), monolingual users of the Polish language, participated in this study (34 with DLD, 31 TD). The Test of Language Development (TLD) was used to assess language development. Three tasks from the ABC II Kaufmann were used: triangles, story completion, and conceptual thinking. Children with DLD scored significantly lower than TD children in conceptual thinking and story completion. Scores on the triangles test did not correlate significantly with scores on the linguistic tests, whereas conceptual thinking and story completion were highly intercorrelated. While solving the task that required choosing an object that does not match other objects, children with DLD frequently selected different answers than TD children.

Keywords

  • developmental language disorders
  • nonverbal tasks
  • categorization
Open Access

Parasocial relationships and YouTube addiction: The role of viewer and YouTuber video characteristics

Published Online: 01 Jul 2022
Page range: 169 - 206

Abstract

Abstract

YouTube is a popular social media platform that fosters the development of social bonds between viewers and YouTubers called parasocial relationships (PSR). These relationships might be associated with both viewer characteristics, such as social anxiety, and YouTuber video characteristics, such as self-disclosure. Additionally, PSR might be associated with the level of addiction to the platform. Data from 370 college students were extracted from a previous study and 360 videos of 72 YouTubers were coded to (a) explore the different dimensions of PSR and (b) examine a mediation model of YouTube addiction. The results support the existence of three PSR dimensions. The results also showed that PSR dimensions were associated with both viewers’ social anxiety and YouTubers’ evaluative self-disclosure. One PSR dimension was positively associated with YouTube addiction. This study encourages the development of qualitative studies to more precisely identify the different facets of PSR with social media figures.

Keywords

  • YouTube
  • YouTuber
  • parasocial relationship
  • self-disclosure
  • social anxiety
  • YouTube addiction
Open Access

Avicii’s S.O.S.: A psychobiographical approach and corpus-based discourse analysis on suicidal ideation

Published Online: 02 Aug 2022
Page range: 207 - 241

Abstract

Abstract

This study explored the linguistic patterns and discourse on suicide of the Swedish artist Avicii. Focusing on key events in his life, career, and compositions, a triangulation of data sources was employed grounded on psychobiographical research framework and corpus-based discourse analysis. Texts with reference to suicidal risk factors were then evaluated based on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide to establish linguistic representations of emotional distress and suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that lexical features associated with mental health struggles, that is, high volume of first-person deixis and death-themed linguistic references, were evident in his writing. There were substantial implications of his predisposition to mental stress and his call for help, his S.O.S. This study helps in further understanding the language and discourse of artists like Avicii on the immense dislocation of emotions and the complexities of navigating (inter)personal relationships.

Keywords

  • suicide
  • corpus discourse analysis
  • interpersonal theory
  • mental health
  • psychobiographical
Open Access

Conveying a fictional false belief in narrative

Published Online: 08 Sep 2022
Page range: 242 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

Narrative ability is an important life-skill and mature narrators do not only provide information about actions and events when telling a story but also include the motivations, emotions and beliefs experienced by protagonists. It is rare for young children to spontaneously explain the beliefs of story characters but the reasons are unclear. In the current study, frog story data from 143 Swedish children aged 4–6 showed that children’s level of explicitness in conveying a fictional false belief was associated with referential narrative ability and use of mental vocabulary, but not to the ability to formulate embedded propositions. Socioeconomic status predicted level of explicitness, whereas no associations were found to age, sex or being multilingual. Future work should examine narrative practices in preschool and in the home more closely, enabling improved support to provide children with equal opportunities.

Keywords

  • executive functions
  • narrative
  • language development
  • Theory of Mind
  • false belief understanding
11 Articles
Open Access

Stuttering frequency on content and function words in pre-school and school-age Jordanian Arabic-speaking children who stutter

Published Online: 31 Jan 2022
Page range: 1 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigated the influence of loci of content and function words on stuttering frequency in the speech of Arabic children who stutter. Participants were 85 children who stutter (24 preschool, 61 school age). The preschool children who stutter were 17 males and 7 females with a mean age of 4.58 ± 0.50 (range: 4-5 years old). The school age children who stutter were 56 males and 5 females with a mean age of 10.64 ± 2.76 (range: 6-16 years old). No significant difference was found between the preschool and school age children who stutter in the mean percentage of stuttering on both content and function words. For school age children who stutter, results showed a significantly higher percentage of stuttering on function words compared to content words in the mild level of stuttering (p = .010). Taking severity as a continuous variable, results indicated a significant positive correlation between scores on the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4 (SSI-4) and loci of stuttering on both content and function words. The results also revealed a significant negative correlation between age (as a continuous variable) and loci of stuttering in the category of function words. The findings of the current study provide new information about the impact of word type (function vs. content words) on stuttering in Arabic-speaking children.

