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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4799
First Published
23 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4799
First Published
23 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

11 Articles
Open Access

Degradation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 15HM Steel after 420 000 Hours of Service

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 5 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

The results of a microstructure examination and mechanical properties of 15HM (13CrMo4-5) steel are presented in the article. The examined elements are the samples taken from the live steam pipeline serviced for about 420 000 hours at the temperature of about 510°C, and pressure of 11 MPa. It has been shown that after long-term operation the examined steel has a ferritic-pearlitic microstructure with a dominant content of quasipolygonal ferrite. The processes of fragmentation of lamellar precipitates and their spheroidization were observed in pearlite. On the grain boundaries, single lamellar precipitations were observed. Moreover, numerous precipitations at the interface of three grain boundaries were revealed. The examined steel, despite its long-term service time, was characterized by the strength properties (YS, TS) slightly lower than the required minimum, the impact energy value KV equal to 20 J, and the transition temperature shifted to a temperature above zero. Relatively low level of degradation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the investigated steel can result from high stability of the ferritic-pearlitic microstructure.

Keywords

  • low alloys steel
  • microstructure
  • mechanical properties
Open Access

Morphological and Chemical Relationships in Nanotubes Formed by Anodizing of Ti6al4v Alloy

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 12 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The electrochemical formation of oxide nanotubes on the Ti6Al4V alloy has been so far difficult due to easy dissolution of vanadium reach β-phase of the two phase material. Due to the topographical heterogeneity of the anodic layer in nano and microscale at anodizing of the Ti6Al4V alloy we focused to establish the relationships between nanotube diameters on both phases of the alloy and fluorides concentration in electrolyte. We studied the effect of fluoride concentration (0.5-0.7 wt.%) in 99% ethylene glycol on morphological parameters of nanotube layer on the Ti6Al4V alloy anodized at 20V for 20 min. Nanotubes with diameter ~40-50 nm ±5nm on the entire Ti6Al4V alloy surface in electrolyte containing 0.6% wt. NH4F were obtained. Microscale roughness studies revealed that nanotubular layer on α-phase is thicker than on β-phase. The annealing of nanotube layers at 600°C for 2h in air, nitrogen and argon, typically performed to improve their electrical properties, influenced chemical composition and morphology of nanotubes on the Ti6Al4V alloy. The vanadium oxides (VO2, V2O3, V2O5) were present in surface nanotube layer covering both phases of the alloy and the shape of nanotubes was preserved after annealing in nitrogen.

Keywords

  • Ti6Al4V
  • oxide nanotubes
  • vanadium oxides
  • titanium dioxide
Open Access

Comparative in Vitro Research of the Human Aortic Bioprosthesis

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 21 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

Evaluate of the usefulness and reliability of structures based on the analysis of recorded parameters determining the flow through the Human Aortic Bioprosthesis (HAB) have been dealt with. By flow parameters changes determining the performance environment of prosthesis analyzed change of the motion dynamics of the valve leaflets as a function of pressure, thereby determining the degree of alignment of the prosthesis to the performance conditions. Based on the gathered measurement data a comparative analysis of flow rate valve prostheses for different frequency values of the piston pump imitating the heart, different ejection capacity and pressure conditioning work environment prosthesis were studied. Interpretation of the recorded image gave the basis for determining the Effective Orifice Area (EOC).

Keywords

  • human aortic bioprosthesis
  • aortic valve prosthesis
  • fatigue tests
  • heart valves
Open Access

Evaluation of Strain Distribution for the P91 Steel under Static Load Using Espi System

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 28 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of the research was to evaluate the change of displacement/strain phases in the P91 steel under static load conditions. Undertaken tests were aimed at estimation and analysis of the impact of the material state, which was subjected to loading conditions, on the distribution of stress pattern using ESPI system. Specimen made of high temperature creep resistant steel X10CrMoVNb9-1 (P91) used as a construction material for boiler steam feed heaters, vapor tanks, pressure vessels and vapor pipelines, is used in the service conditions of temperature range up of 650°C. Test samples were taken from two P91 steel pipes. One sample came from a segment of a pipeline transporting fresh vapor in time 80 000 h, under the pressure of 8.4 MPa and temperature 540 °C. The second sample was the same material but in the delivery state.

