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Volume 68 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 68 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 68 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 68 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 3-4 (September 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 4 (September 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2-3 (June 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 58 (2012): Issue 4 (December 2012)

Volume 58 (2012): Issue 3 (September 2012)

Volume 58 (2012): Issue 2 (June 2012)

Volume 58 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Volume 57 (2011): Issue 4 (December 2011)

Volume 57 (2011): Issue 3 (September 2011)

Volume 57 (2011): Issue 2 (June 2011)

Volume 57 (2011): Issue 1 (March 2011)

Volume 56 (2010): Issue 4 (December 2010)

Volume 56 (2010): Issue 3 (September 2010)

Volume 56 (2010): Issue 2 (June 2010)

Volume 56 (2010): Issue 1 (March 2010)

Volume 55 (2009): Issue 4 (December 2009)

Volume 55 (2009): Issue 3 (September 2009)

Volume 55 (2009): Issue 2 (June 2009)

Volume 55 (2009): Issue 1 (March 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2454-0358
First Published
14 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2454-0358
First Published
14 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Occurrence of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in the Slovak Republic and its outbreaks during 1945–2020

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 55 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

The gypsy moth is one of the most serious pests in forests and fruit tree plantations over prevailing parts of the Northern Hemisphere. This work is based on a literature review, and presents history of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., observed in Slovak forests within the period 1945–2020. The life cycle, hosts, natural enemies, population dynamics of pests, impact of outbreaks on forests and different management methods used in the past are discussed. Since 1945, there were nine gypsy moth outbreaks in Slovakia. Between 1945 and 2020, a total of 155,034 ha of deciduous forests were touched with varying intensity, representing an average annual damage of 2,040 ha. The strongest outbreak culminated in 2004. Totally 51,479 ha were attacked in the period of 2000–2008. We have found outbreak periods that repeat with frequency of 7.8 ±2.2 years and the average outbreak phase lasts 3.1 ±1.1 years. The period between two subsequent outbreaks seems to be more or less constant and duration of the outbreak phase seems to be gradually shortened during the study period. Several factors influencing the gypsy moth population dynamics in Slovakia are discussed. The role of biological control by using entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga is described.

Keywords

  • population dynamics leaf-eating insect
  • periodic outbreaks
  • natural enemies
Open Access

Infectious and parasitic diseases of phytophagous insect pests in the context of extreme environmental conditions

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 72 - 84

Abstract

Abstract

The density of phytophagous insect pest populations is related (directly and indirectly) to several groups of factors that can be broadly divided into: abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic. Each extreme in the abiotic environment at a macro-level leads to a series of consecutive extremes in the biotic environment, which eventually results in micro-level responses in the individual organisms. The manifestation of factors acts in aggregate or in a sequence, creating a chain of processes around us. Insects very efficiently use the abundance of nutritional resources, resulting in a tremendous increase in their population density, and triggering control mechanisms through the emergence of parasitic and pathogenic infections (viruses, bacteria, fungi, microsporidia, protozoa and nematodes). The development of entomopathogenic infections in host populations is directly dependent on the characteristics of both the antagonist and the insect. It is associated with the lifestyle and life cycle of the insect, with features encoded in the mechanism of pathogen action, and limited by the pathogen’s virulence and pathogenicity.

Keywords

  • entomopathogenic infections
  • environmental conditions
  • extreme
  • insect pests
  • epizootic
Open Access

Evaluation of insect pest occurrence in areas of calamitous mortality of Scots pine

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 85 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

Pinus sylvestris is an important production tree. In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the mortality of pine trees due to insect pests. It is obvious that some pests profit from climatic changes, increase their aggressiveness and spread to new localities. The study aimed to investigate the spectrum of more abundant insect pest species in pine plantations of Czechia. The occurrence of species and intensity of their infestation were studied at 77 localities situated in six regions. Any abundant foliophagous insect species were noticed. Bark beetles and wood-boring insects were found to be prevalent. Namely, Ips acuminatus, Ips sexdentatus, Phaenops cyanea and Sirex noctilio seem to be the most dangerous. These species are now better competitors than species previously considered as main pests. Their aggressiveness, expansion to new areas and interspecies co-occurrence are alarming. Due to the advancing climate change, pine mortality due to bark beetles and wood-boring pests will probably continue to increase.

