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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4799
First Published
23 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4799
First Published
23 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

Research of 316L Metallic Powder for Use in SLM 3D Printing

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 5 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

3D metal printing is an increasingly popular production of steel parts. The most widespread and most accurate method is SLM (Selective Laser Melting), which uses metallic powder as the input material. The article is dedicated to researching the supplied powder from Renishaw. The powder is made by gas atomization and 3 phases of powder (virgin, sift and waste) that are present in the SLM process are examined. Powder morphology by SEM electron microscopy is investigated and the porosity of the powder is measured by optical method. Next, the powder grain size fraction is examined. In conclusion, there are recommendations and other directions of possible research. The main quantitative result from research is that, in general, small particles are reduced in the sift powder and the number of larger particles is increased, but the powder is still usable for further use.

Keywords

  • metallic powder
  • 3D printing
  • SLM
  • morphology
  • porosity
Open Access

Achievements in Micromagnetic Techniques of Steel Plastic Stage Evaluation

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 16 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

The investigation of plastic deformation and residual stress by non-destructive methods is a subject of large relevance for the industry. In this article, the difference between plastic and elastic deformation is discussed, as well as their effects on magnetic measurements, as hysteresis curve and Magnetic Barkhausen Noise. The residual stress data can be obtained with magnetic measurements and also by the hole drilling method and x-ray diffraction measurements. The residual stress level obtained by these three different methods is different, because these three techniques evaluate the sample in different depths. Effects of crystallographic texture on residual stress are also discussed. The magnetoelastic term should be included in micromagnetic methods for residual stress evaluation. It is discussed how the micromagnetic energy Hamiltonian should be expressed in order to evaluate elastic deformation. Plastic deformation can be accounted in micromagnetic models as a term that increases the coercive field in soft magnetic materials as the steels are.

Open Access

Analogue Modelling of Flow Patterns in Bobbin Friction Stir Welding by the Dark-Field/Bright-Field Illumination Method

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 56 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

The flow-inducing effect of the bobbin-tool features (tri-flat pin and scrolled shoulder) were replicated by a simple analogue model for aluminium welds by layered plasticine samples. Flow patterns of the weld zone were clarified by a typical stereomicroscopy instrument assisted by dark-field/bright-field illumination. The effects of the pin features, specifically threads and flats in centre of bond zone and scrolled shoulder in sides of stirred zone, were identified. This study shows that internal flow features for BFSW welds is transferable from the friction stir welding process to the functional metal forming processes such where the shearing can extensively affect the microstructure. The similarity between the flow pattern of the provided aluminium samples and the plasticine analogue can validate the accuracy of the flow model presented in this work.

Keywords

  • FSW
  • bobbin-tool
  • analogue modelling
  • flow patterns
  • darkfield/brightfield
Open Access

Microstructural Characterization of ULC Steel

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 71 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

In the present study, microstructure of the ULC steel was investigated by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The pure ferrite phase consisting of various crystalline orientations, e.g. (110) and (200) etc., existed in the ULC steel. Ultra-fine grains of ferrite were observed in the ND-TD cross-section (⊥ RD), meanwhile, typical lamina were seen in the ND-RD cross-section (// RD) of the steel sheet. Grain size of the annealed steel was observed to be coarser and equiaxed in all direction. According the EBSD results, intensities of the beneficial texture {111}<001> increased in the annealed steel, but weakened in the cross-section that was parallel to rolling direction. Ratio of low-angle grain boundaries (1°< LAGBs < 15°) in the annealed steel was estimated as the higher value (93.1 %) than that in the cold-rolled steel (69.1 %).

Keywords

  • ULC steel
  • microstructure
  • EBSD analysis
  • crystalline orientation
  • texture
Open Access

Effects of Co2 and Nd:YAG Laser Remelting of the Ti6Al4V Alloy on the Surface Quality and Residual Stresses

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 82 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

The titanium alloys are materials susceptible to tribological wear and the laser treatment can be applied in surface treatment processes to obtain for example higher hardness level. From the other side, it is important to take into consideration, that hardness increase that can be connected with cracks. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of different lasers and the process parameters on the form and level of residual stresses in the Ti6Al4V alloy, which determine the initiation and propagation of cracking. Two lasers were used, the CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers. The specimens were remelted in liquid nitrogen, water or calm air at different pre-heating temperature. The different laser power and scan rates were applied. The increase in energy density increased the number of cracks, the change of an environment and pre-heating affected alo the surface cracking. The cracks observed after remelting with Nd:YAG laser were longer than those observed after treatment with CO2 laser. The compressive stresses after the CO2 laser treatment, and tensile stresses after treatment with the Nd:YAG laser, were found. The appearance of cracks was attributed to an excessive energy density. The different distribution of heat energy inside and around the laser tracks was discussed as the origin of presence either tensile or compressive stresses in the alloy treated with different lasers.