Keywords

  • fatigue
  • electronic speckle pattern interferometry
  • P91 steel
Open Access

Evaluation of Microstructural Changes of S235 Steel after Rolling on the Basis of Microscopic Observations and Eddy Current Non-Destructive Method

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 40 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the microstructure and residual stress changes which appears in the S235 steel (which is designed for operating in elevated temperatures) during cold rolling. The changes of orientation, both morphological and crystallographic, are occurring as a result of the rolling process. Analysis of the results allowed to determine the change in grain morphology (size, shape), determination of grain morphology of the rolling direction and determination of crystallographic texture. The dislocation density present in the material before and after the cold rolling process was estimated on the basis of dislocation structure images obtained via transmission electron microscope. The observed microstructural changes were correlated with the results of nondestructive testing using eddy current method. They allowed for the identification of the state of stress measured on three different surfaces of the rolled sheet (parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction). As the result the usability of using the non - destructuve techniques of stress level determination was proved.

Keywords

  • S235 steel
  • microstrcture
  • eddy current
  • cold rolling
Open Access

Characterisation and Optical Studies of Copper Oxide Nanostructures Doped with Lanthanum Ions

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 49 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

Copper Oxide is an extensively studied group II-VI semiconductor with optical properties. It exhibits a wide variety of morphologies in the nano regime that can be grown by tuning the growth habit of the CuO crystal. CuO nano materials with an average particle size of 15-27 nm are synthesized by chemical route. XRD, SEM, FTIR UV-Vis and EDS characterize the samples. The percentage of doping material is confirmed from the EDS spectra. The average crystal size of the prepared CuO: La nanopowder is determined by XRD. The UV absorption spectra revealed the absorption edge at wavelength 389 nm indicating the smaller size of CuO:La nano particle. The optical direct band gap energy of doped CuO nanoparticle is found to be in the range 3.149 eV. The increasing red shift with decreasing particle size suggests that the defects responsible for the intra gap states are primarily surface defect. The La doped CuO is highly effective and can significantly enhance the photo catalytic degradation.

Keywords

  • Nanomaterial
  • Doping
  • Optical properties
Open Access

Novel Mechanically Stable, Heat Resistant and Nonflammable Functionalized Polystyrene/Expanded Graphite Nanocomposites

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 61 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

This study examined effect of inclusion of expanded graphite (Exp-G) on morphology, thermal, mechanical and flame retardant properties of PS, nitro-substituted polystyrene (N-PS) and amino-functional polystyrene (A-PS). FESEM showed exfoliated sheet morphology due to intercalation of N-PS and A-PS in expanded galleries. Tensile strength of A-PS materials (31.5-56.9 MPa) was higher than PS and N-PS. 10 % weight loss of A-PS nanocomposites (482-518 °C) was higher relative to pristine polymer and other nanocomposites. Cone calorimetry results revealed that there was lowering in PHHR of A-PS nanocomposites with 0.5 wt.% filler (428 kW/m2), while PS nanocomposites showed PHHR of 443 kW/m2.

Keywords

  • Functional polystyrene
  • expanded graphite
  • dispersion
  • tensile strength
  • cone calorimetry
Open Access

Electrochemical Characterization of Gelatine Derived Ceramics

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 75 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

New materials obtained by pyrolysis of gelatine (G) and poly(1,2-dimethylsilazane) (PSN) (weight ratio: G/PSN 70/30) at temperatures 700 and 900 °C were characterized by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of ceramics influences on the cluster size of the materials. Electrochemical tests were performed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cyclic polarization. The capacity of G/PSN was 464 and 527 mAh/g for materials pyrolysed at 700 and 900 °C. The capacity fading was 1 % after 17th cycle for G/PSN at 900 °C. This value is higher of 185 mAh/g in comparison to capacity of gelatine pyrolysed at the same conditions.