Keywords

  • stuttering frequency
  • Arabic-speaking stutterers
  • content words
  • function words
Open Access

Understanding gender bias toward physicians using online doctor reviews

Published Online: 18 Feb 2022
Page range: 18 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Gender bias continues to be an ongoing issue in the field of medicine. While bias may come in many forms, patients’ biases and perceptions have been understudied and may impact adherence to treatment, leading to unequal outcomes. Online reviews for doctors are a naturalistic way to study gender bias. In this study, we leveraged the LIWC psychological linguistic analysis tool to analyze the language styles of ZocDoc and RateMDs reviews and understand the potential role of gender in patients’ perceptions of their doctors. Mean differences were calculated using bootstrapped hierarchical linear modeling. We found that reviews for female physicians are generally more informal and emotional than those for male physicians. While our study was exploratory, the results suggest that both patients and physicians need to increase their awareness of how their biases may be affecting how they give and receive vital health information.

Keywords

  • interpersonal communication
  • LIWC
  • gender bias
  • naturalistic language analysis
  • gendered references
Open Access

Identity markers in the Internet usernames adopted by female users of a Persian public discussion forum: A sociolinguistic analysis

Published Online: 07 Mar 2022
Page range: 42 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Drawing on the feminist poststructuralist perspective, the current study explored the usernames adopted by female users of Ninisite, that is, a Persian discussion forum, and aimed at identifying their identity markers. To this end, a corpus of 947 usernames in Ninisite was compiled. Using thematic analysis, the recurrent themes in the usernames were pinpointed, which led to the identification of six themes as identity markers, namely, gender, religion/ideology, ethnicity, occupation/profession, being humorous, and sense of uniqueness. With regard to the socioculturally unique context of Iran, a continuum of specificity versus generality can be observed in the usernames on Ninisite, with specificity emphasizing differences, sense of uniqueness, and individualization of the users, and generality highlighting neutrality, commonalities, and conventionality.

Keywords

  • identity
  • sociolinguistics
  • Ninisite
  • linguistic analysis
Open Access

Testing the impact of paraverbal irony signals. Experimental study on verbal irony identification in face-to-face and computer-mediated communication

Published Online: 24 Mar 2022
Page range: 65 - 84

Abstract

Abstract

This paper reports the results of an experimental study with a between subject design (N = 122) whose aim was to compare irony comprehension rates in face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC), and examine the influence of paraverbal irony signals on irony identification rates. An irony comprehension test was intersemiotically translated to three conditions: FTF (n = 46), paraverbal signal-rich CMC (n = 30), and paraverbal signal-poor CMC (n = 46). The study adopted a relevance theoretic account of irony. There was a statistically significant difference between the signal-rich CMC and FTF conditions - irony identification rates were higher in the signal-rich CMC condition. The results are important since they suggest that paraverbal irony signals are not essential for correct irony identification if relevant contextual information is available, and the CMC medium is not only unlikely to be an obstacle in communicating the ironic intent, but with the addition of the medium-specific irony signals, may be significantly better.

Keywords

  • irony
  • computer-mediated communication
  • paralanguage
  • relevance theory
Open Access

An extension of the QWERTY effect: Not just the right hand, expertise and typeability predict valence ratings of words

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 85 - 101

Abstract

Abstract

Typing is a ubiquitous daily action for many individuals; yet, research on how these actions have changed our perception of language is limited. One such influence, deemed the QWERTY effect, is an increase in valence ratings for words typed more with the right hand on a traditional keyboard (Jasmin & Casasanto, 2012). Although this finding is intuitively appealing given both right-handed dominance and the smaller number of letters typed with the right hand, an extension and replication of the right-side advantage is warranted. The present paper re-examined the QWERTY effect expanding to other embodied cognition variables (Barsalou, 1999). First, we found that the right-side advantage is replicable to new valence stimuli. Further, when examining expertise, right-side advantage interacted with typing speed and typeability (i.e., alternating hand key presses or finger switches), portraying that both skill and procedural actions play a role in judgment of valence on words.

Keywords

  • expertise
  • embodied cognition
  • valence
  • QWERTY effect
Open Access

How does prosodic deficit impact naïve listeners recognition of emotion? An analysis with speakers affected by Parkinson’s disease

Published Online: 06 May 2022
Page range: 102 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

This study aimed to understand the impact of the prosodic deficit in Parkinson’s disease (PD) on the communicative effectiveness of vocal expression of emotion. Fourteen patients with PD and 13 healthy control subjects (HC) uttered the phrase “non è possible, non ora” (“It is not possible, not now”) six times reading different emotional narrations. Three experts evaluated the PD subjects’ vocal production in terms of their communicative effectiveness. The PD patients were divided into two groups: PD+ (with residual effectiveness) and PD− (with impaired effectiveness). The vocal productions were administered to 30 naïve listeners. They were requested to label the emotion they recognized and to make judgments about their communicative effectiveness. The PD speakers were perceived as less effective than the HC speakers in conveying emotions (especially fear and anger). The PD− group was the most impaired in the expression of emotion, suggesting that speech disorders impact differently at the same stage of the disease with varying degrees of severity.

