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Journal & Issues

Volume 44 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 43 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 42 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 41 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 39 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 38 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 37 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 36 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 35 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 34 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 33 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 32 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 31 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 30 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 29 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 27 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 26 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 25 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 24 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 19 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 18 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 17 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 16 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-8414
First Published
30 Mar 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 43 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-8414
First Published
30 Mar 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

A Systems Approach to the Development of Educational Standards for Fostering Personal Values

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 1 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

This article proposes to consider the education system as a factor in the formation of people’s personal values. We examine students’ perceptions of the degree to which existing educational standards are oriented towards the formation and development of personal values, as well as formulate proposals for the implementation of a systems approach to the development of educational standards as a factor in improving the existing complex of personal values. The methodology applied included: desk analysis by comparison, deduction, and induction; a questionnaire study; variance, discriminant, factor and morphological analysis. Respondents were segmented according to the criteria “presence of groups of values” — “conjugation of groups of values with variables.” University students, i.e., the part of society that is considered the most active and progressive, were found to have a low level of moral and ethical values. After considering the place of education in the macro-environment of the country was substantiated, we propose a number of measures to address the problem of raising the level of values among all participants in the educational process, in order to reduce the gap between the pace of technical advancement and humanitarian development of society.

Keywords

  • personal values
  • educational system
  • educational standards

JEL Classification

  • A13
  • I23
  • Z10
Open Access

Research and Development Expenditures in the Sector of Polish Enterprises as an Instrument of Research and Development Policy

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 25 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

One of the important and open issues in modern businesses is the financing of research and development (R&D) activities, treated as an instrument of research and development policy. Maintaining the competitiveness of business entities requires the systemic creation and implementation of innovations, which requires expenditure on R&D activities. The aim of this paper is to identify the level, dynamics and structure of expenditures on R&D activities in Poland and in Polish businesses. The time range of the study covers the years 2015–2019 (or 2017–2019 inthe analysis of expenditures in the enterprise sector), the scope concerns the financial aspects of R&D activity on a national scale and in the sector of Polish enterprises, and the sources of the data for analysis are publications of Poland’s Central Statistical Office (Statistics Poland). The study applied the following methods: a critical and cognitive analysis of literature in identifying the research problem, a descriptive and comparative method in presenting the problem, a statistical method in calculating percentage shares, and a projection method in proposing model solutions. Overall, the analysis found a relatively low level and dynamics of expenditures incurred on R&D in Poland and in the enterprise sector. Therefore, R&D policy among Polish enterprises can be described as conservative and ad hoc in nature.

Keywords

  • research and development activity
  • innovation
  • customer
  • enterprise
  • knowledge
  • management

JEL Classification

  • 023
  • 031
  • 032
  • 035
  • M31
Open Access

Brand as a Customer Value Driver: Relationships with Customer Engagement

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 53 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents theoretical considerations regarding the concept of ‘brand’, identifying it as a value driver for customers and defining how important a brand is in the value creation process. Brand-related constructs (brand strength, brand value, brand equity, brand awareness, brand knowledge, brand reputation, brand image, and brand identity) found in the literature are defined, paying particular attention to brand equity as a construct more closely related to the concept of perceived value. The article also discusses the various levels of meaning of a brand and presents the concept of customer engagement (CE), identifying the relationships between a brand, the concept of perceived value, and customer engagement. The conclusions highlight the strong relationships between brands and the category of customer value. Additionally, the article presents the phenomenon of customer engagement as a theoretical perspective for brand identification in the process of customer value creation.