Keywords

  • Ti alloys
  • laser treatment
  • residual stresses
5 Articles
Open Access

Research of 316L Metallic Powder for Use in SLM 3D Printing

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 5 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

3D metal printing is an increasingly popular production of steel parts. The most widespread and most accurate method is SLM (Selective Laser Melting), which uses metallic powder as the input material. The article is dedicated to researching the supplied powder from Renishaw. The powder is made by gas atomization and 3 phases of powder (virgin, sift and waste) that are present in the SLM process are examined. Powder morphology by SEM electron microscopy is investigated and the porosity of the powder is measured by optical method. Next, the powder grain size fraction is examined. In conclusion, there are recommendations and other directions of possible research. The main quantitative result from research is that, in general, small particles are reduced in the sift powder and the number of larger particles is increased, but the powder is still usable for further use.

Keywords

  • metallic powder
  • 3D printing
  • SLM
  • morphology
  • porosity
Open Access

Achievements in Micromagnetic Techniques of Steel Plastic Stage Evaluation

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 16 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

The investigation of plastic deformation and residual stress by non-destructive methods is a subject of large relevance for the industry. In this article, the difference between plastic and elastic deformation is discussed, as well as their effects on magnetic measurements, as hysteresis curve and Magnetic Barkhausen Noise. The residual stress data can be obtained with magnetic measurements and also by the hole drilling method and x-ray diffraction measurements. The residual stress level obtained by these three different methods is different, because these three techniques evaluate the sample in different depths. Effects of crystallographic texture on residual stress are also discussed. The magnetoelastic term should be included in micromagnetic methods for residual stress evaluation. It is discussed how the micromagnetic energy Hamiltonian should be expressed in order to evaluate elastic deformation. Plastic deformation can be accounted in micromagnetic models as a term that increases the coercive field in soft magnetic materials as the steels are.

Open Access

Analogue Modelling of Flow Patterns in Bobbin Friction Stir Welding by the Dark-Field/Bright-Field Illumination Method

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 56 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

The flow-inducing effect of the bobbin-tool features (tri-flat pin and scrolled shoulder) were replicated by a simple analogue model for aluminium welds by layered plasticine samples. Flow patterns of the weld zone were clarified by a typical stereomicroscopy instrument assisted by dark-field/bright-field illumination. The effects of the pin features, specifically threads and flats in centre of bond zone and scrolled shoulder in sides of stirred zone, were identified. This study shows that internal flow features for BFSW welds is transferable from the friction stir welding process to the functional metal forming processes such where the shearing can extensively affect the microstructure. The similarity between the flow pattern of the provided aluminium samples and the plasticine analogue can validate the accuracy of the flow model presented in this work.

Keywords

  • FSW
  • bobbin-tool
  • analogue modelling
  • flow patterns
  • darkfield/brightfield
Open Access

Microstructural Characterization of ULC Steel

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 71 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

In the present study, microstructure of the ULC steel was investigated by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The pure ferrite phase consisting of various crystalline orientations, e.g. (110) and (200) etc., existed in the ULC steel. Ultra-fine grains of ferrite were observed in the ND-TD cross-section (⊥ RD), meanwhile, typical lamina were seen in the ND-RD cross-section (// RD) of the steel sheet. Grain size of the annealed steel was observed to be coarser and equiaxed in all direction. According the EBSD results, intensities of the beneficial texture {111}<001> increased in the annealed steel, but weakened in the cross-section that was parallel to rolling direction. Ratio of low-angle grain boundaries (1°< LAGBs < 15°) in the annealed steel was estimated as the higher value (93.1 %) than that in the cold-rolled steel (69.1 %).

Keywords

  • ULC steel
  • microstructure
  • EBSD analysis
  • crystalline orientation
  • texture
Open Access

Effects of Co2 and Nd:YAG Laser Remelting of the Ti6Al4V Alloy on the Surface Quality and Residual Stresses

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 82 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

The titanium alloys are materials susceptible to tribological wear and the laser treatment can be applied in surface treatment processes to obtain for example higher hardness level. From the other side, it is important to take into consideration, that hardness increase that can be connected with cracks. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of different lasers and the process parameters on the form and level of residual stresses in the Ti6Al4V alloy, which determine the initiation and propagation of cracking. Two lasers were used, the CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers. The specimens were remelted in liquid nitrogen, water or calm air at different pre-heating temperature. The different laser power and scan rates were applied. The increase in energy density increased the number of cracks, the change of an environment and pre-heating affected alo the surface cracking. The cracks observed after remelting with Nd:YAG laser were longer than those observed after treatment with CO2 laser. The compressive stresses after the CO2 laser treatment, and tensile stresses after treatment with the Nd:YAG laser, were found. The appearance of cracks was attributed to an excessive energy density. The different distribution of heat energy inside and around the laser tracks was discussed as the origin of presence either tensile or compressive stresses in the alloy treated with different lasers.

Keywords

  • Ti alloys
  • laser treatment
  • residual stresses

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