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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2454-0358
First Published
14 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2454-0358
First Published
14 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
access type Open Access

Classification of tree species composition using a combination of multispectral imagery and airborne laser scanning data

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Abstract

Remote Sensing provides a variety of data and resources useful in mapping of forest. Currently, one of the common applications in forestry is the identification of individual trees and tree species composition, using the object-based image analysis, resulting from the classification of aerial or satellite imagery. In the paper, there is presented an approach to the identification of group of tree species (deciduous - coniferous trees) in diverse structures of close-to-nature mixed forests of beech, fir and spruce managed by selective cutting. There is applied the object-oriented classification based on multispectral images with and without the combination with airborne laser scanning data in the eCognition Developer 9 software. In accordance to the comparison of classification results, the using of the airborne laser scanning data allowed identifying ground of terrain and the overall accuracy of classification increased from 84.14% to 87.42%. Classification accuracy of class “coniferous” increased from 82.93% to 85.73% and accuracy of class “deciduous” increased from 84.79% to 90.16%.

Keywords

  • object-based classification
  • tree species
  • aerial images
  • airborne laser scanning
access type Open Access

A comparison of different tending variants in beech stands by the crown thinning and from the view of their quantitative and qualitative development

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 10 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

Impact of tending on dvelopment of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) pole timber stands was analysed using different variants of the free crown thinning, i.e. the original method developed in Slovakia at the end of 1950s. Four variants of this method were compared: (i) - the free crown thinning on the whole area, the method of promising trees, later the method of target trees at stand age of 58 years. (ii) - the free crown thinning on non-whole area, tending realised inside of growth space of target trees only, the method of target trees, salvage cutting on the whole area. (iii) - the free crown thinning on non-whole area, the method of promising trees (the method of target trees at stand age of 58 years) realised on circular plots with diameter 4 m and spacing 8 m (distance between centre of circular plots). (iv) - combined selective method, thinning from below and the free crown thinning by method of target trees was used by the first thinning, in next thinning only the free crown thinning on whole-area was used, method of target trees. The structure (diameter and height) of the stand, the quantitative production parameters had been observed for a period of 30 years. Small differences were found in diameter and height structure between the variant (iv) and other three ones. Comparison of quantitative production pointed out minimum differences in favour of the variant (iv) compared to the other ones. The same results were also obtained in the qualitative production, especially for selective quality (target trees).

Keywords

  • Fagus sylvatica
  • crown thinning
  • stand structure
  • production
  • target trees
access type Open Access

Structure and dynamics of spruce-beech-fir forests in Nature Reserves of the Orlické hory Mts. in relation to ungulate game

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 23 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Knowledge of the structure and dynamics of near-natural mixed forests is a key factor for ecologically oriented management of forest ecosystems. The development of these model forests mostly takes place continually without any pronounced disturbances. Natural regeneration can be locally limited by ungulate browsing. The paper was focused on the structure and development of forest stands with emphasis on natural regeneration in relation to ungulates in Černý důl Nature Reserve and Trčkov National Nature Reserve situated in the Orlické hory Mts., Czech Republic. The case study was conducted in a spruce-beech-fir forest stand on four permanent research plots (PRP) of 0.25 ha in size. PRP are situated in the same stand and in comparable site and stand conditions, but two PRP has been protected against game by fencing since 1985-1989. The stand volume ranged from 478 to 565 m3 ha−1 in age 143 - 156 year. The results showed that the diversity of tree layer was higher by 19.8% (48.0% in species richness) in the stands protected by fence. In the phase of natural regeneration, the species composition, stand structure and number of recruits were poorer on unfenced PRP (7,990 recruits ha−1) compared to fenced PRP (13,160 recruits ha−1). Admixed silver fir and rowan were completely eliminated by browsing (to 94 - 100% of individuals). Growth analyses statistically confirmed that ungulates were a significant limiting factor for successful forest development (P < 0.001).