Keywords

  • brand equity
  • brand
  • customer perceived value
  • perceived value creation
  • customer engagement

JEL Classification

  • M31
  • M37
  • D16
Open Access

Testing Polish Secondary-School Students’ Written Social Communication Competence Based on a Timed Composition Task

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 75 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

This study experimentally evaluated Polish school students’ competence at written communication, understood as one of the forms of social communication. The task, performed online, was designed to see if the students were able to select the most important information from a given base text and to compose new texts on this basis to comply with three different length requirements, and how they behaved under the pressure of the time allocated to complete the sub-tasks. Results from an overall pool of 500 secondary school students from a diverse sample of schools (in the city of Poznań and the surrounding Wielkopolska province) that differed in terms of type and ranking suggest an overall poor competence at various composite skills involved in written social communication: information selection, summarization, logical structuring, and cohesive embellishment. Participants clearly exhibited various problems with concisely formulating thoughts, properly complying with instructions, etc. Composing a short, written message (based on a provided base text) and/or freely embellishing and reformulating information clearly caused them considerable difficulty. The article closes with some suggestions for how the methods used could potentially be improved in future studies of this type.

Keywords

  • social communication
  • written communication
  • competence

JEL Classification

  • J62
Open Access

Quality Policy in Creating Organizational Maturity in a Medical Tourism Enterprise

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 95 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

This article examines the concept of organizational maturity, with particular emphasis on the importance that it can play in medical tourism. First, the concept of organization is subjected to an interdisciplinary interpretation in the light of the Polish and international literature on the subject. The influence of this area of enterprise management on the decisions made and the shaping of the pro-quality policy of the enterprise is considered - noting that the continuous and comprehensive improvement of intra-organizational processes, decisions taken and monitored, and long-term planning are determinants of the level of organizational maturity and contribute to the implementation of planned activities, while effectively responding to the needs of stakeholders. Next, selected results of a qualitative study conducted among selected private medical institutions specializing in medical tourism are presented. Despite the relatively rich literature in the field of tourist and medical services, few studies have looked at the importance of quality in management in private healthcare entities and its significant impact on the purchasing decisions of tourist patients, with a simultaneous emphasis on entities serving foreign medical patients. The survey was carried out in 2021 using the IDI (Individual in-depth Interview) technique, with a purposive sample of Polish and Croatian clinics providing services in the field of medical tourism holding a significant position in their respective market.

Keywords

  • medical tourism
  • organizational maturity
  • quality management
  • product
  • personnel

JEL Classification

  • I11
  • I12
  • D22
  • L21
5 Articles
Open Access

A Systems Approach to the Development of Educational Standards for Fostering Personal Values

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 1 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

This article proposes to consider the education system as a factor in the formation of people’s personal values. We examine students’ perceptions of the degree to which existing educational standards are oriented towards the formation and development of personal values, as well as formulate proposals for the implementation of a systems approach to the development of educational standards as a factor in improving the existing complex of personal values. The methodology applied included: desk analysis by comparison, deduction, and induction; a questionnaire study; variance, discriminant, factor and morphological analysis. Respondents were segmented according to the criteria “presence of groups of values” — “conjugation of groups of values with variables.” University students, i.e., the part of society that is considered the most active and progressive, were found to have a low level of moral and ethical values. After considering the place of education in the macro-environment of the country was substantiated, we propose a number of measures to address the problem of raising the level of values among all participants in the educational process, in order to reduce the gap between the pace of technical advancement and humanitarian development of society.

Keywords

  • personal values
  • educational system
  • educational standards

JEL Classification

  • A13
  • I23
  • Z10
Open Access

Research and Development Expenditures in the Sector of Polish Enterprises as an Instrument of Research and Development Policy

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 25 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

One of the important and open issues in modern businesses is the financing of research and development (R&D) activities, treated as an instrument of research and development policy. Maintaining the competitiveness of business entities requires the systemic creation and implementation of innovations, which requires expenditure on R&D activities. The aim of this paper is to identify the level, dynamics and structure of expenditures on R&D activities in Poland and in Polish businesses. The time range of the study covers the years 2015–2019 (or 2017–2019 inthe analysis of expenditures in the enterprise sector), the scope concerns the financial aspects of R&D activity on a national scale and in the sector of Polish enterprises, and the sources of the data for analysis are publications of Poland’s Central Statistical Office (Statistics Poland). The study applied the following methods: a critical and cognitive analysis of literature in identifying the research problem, a descriptive and comparative method in presenting the problem, a statistical method in calculating percentage shares, and a projection method in proposing model solutions. Overall, the analysis found a relatively low level and dynamics of expenditures incurred on R&D in Poland and in the enterprise sector. Therefore, R&D policy among Polish enterprises can be described as conservative and ad hoc in nature.