Keywords

  • Lithium-ion batteries
  • SICN ceramic materials
  • hard carbon
  • anode material
Open Access

Analysis of The Possibility of Applying of Alloy and Composite Coatings after Plastic Working in Shipbuilding

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 82 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

Alloy and composite coatings are widely used in engineering, automotive and shipbuilding because of the possibility of improving the operational characteristics of the surface layer (mechanical, tribological, corrosion and decorative). The welding technology of applying alloy and composite coatings is widely used. The technology of infrasound thermal spraying of metal matrix composite coatings was presented. It is a simple technology and a very useful one in ship machinery regeneration during the cruise craft (e.g. internal combustion engines, torque pumps, separators). The metal matrix composite coatings must undergo finishing due to high surface roughness after application. Coatings obtained by thermal spraying have a large surface roughness, it is therefore necessary to make finishing coatings. Due to economic and technological developments it is essential that the coating was thin, abrasion-resistant, high smoothness, and the finishing was of chip that is not cause material loss. In order to ensure quality of technology offered the elements of the of machines used in shipbuilding of cold working by rolling, with small values of strain ratio, ultimately as a finishing alloy and composite coating is planned to use surface plastic forming of machine parts.

Keywords

  • alloy and composite coatings
  • plastic working
  • corrosion resistance
Open Access

The Selected Measurement Problems in the Aspect of the Non-Destructive Testing of the Gear Wheels and the other Parts

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 92 - 101

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an overview of the results of studies which, in addition to the detection of differences in the structure of the product and the thickness of the surface layers, aimed to diversify the signal from the stress changes caused by cracks, assess local defects in the microstructure deformed by heat treatment and detect hydrogen „in statu nascendi”. Measurements were performed using Wirotest 1000. Specialized probes were used to allow measurements on surfaces difficult to reach. Measurements were taken at different depths of penetration. Assessment of the correlation of eddy current measurements and microhardness was also performed.

Keywords

  • eddy current method
  • gear wheels
  • microhardness
  • cracks detection
  • structural changes
Open Access

Validation of the X-Ray Stress Measurement Method

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 102 - 109

Abstract

Abstract

One of the most important characteristics of the material allowing us to predict its applicability for specific tasks as a single object or as an integral part of the whole structure is the presence of stresses. There are many methods to measure stress. Among them, increasingly important and recognised as the most accurate non-destructive method is the X-ray measurement technique. The aim of this study was validation of the results obtained by the X-ray stress measurement method. Stress measurements were performed on samples of the three materials subjected during measurement to the effect of tensile forces. Studies revealed close relationship between the stress values measured by X-ray technique and actual values present in the examined material. The summation of residual stresses present in the material and stresses caused by the effect of external forces was observed.

Keywords

  • stress measurement
  • residual stress
  • X-ray stress measurement
11 Articles
Open Access

Degradation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 15HM Steel after 420 000 Hours of Service

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 5 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

The results of a microstructure examination and mechanical properties of 15HM (13CrMo4-5) steel are presented in the article. The examined elements are the samples taken from the live steam pipeline serviced for about 420 000 hours at the temperature of about 510°C, and pressure of 11 MPa. It has been shown that after long-term operation the examined steel has a ferritic-pearlitic microstructure with a dominant content of quasipolygonal ferrite. The processes of fragmentation of lamellar precipitates and their spheroidization were observed in pearlite. On the grain boundaries, single lamellar precipitations were observed. Moreover, numerous precipitations at the interface of three grain boundaries were revealed. The examined steel, despite its long-term service time, was characterized by the strength properties (YS, TS) slightly lower than the required minimum, the impact energy value KV equal to 20 J, and the transition temperature shifted to a temperature above zero. Relatively low level of degradation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the investigated steel can result from high stability of the ferritic-pearlitic microstructure.

Keywords

  • low alloys steel
  • microstructure
  • mechanical properties
Open Access

Morphological and Chemical Relationships in Nanotubes Formed by Anodizing of Ti6al4v Alloy

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 12 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The electrochemical formation of oxide nanotubes on the Ti6Al4V alloy has been so far difficult due to easy dissolution of vanadium reach β-phase of the two phase material. Due to the topographical heterogeneity of the anodic layer in nano and microscale at anodizing of the Ti6Al4V alloy we focused to establish the relationships between nanotube diameters on both phases of the alloy and fluorides concentration in electrolyte. We studied the effect of fluoride concentration (0.5-0.7 wt.%) in 99% ethylene glycol on morphological parameters of nanotube layer on the Ti6Al4V alloy anodized at 20V for 20 min. Nanotubes with diameter ~40-50 nm ±5nm on the entire Ti6Al4V alloy surface in electrolyte containing 0.6% wt. NH4F were obtained. Microscale roughness studies revealed that nanotubular layer on α-phase is thicker than on β-phase. The annealing of nanotube layers at 600°C for 2h in air, nitrogen and argon, typically performed to improve their electrical properties, influenced chemical composition and morphology of nanotubes on the Ti6Al4V alloy. The vanadium oxides (VO2, V2O3, V2O5) were present in surface nanotube layer covering both phases of the alloy and the shape of nanotubes was preserved after annealing in nitrogen.