Keywords

  • browsing damage
  • natural regeneration
  • protected areas
  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Picea abies
  • Abies alba
access type Open Access

Quantitative analysis of litter-fall in hornbeam-oak-pine stands in the Lviv Roztoche region

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 35 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to find out if there is a difference between amount of litter-fall in hornbeam-oak-pine stands according to regeneration (naturally and artificially) and age of the stand (middle-aged, mature). We analysed the annual dynamics of litter-fall (litter) and its fractions (needles of Scots pine; leaves of common oak; leaves of associate species; twigs; bark; pine cones; acorns of common oak; seeds of other species; acorn cups, winged seeds; lichens, mosses) in middle-aged hornbeam-oak-pine stands which were regenerated naturally or artificially on the cutover sites following two-stage uniform shelterwood felling and clearcutting, as well as in a mature parent stand (control plot) in the Lviv Roztoche region. Two peaks of organic matter fall have been revealed on both the control plot and the experimental plots: the largest one in October and much lower in May. It was found that the annual mass of litter was 5.8 - 6.6 tons per hectare, the annual weight of litter in the middle-aged hornbeam-oak-pine stands was greater than in the mature stands. Annual dynamics of certain fractions of litter in the stands is preconditioned by the specificity of functioning of the relevant bodies of the trees.

Keywords

  • hornbeam-oak-pine stands
  • natural and artificial forest
  • mass of litter
  • fractions of litter
  • annual dynamics
access type Open Access

Long-term changes in atmospheric depositions in Slovakia

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 42 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to analyse temporal changes in chemism of atmospheric deposition in Slovakia. Two kinds of deposition, bulk and throughfall were considered and analysed for the period of 1996-2010. Data acquired from permanent monitoring plots (PMP) of Level II were used for this purpose. These plots were established as a part of the ICP Forests Programme. The changes in the composition of deposition were identified for the spruce and beech plots. The results were compared among three spruce plots, two beech plots and one mixed spruce-beech-fir plot. Precipitation pH was higher on the beech than on the spruce plots and during the spotted period increased on both spruce and beech plots. Depositions of cations decreased significantly on the spruce and beech plots in bulk deposition for all elements except for calcium. The significant decline of sulphur and ammonium nitrogen was found on both spruce and beech plots, but the highest decrease of sulphur deposition was found in throughfall precipitation (R2 = 0.75). The amount of nitrate nitrogen did not change during the study period.

Keywords

  • temporal change of deposition
  • permanent monitoring plots
  • spruce
  • beech
access type Open Access

The effects of Alginite fertilization on selected tree species seedlings performance on afforested agricultural lands

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 48 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

Afforestation of marginal agricultural lands is an important issue in the land use changes running in Europe at present. The aim of the presented study is the documentation of effects of site improving material Alginite three years after afforestation of agricultural land in the locality with unfavourable hydrophysical regime. The impact was evaluated on growth parameters (height increment, mortality and foliar nutrient content) of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a mixture of English oak (Quercus robur L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) seedlings on former agricultural land in central Bohemia, Czech Republic. The research plot consists of 36 square sub-plots, each sub-plot is 400 m2 in size. Each sub-plot consists of 400 individuals, except Douglas-fir with 200 individuals. The following doses of Alginite were applied: control (variant A without Alginite), 0.5 kg of Alginite (B) and 1.5 kg of Alginite (C) on both conifers and broadleaves. The results showed that Alginite application had greater positive effect on height growth of seedlings than mortality, especially variant C. In most of the cases height increments were significantly positively affected (p < 0.05) by both variants of Alginite application only in the third year after planting. Alginite applications were also connected with differences in the foliar nutrient content, especially with higher magnesium and phosphorus values. The highest differences among Alginite variants were observed for Norway maple and English oak, while the lowest for red oak and Scots pine within all monitored parameters.