Keywords

  • research and development activity
  • innovation
  • customer
  • enterprise
  • knowledge
  • management

JEL Classification

  • 023
  • 031
  • 032
  • 035
  • M31
Open Access

Brand as a Customer Value Driver: Relationships with Customer Engagement

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 53 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents theoretical considerations regarding the concept of ‘brand’, identifying it as a value driver for customers and defining how important a brand is in the value creation process. Brand-related constructs (brand strength, brand value, brand equity, brand awareness, brand knowledge, brand reputation, brand image, and brand identity) found in the literature are defined, paying particular attention to brand equity as a construct more closely related to the concept of perceived value. The article also discusses the various levels of meaning of a brand and presents the concept of customer engagement (CE), identifying the relationships between a brand, the concept of perceived value, and customer engagement. The conclusions highlight the strong relationships between brands and the category of customer value. Additionally, the article presents the phenomenon of customer engagement as a theoretical perspective for brand identification in the process of customer value creation.

Keywords

  • brand equity
  • brand
  • customer perceived value
  • perceived value creation
  • customer engagement

JEL Classification

  • M31
  • M37
  • D16
Open Access

Testing Polish Secondary-School Students’ Written Social Communication Competence Based on a Timed Composition Task

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 75 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

This study experimentally evaluated Polish school students’ competence at written communication, understood as one of the forms of social communication. The task, performed online, was designed to see if the students were able to select the most important information from a given base text and to compose new texts on this basis to comply with three different length requirements, and how they behaved under the pressure of the time allocated to complete the sub-tasks. Results from an overall pool of 500 secondary school students from a diverse sample of schools (in the city of Poznań and the surrounding Wielkopolska province) that differed in terms of type and ranking suggest an overall poor competence at various composite skills involved in written social communication: information selection, summarization, logical structuring, and cohesive embellishment. Participants clearly exhibited various problems with concisely formulating thoughts, properly complying with instructions, etc. Composing a short, written message (based on a provided base text) and/or freely embellishing and reformulating information clearly caused them considerable difficulty. The article closes with some suggestions for how the methods used could potentially be improved in future studies of this type.

Keywords

  • social communication
  • written communication
  • competence

JEL Classification

  • J62
Open Access

Quality Policy in Creating Organizational Maturity in a Medical Tourism Enterprise

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 95 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

This article examines the concept of organizational maturity, with particular emphasis on the importance that it can play in medical tourism. First, the concept of organization is subjected to an interdisciplinary interpretation in the light of the Polish and international literature on the subject. The influence of this area of enterprise management on the decisions made and the shaping of the pro-quality policy of the enterprise is considered - noting that the continuous and comprehensive improvement of intra-organizational processes, decisions taken and monitored, and long-term planning are determinants of the level of organizational maturity and contribute to the implementation of planned activities, while effectively responding to the needs of stakeholders. Next, selected results of a qualitative study conducted among selected private medical institutions specializing in medical tourism are presented. Despite the relatively rich literature in the field of tourist and medical services, few studies have looked at the importance of quality in management in private healthcare entities and its significant impact on the purchasing decisions of tourist patients, with a simultaneous emphasis on entities serving foreign medical patients. The survey was carried out in 2021 using the IDI (Individual in-depth Interview) technique, with a purposive sample of Polish and Croatian clinics providing services in the field of medical tourism holding a significant position in their respective market.

Keywords

  • medical tourism
  • organizational maturity
  • quality management
  • product
  • personnel

JEL Classification

  • I11
  • I12
  • D22
  • L21

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