Keywords

  • biotic stressors
  • Coleoptera
  • Hymenoptera
  • Lepidoptera
  • central Europe
Open Access

Ecology, management and damage by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coniferous forests within Europe

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 91 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Coniferous forests in Europe have a considerable number of pests that attack trees of all ages from youngest up to oldest ones. One of them is the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis. This species is widespread in Europe and occurs from warm southern areas (Spain) up to northern countries (Sweden, Finland). Larvae of this species do not cause damage, they help in the decomposition process of stumps and roots. Adults are harmful as they consume bark of young coniferous seedlings, above all of spruce and pine. One adult can consume on average 75 mm2 of bark per day. Individuals can live up to 4 years, and during their lives they can damage and kill several tens of coniferous seedlings. Traditional chemical protection of seedlings against this pest is and will gradually be more and more restricted or forbidden. In this review, we describe this method as well as all other alternative methods including biological protection. We estimate that H. abietis causes annual damages in Europe of almost 120 million € and damages several tens of thousands of hectares of young forest stands.

Keywords

  • biocontrol
  • control
  • costs
  • life history
  • pest
Open Access

Overwintering mortality of the oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) in Hungary – a field survey

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 108 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

The North American oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) was first discovered in Europe (Norhern Italy) in 2000. It started a rapid area expansion in the last decade and has been reported in 20 countries so far. Almost all European oaks are suitable hosts. On top of the host availability, abiotic factors like weather/climate may also have a decisive impact on its further spread and future outbreaks. We conducted a simple field survey within three years, at five locations to estimate the overwintering mortality of the species. Our results suggest that not even a relatively harsh winter (as 2016/2017) caused severe mortality in the overwintering populations. The average mortality of the nine year/location combinations was 30.6% (range 9.1–58.5%). Based on this, the low winter temperature is unlikely to restrict its further spread, therefore continuing area expansion can be predicted.

Keywords

  • invasive insects
  • area expansion
  • climate change
  • abiotic limitation
  • overwintering success
Open Access

Ash dieback and contributing factors of forest weakening in provenance tests in the Sumy region

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 113 - 121

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the health condition of Fraxinus excelsior L. in provenance tests, with special focus on ash dieback (ADB), but taking into account also other causes of its decline. The research was carried out in the provenance tests of F. excelsior in the forest-steppe part of the Sumy region. ADB symptoms were revealed in all provenance tests. For 2012–2019 the health condition index, ADB incidence and severity increased for all provenances except the Steppe. Collar rot was present in all ash provenances. Fungi species were isolated from the stem parts of ash at all provenances. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus induced longest necrotic lesions following wound inoculation of stems of 7–10-years-old plants of European ash in the forest while inoculation with both Cytospora sp. and Diplodia sp. resulted in smaller necroses. The conclusion from other regions about the coincidence the damage of European ash by ADB and collar rots as well as the coincidence the damage of European ash by collar rot and tree colonization by Hylesinus crenatus (Fabricius, 1787) is supported.

Keywords

  • collar rot
  • health condition
  • incidence
  • severity
6 Articles
Open Access

Occurrence of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in the Slovak Republic and its outbreaks during 1945–2020

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 55 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

The gypsy moth is one of the most serious pests in forests and fruit tree plantations over prevailing parts of the Northern Hemisphere. This work is based on a literature review, and presents history of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., observed in Slovak forests within the period 1945–2020. The life cycle, hosts, natural enemies, population dynamics of pests, impact of outbreaks on forests and different management methods used in the past are discussed. Since 1945, there were nine gypsy moth outbreaks in Slovakia. Between 1945 and 2020, a total of 155,034 ha of deciduous forests were touched with varying intensity, representing an average annual damage of 2,040 ha. The strongest outbreak culminated in 2004. Totally 51,479 ha were attacked in the period of 2000–2008. We have found outbreak periods that repeat with frequency of 7.8 ±2.2 years and the average outbreak phase lasts 3.1 ±1.1 years. The period between two subsequent outbreaks seems to be more or less constant and duration of the outbreak phase seems to be gradually shortened during the study period. Several factors influencing the gypsy moth population dynamics in Slovakia are discussed. The role of biological control by using entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga is described.

Keywords

  • population dynamics leaf-eating insect
  • periodic outbreaks
  • natural enemies
Open Access

Infectious and parasitic diseases of phytophagous insect pests in the context of extreme environmental conditions

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 72 - 84

Abstract

Abstract

The density of phytophagous insect pest populations is related (directly and indirectly) to several groups of factors that can be broadly divided into: abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic. Each extreme in the abiotic environment at a macro-level leads to a series of consecutive extremes in the biotic environment, which eventually results in micro-level responses in the individual organisms. The manifestation of factors acts in aggregate or in a sequence, creating a chain of processes around us. Insects very efficiently use the abundance of nutritional resources, resulting in a tremendous increase in their population density, and triggering control mechanisms through the emergence of parasitic and pathogenic infections (viruses, bacteria, fungi, microsporidia, protozoa and nematodes). The development of entomopathogenic infections in host populations is directly dependent on the characteristics of both the antagonist and the insect. It is associated with the lifestyle and life cycle of the insect, with features encoded in the mechanism of pathogen action, and limited by the pathogen’s virulence and pathogenicity.