Keywords

  • afforestation
  • soil improvement
  • fertiliser
  • plantation growth
  • mortality
6 Articles
access type Open Access

Classification of tree species composition using a combination of multispectral imagery and airborne laser scanning data

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Abstract

Remote Sensing provides a variety of data and resources useful in mapping of forest. Currently, one of the common applications in forestry is the identification of individual trees and tree species composition, using the object-based image analysis, resulting from the classification of aerial or satellite imagery. In the paper, there is presented an approach to the identification of group of tree species (deciduous - coniferous trees) in diverse structures of close-to-nature mixed forests of beech, fir and spruce managed by selective cutting. There is applied the object-oriented classification based on multispectral images with and without the combination with airborne laser scanning data in the eCognition Developer 9 software. In accordance to the comparison of classification results, the using of the airborne laser scanning data allowed identifying ground of terrain and the overall accuracy of classification increased from 84.14% to 87.42%. Classification accuracy of class “coniferous” increased from 82.93% to 85.73% and accuracy of class “deciduous” increased from 84.79% to 90.16%.

Keywords

  • object-based classification
  • tree species
  • aerial images
  • airborne laser scanning
access type Open Access

A comparison of different tending variants in beech stands by the crown thinning and from the view of their quantitative and qualitative development

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 10 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

Impact of tending on dvelopment of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) pole timber stands was analysed using different variants of the free crown thinning, i.e. the original method developed in Slovakia at the end of 1950s. Four variants of this method were compared: (i) - the free crown thinning on the whole area, the method of promising trees, later the method of target trees at stand age of 58 years. (ii) - the free crown thinning on non-whole area, tending realised inside of growth space of target trees only, the method of target trees, salvage cutting on the whole area. (iii) - the free crown thinning on non-whole area, the method of promising trees (the method of target trees at stand age of 58 years) realised on circular plots with diameter 4 m and spacing 8 m (distance between centre of circular plots). (iv) - combined selective method, thinning from below and the free crown thinning by method of target trees was used by the first thinning, in next thinning only the free crown thinning on whole-area was used, method of target trees. The structure (diameter and height) of the stand, the quantitative production parameters had been observed for a period of 30 years. Small differences were found in diameter and height structure between the variant (iv) and other three ones. Comparison of quantitative production pointed out minimum differences in favour of the variant (iv) compared to the other ones. The same results were also obtained in the qualitative production, especially for selective quality (target trees).

Keywords

  • Fagus sylvatica
  • crown thinning
  • stand structure
  • production
  • target trees
access type Open Access

Structure and dynamics of spruce-beech-fir forests in Nature Reserves of the Orlické hory Mts. in relation to ungulate game

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 23 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Knowledge of the structure and dynamics of near-natural mixed forests is a key factor for ecologically oriented management of forest ecosystems. The development of these model forests mostly takes place continually without any pronounced disturbances. Natural regeneration can be locally limited by ungulate browsing. The paper was focused on the structure and development of forest stands with emphasis on natural regeneration in relation to ungulates in Černý důl Nature Reserve and Trčkov National Nature Reserve situated in the Orlické hory Mts., Czech Republic. The case study was conducted in a spruce-beech-fir forest stand on four permanent research plots (PRP) of 0.25 ha in size. PRP are situated in the same stand and in comparable site and stand conditions, but two PRP has been protected against game by fencing since 1985-1989. The stand volume ranged from 478 to 565 m3 ha−1 in age 143 - 156 year. The results showed that the diversity of tree layer was higher by 19.8% (48.0% in species richness) in the stands protected by fence. In the phase of natural regeneration, the species composition, stand structure and number of recruits were poorer on unfenced PRP (7,990 recruits ha−1) compared to fenced PRP (13,160 recruits ha−1). Admixed silver fir and rowan were completely eliminated by browsing (to 94 - 100% of individuals). Growth analyses statistically confirmed that ungulates were a significant limiting factor for successful forest development (P < 0.001).