Keywords

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • emotional prosody
  • communicative effectiveness
  • speech pathology
Open Access

The relationship between narrative microstructure and macrostructure: Differences between six- and eight-year-olds

Published Online: 16 May 2022
Page range: 126 - 153

Abstract

Abstract

The current study aimed to investigate age-related differences in narrative abilities at the macrostructural and microstructural levels and to examine which microstructural aspects explain narrative macrostructure at ages six and eight. Oral narratives were elicited from 89 Croatian monolingual children using the Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (MAIN). At the microstructural level, the measure of lexical diversity D, clausal density, and mean length of clause were assessed. Macrostructure was assessed using the standardized MAIN scoring procedure. We found differences between the two age groups in lexical diversity, clausal density, and macrostructure, with eight-year-olds scoring higher on all measures. Variance in the macrostructure was explained to a significant extent by lexical diversity in the case of six-year-olds, and by both lexical diversity and clausal density in the case of eight-year-olds. Our results suggest that six-year-olds rely mostly on lexical abilities when telling a story, while eight-year-olds also draw on syntactic abilities.

Keywords

  • microstructure
  • macrostructure
  • narrative analysis
  • children
  • age-related differences
Open Access

How children with developmental language disorders solve nonverbal tasks

Published Online: 06 Jun 2022
Page range: 154 - 168

Abstract

Abstract

While solving tasks that test their intelligence, children suffering from developmental language disorders (DLD) usually receive lower scores than their typically developing (TD) peers. The present study aimed to assess how children with DLD solve typical nonverbal tasks. Sixty-five children (ages 6-9 years), monolingual users of the Polish language, participated in this study (34 with DLD, 31 TD). The Test of Language Development (TLD) was used to assess language development. Three tasks from the ABC II Kaufmann were used: triangles, story completion, and conceptual thinking. Children with DLD scored significantly lower than TD children in conceptual thinking and story completion. Scores on the triangles test did not correlate significantly with scores on the linguistic tests, whereas conceptual thinking and story completion were highly intercorrelated. While solving the task that required choosing an object that does not match other objects, children with DLD frequently selected different answers than TD children.

Keywords

  • developmental language disorders
  • nonverbal tasks
  • categorization
Open Access

Parasocial relationships and YouTube addiction: The role of viewer and YouTuber video characteristics

Published Online: 01 Jul 2022
Page range: 169 - 206

Abstract

Abstract

YouTube is a popular social media platform that fosters the development of social bonds between viewers and YouTubers called parasocial relationships (PSR). These relationships might be associated with both viewer characteristics, such as social anxiety, and YouTuber video characteristics, such as self-disclosure. Additionally, PSR might be associated with the level of addiction to the platform. Data from 370 college students were extracted from a previous study and 360 videos of 72 YouTubers were coded to (a) explore the different dimensions of PSR and (b) examine a mediation model of YouTube addiction. The results support the existence of three PSR dimensions. The results also showed that PSR dimensions were associated with both viewers’ social anxiety and YouTubers’ evaluative self-disclosure. One PSR dimension was positively associated with YouTube addiction. This study encourages the development of qualitative studies to more precisely identify the different facets of PSR with social media figures.

Keywords

  • YouTube
  • YouTuber
  • parasocial relationship
  • self-disclosure
  • social anxiety
  • YouTube addiction
Open Access

Avicii’s S.O.S.: A psychobiographical approach and corpus-based discourse analysis on suicidal ideation

Published Online: 02 Aug 2022
Page range: 207 - 241

Abstract

Abstract

This study explored the linguistic patterns and discourse on suicide of the Swedish artist Avicii. Focusing on key events in his life, career, and compositions, a triangulation of data sources was employed grounded on psychobiographical research framework and corpus-based discourse analysis. Texts with reference to suicidal risk factors were then evaluated based on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide to establish linguistic representations of emotional distress and suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that lexical features associated with mental health struggles, that is, high volume of first-person deixis and death-themed linguistic references, were evident in his writing. There were substantial implications of his predisposition to mental stress and his call for help, his S.O.S. This study helps in further understanding the language and discourse of artists like Avicii on the immense dislocation of emotions and the complexities of navigating (inter)personal relationships.

Keywords

  • suicide
  • corpus discourse analysis
  • interpersonal theory
  • mental health
  • psychobiographical
Open Access

Conveying a fictional false belief in narrative

Published Online: 08 Sep 2022
Page range: 242 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

Narrative ability is an important life-skill and mature narrators do not only provide information about actions and events when telling a story but also include the motivations, emotions and beliefs experienced by protagonists. It is rare for young children to spontaneously explain the beliefs of story characters but the reasons are unclear. In the current study, frog story data from 143 Swedish children aged 4–6 showed that children’s level of explicitness in conveying a fictional false belief was associated with referential narrative ability and use of mental vocabulary, but not to the ability to formulate embedded propositions. Socioeconomic status predicted level of explicitness, whereas no associations were found to age, sex or being multilingual. Future work should examine narrative practices in preschool and in the home more closely, enabling improved support to provide children with equal opportunities.

Keywords

  • executive functions
  • narrative
  • language development
  • Theory of Mind
  • false belief understanding

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