Keywords

  • Ti6Al4V
  • oxide nanotubes
  • vanadium oxides
  • titanium dioxide
Open Access

Comparative in Vitro Research of the Human Aortic Bioprosthesis

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 21 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

Evaluate of the usefulness and reliability of structures based on the analysis of recorded parameters determining the flow through the Human Aortic Bioprosthesis (HAB) have been dealt with. By flow parameters changes determining the performance environment of prosthesis analyzed change of the motion dynamics of the valve leaflets as a function of pressure, thereby determining the degree of alignment of the prosthesis to the performance conditions. Based on the gathered measurement data a comparative analysis of flow rate valve prostheses for different frequency values of the piston pump imitating the heart, different ejection capacity and pressure conditioning work environment prosthesis were studied. Interpretation of the recorded image gave the basis for determining the Effective Orifice Area (EOC).

Keywords

  • human aortic bioprosthesis
  • aortic valve prosthesis
  • fatigue tests
  • heart valves
Open Access

Evaluation of Strain Distribution for the P91 Steel under Static Load Using Espi System

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 28 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of the research was to evaluate the change of displacement/strain phases in the P91 steel under static load conditions. Undertaken tests were aimed at estimation and analysis of the impact of the material state, which was subjected to loading conditions, on the distribution of stress pattern using ESPI system. Specimen made of high temperature creep resistant steel X10CrMoVNb9-1 (P91) used as a construction material for boiler steam feed heaters, vapor tanks, pressure vessels and vapor pipelines, is used in the service conditions of temperature range up of 650°C. Test samples were taken from two P91 steel pipes. One sample came from a segment of a pipeline transporting fresh vapor in time 80 000 h, under the pressure of 8.4 MPa and temperature 540 °C. The second sample was the same material but in the delivery state.

Keywords

  • fatigue
  • electronic speckle pattern interferometry
  • P91 steel
Open Access

Evaluation of Microstructural Changes of S235 Steel after Rolling on the Basis of Microscopic Observations and Eddy Current Non-Destructive Method

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 40 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the microstructure and residual stress changes which appears in the S235 steel (which is designed for operating in elevated temperatures) during cold rolling. The changes of orientation, both morphological and crystallographic, are occurring as a result of the rolling process. Analysis of the results allowed to determine the change in grain morphology (size, shape), determination of grain morphology of the rolling direction and determination of crystallographic texture. The dislocation density present in the material before and after the cold rolling process was estimated on the basis of dislocation structure images obtained via transmission electron microscope. The observed microstructural changes were correlated with the results of nondestructive testing using eddy current method. They allowed for the identification of the state of stress measured on three different surfaces of the rolled sheet (parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction). As the result the usability of using the non - destructuve techniques of stress level determination was proved.

Keywords

  • S235 steel
  • microstrcture
  • eddy current
  • cold rolling
Open Access

Characterisation and Optical Studies of Copper Oxide Nanostructures Doped with Lanthanum Ions

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 49 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

Copper Oxide is an extensively studied group II-VI semiconductor with optical properties. It exhibits a wide variety of morphologies in the nano regime that can be grown by tuning the growth habit of the CuO crystal. CuO nano materials with an average particle size of 15-27 nm are synthesized by chemical route. XRD, SEM, FTIR UV-Vis and EDS characterize the samples. The percentage of doping material is confirmed from the EDS spectra. The average crystal size of the prepared CuO: La nanopowder is determined by XRD. The UV absorption spectra revealed the absorption edge at wavelength 389 nm indicating the smaller size of CuO:La nano particle. The optical direct band gap energy of doped CuO nanoparticle is found to be in the range 3.149 eV. The increasing red shift with decreasing particle size suggests that the defects responsible for the intra gap states are primarily surface defect. The La doped CuO is highly effective and can significantly enhance the photo catalytic degradation.