Keywords

  • browsing damage
  • natural regeneration
  • protected areas
  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Picea abies
  • Abies alba
access type Open Access

Quantitative analysis of litter-fall in hornbeam-oak-pine stands in the Lviv Roztoche region

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 35 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to find out if there is a difference between amount of litter-fall in hornbeam-oak-pine stands according to regeneration (naturally and artificially) and age of the stand (middle-aged, mature). We analysed the annual dynamics of litter-fall (litter) and its fractions (needles of Scots pine; leaves of common oak; leaves of associate species; twigs; bark; pine cones; acorns of common oak; seeds of other species; acorn cups, winged seeds; lichens, mosses) in middle-aged hornbeam-oak-pine stands which were regenerated naturally or artificially on the cutover sites following two-stage uniform shelterwood felling and clearcutting, as well as in a mature parent stand (control plot) in the Lviv Roztoche region. Two peaks of organic matter fall have been revealed on both the control plot and the experimental plots: the largest one in October and much lower in May. It was found that the annual mass of litter was 5.8 - 6.6 tons per hectare, the annual weight of litter in the middle-aged hornbeam-oak-pine stands was greater than in the mature stands. Annual dynamics of certain fractions of litter in the stands is preconditioned by the specificity of functioning of the relevant bodies of the trees.

Keywords

  • hornbeam-oak-pine stands
  • natural and artificial forest
  • mass of litter
  • fractions of litter
  • annual dynamics
access type Open Access

Long-term changes in atmospheric depositions in Slovakia

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 42 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to analyse temporal changes in chemism of atmospheric deposition in Slovakia. Two kinds of deposition, bulk and throughfall were considered and analysed for the period of 1996-2010. Data acquired from permanent monitoring plots (PMP) of Level II were used for this purpose. These plots were established as a part of the ICP Forests Programme. The changes in the composition of deposition were identified for the spruce and beech plots. The results were compared among three spruce plots, two beech plots and one mixed spruce-beech-fir plot. Precipitation pH was higher on the beech than on the spruce plots and during the spotted period increased on both spruce and beech plots. Depositions of cations decreased significantly on the spruce and beech plots in bulk deposition for all elements except for calcium. The significant decline of sulphur and ammonium nitrogen was found on both spruce and beech plots, but the highest decrease of sulphur deposition was found in throughfall precipitation (R2 = 0.75). The amount of nitrate nitrogen did not change during the study period.

Keywords

  • temporal change of deposition
  • permanent monitoring plots
  • spruce
  • beech
access type Open Access

The effects of Alginite fertilization on selected tree species seedlings performance on afforested agricultural lands

Published Online: 13 Jun 2017
Page range: 48 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

Afforestation of marginal agricultural lands is an important issue in the land use changes running in Europe at present. The aim of the presented study is the documentation of effects of site improving material Alginite three years after afforestation of agricultural land in the locality with unfavourable hydrophysical regime. The impact was evaluated on growth parameters (height increment, mortality and foliar nutrient content) of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a mixture of English oak (Quercus robur L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) seedlings on former agricultural land in central Bohemia, Czech Republic. The research plot consists of 36 square sub-plots, each sub-plot is 400 m2 in size. Each sub-plot consists of 400 individuals, except Douglas-fir with 200 individuals. The following doses of Alginite were applied: control (variant A without Alginite), 0.5 kg of Alginite (B) and 1.5 kg of Alginite (C) on both conifers and broadleaves. The results showed that Alginite application had greater positive effect on height growth of seedlings than mortality, especially variant C. In most of the cases height increments were significantly positively affected (p < 0.05) by both variants of Alginite application only in the third year after planting. Alginite applications were also connected with differences in the foliar nutrient content, especially with higher magnesium and phosphorus values. The highest differences among Alginite variants were observed for Norway maple and English oak, while the lowest for red oak and Scots pine within all monitored parameters.

Keywords

  • afforestation
  • soil improvement
  • fertiliser
  • plantation growth
  • mortality

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