Keywords

  • entomopathogenic infections
  • environmental conditions
  • extreme
  • insect pests
  • epizootic
Open Access

Evaluation of insect pest occurrence in areas of calamitous mortality of Scots pine

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 85 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

Pinus sylvestris is an important production tree. In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the mortality of pine trees due to insect pests. It is obvious that some pests profit from climatic changes, increase their aggressiveness and spread to new localities. The study aimed to investigate the spectrum of more abundant insect pest species in pine plantations of Czechia. The occurrence of species and intensity of their infestation were studied at 77 localities situated in six regions. Any abundant foliophagous insect species were noticed. Bark beetles and wood-boring insects were found to be prevalent. Namely, Ips acuminatus, Ips sexdentatus, Phaenops cyanea and Sirex noctilio seem to be the most dangerous. These species are now better competitors than species previously considered as main pests. Their aggressiveness, expansion to new areas and interspecies co-occurrence are alarming. Due to the advancing climate change, pine mortality due to bark beetles and wood-boring pests will probably continue to increase.

Keywords

  • biotic stressors
  • Coleoptera
  • Hymenoptera
  • Lepidoptera
  • central Europe
Open Access

Ecology, management and damage by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coniferous forests within Europe

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 91 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Coniferous forests in Europe have a considerable number of pests that attack trees of all ages from youngest up to oldest ones. One of them is the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis. This species is widespread in Europe and occurs from warm southern areas (Spain) up to northern countries (Sweden, Finland). Larvae of this species do not cause damage, they help in the decomposition process of stumps and roots. Adults are harmful as they consume bark of young coniferous seedlings, above all of spruce and pine. One adult can consume on average 75 mm2 of bark per day. Individuals can live up to 4 years, and during their lives they can damage and kill several tens of coniferous seedlings. Traditional chemical protection of seedlings against this pest is and will gradually be more and more restricted or forbidden. In this review, we describe this method as well as all other alternative methods including biological protection. We estimate that H. abietis causes annual damages in Europe of almost 120 million € and damages several tens of thousands of hectares of young forest stands.

Keywords

  • biocontrol
  • control
  • costs
  • life history
  • pest
Open Access

Overwintering mortality of the oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) in Hungary – a field survey

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 108 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

The North American oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) was first discovered in Europe (Norhern Italy) in 2000. It started a rapid area expansion in the last decade and has been reported in 20 countries so far. Almost all European oaks are suitable hosts. On top of the host availability, abiotic factors like weather/climate may also have a decisive impact on its further spread and future outbreaks. We conducted a simple field survey within three years, at five locations to estimate the overwintering mortality of the species. Our results suggest that not even a relatively harsh winter (as 2016/2017) caused severe mortality in the overwintering populations. The average mortality of the nine year/location combinations was 30.6% (range 9.1–58.5%). Based on this, the low winter temperature is unlikely to restrict its further spread, therefore continuing area expansion can be predicted.

Keywords

  • invasive insects
  • area expansion
  • climate change
  • abiotic limitation
  • overwintering success
Open Access

Ash dieback and contributing factors of forest weakening in provenance tests in the Sumy region

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: 113 - 121

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the health condition of Fraxinus excelsior L. in provenance tests, with special focus on ash dieback (ADB), but taking into account also other causes of its decline. The research was carried out in the provenance tests of F. excelsior in the forest-steppe part of the Sumy region. ADB symptoms were revealed in all provenance tests. For 2012–2019 the health condition index, ADB incidence and severity increased for all provenances except the Steppe. Collar rot was present in all ash provenances. Fungi species were isolated from the stem parts of ash at all provenances. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus induced longest necrotic lesions following wound inoculation of stems of 7–10-years-old plants of European ash in the forest while inoculation with both Cytospora sp. and Diplodia sp. resulted in smaller necroses. The conclusion from other regions about the coincidence the damage of European ash by ADB and collar rots as well as the coincidence the damage of European ash by collar rot and tree colonization by Hylesinus crenatus (Fabricius, 1787) is supported.

Keywords

  • collar rot
  • health condition
  • incidence
  • severity

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