Keywords

  • Nanomaterial
  • Doping
  • Optical properties
Open Access

Novel Mechanically Stable, Heat Resistant and Nonflammable Functionalized Polystyrene/Expanded Graphite Nanocomposites

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 61 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

This study examined effect of inclusion of expanded graphite (Exp-G) on morphology, thermal, mechanical and flame retardant properties of PS, nitro-substituted polystyrene (N-PS) and amino-functional polystyrene (A-PS). FESEM showed exfoliated sheet morphology due to intercalation of N-PS and A-PS in expanded galleries. Tensile strength of A-PS materials (31.5-56.9 MPa) was higher than PS and N-PS. 10 % weight loss of A-PS nanocomposites (482-518 °C) was higher relative to pristine polymer and other nanocomposites. Cone calorimetry results revealed that there was lowering in PHHR of A-PS nanocomposites with 0.5 wt.% filler (428 kW/m2), while PS nanocomposites showed PHHR of 443 kW/m2.

Keywords

  • Functional polystyrene
  • expanded graphite
  • dispersion
  • tensile strength
  • cone calorimetry
Open Access

Electrochemical Characterization of Gelatine Derived Ceramics

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 75 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

New materials obtained by pyrolysis of gelatine (G) and poly(1,2-dimethylsilazane) (PSN) (weight ratio: G/PSN 70/30) at temperatures 700 and 900 °C were characterized by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of ceramics influences on the cluster size of the materials. Electrochemical tests were performed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cyclic polarization. The capacity of G/PSN was 464 and 527 mAh/g for materials pyrolysed at 700 and 900 °C. The capacity fading was 1 % after 17th cycle for G/PSN at 900 °C. This value is higher of 185 mAh/g in comparison to capacity of gelatine pyrolysed at the same conditions.

Keywords

  • Lithium-ion batteries
  • SICN ceramic materials
  • hard carbon
  • anode material
Open Access

Analysis of The Possibility of Applying of Alloy and Composite Coatings after Plastic Working in Shipbuilding

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 82 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

Alloy and composite coatings are widely used in engineering, automotive and shipbuilding because of the possibility of improving the operational characteristics of the surface layer (mechanical, tribological, corrosion and decorative). The welding technology of applying alloy and composite coatings is widely used. The technology of infrasound thermal spraying of metal matrix composite coatings was presented. It is a simple technology and a very useful one in ship machinery regeneration during the cruise craft (e.g. internal combustion engines, torque pumps, separators). The metal matrix composite coatings must undergo finishing due to high surface roughness after application. Coatings obtained by thermal spraying have a large surface roughness, it is therefore necessary to make finishing coatings. Due to economic and technological developments it is essential that the coating was thin, abrasion-resistant, high smoothness, and the finishing was of chip that is not cause material loss. In order to ensure quality of technology offered the elements of the of machines used in shipbuilding of cold working by rolling, with small values of strain ratio, ultimately as a finishing alloy and composite coating is planned to use surface plastic forming of machine parts.

Keywords

  • alloy and composite coatings
  • plastic working
  • corrosion resistance
Open Access

The Selected Measurement Problems in the Aspect of the Non-Destructive Testing of the Gear Wheels and the other Parts

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 92 - 101

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an overview of the results of studies which, in addition to the detection of differences in the structure of the product and the thickness of the surface layers, aimed to diversify the signal from the stress changes caused by cracks, assess local defects in the microstructure deformed by heat treatment and detect hydrogen „in statu nascendi”. Measurements were performed using Wirotest 1000. Specialized probes were used to allow measurements on surfaces difficult to reach. Measurements were taken at different depths of penetration. Assessment of the correlation of eddy current measurements and microhardness was also performed.

Keywords

  • eddy current method
  • gear wheels
  • microhardness
  • cracks detection
  • structural changes
Open Access

Validation of the X-Ray Stress Measurement Method

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 102 - 109

Abstract

Abstract

One of the most important characteristics of the material allowing us to predict its applicability for specific tasks as a single object or as an integral part of the whole structure is the presence of stresses. There are many methods to measure stress. Among them, increasingly important and recognised as the most accurate non-destructive method is the X-ray measurement technique. The aim of this study was validation of the results obtained by the X-ray stress measurement method. Stress measurements were performed on samples of the three materials subjected during measurement to the effect of tensile forces. Studies revealed close relationship between the stress values measured by X-ray technique and actual values present in the examined material. The summation of residual stresses present in the material and stresses caused by the effect of external forces was observed.

Keywords

  • stress measurement
  • residual stress
  • X-ray stress measurement

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