Magazine et Edition

Volume 46 (2021): Edition 341 (December 2021)

Volume 45 (2021): Edition 340 (August 2021)

Volume 44 (2020): Edition 339 (December 2020)

Volume 43 (2020): Edition 338 (August 2020)

Volume 42 (2019): Edition 337 (December 2019)
Rural Sustainability Research

Volume 41 (2019): Edition 336 (August 2019)

Volume 40 (2018): Edition 335 (December 2018)

Volume 39 (2018): Edition 334 (August 2018)

Volume 38 (2017): Edition 333 (November 2017)

Volume 37 (2017): Edition 332 (July 2017)

Volume 36 (2016): Edition 331 (December 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 330 (June 2016)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 329 (December 2015)
Rural Sustainability Research

Volume 33 (2015): Edition 1 (July 2015)

Volume 32 (2014): Edition 1 (December 2014)

Volume 31 (2014): Edition 1 (June 2014)

Volume 30 (2013): Edition 1 (December 2013)

Volume 29 (2013): Edition 1 (January 2013)

Volume 28 (2012): Edition 1 (December 2012)

Volume 27 (2012): Edition 1 (January 2012)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2256-0939
Première publication
30 Aug 2012
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 45 (2021): Edition 340 (August 2021)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2256-0939
Première publication
30 Aug 2012
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

11 Articles
access type Accès libre

The Influence of Technological Peculiarities on Fermented Sausages’ Quality and Sensory Properties

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 1 - 6

Résumé

Abstract

Fermentation is one of the ancient technological processes used in food production which influences the shelf-life of meat and meat products, also significantly affects the sensory properties like aroma and flavour. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the elaborated technology for a new fermented sausage production on the product quality and sensory properties. Sausages were produced by the standard technology using glucono-delta-lactone or starter culture. The drying of samples differs from 3 to 4 weeks at the same conditions; samples were dried for 4 weeks which produced with the starter culture, and 3 weeks which produced with glucono-delta-lactone. The sausages were tested at the end of the production, analysing pH, water activity, moisture and salt content, as well as the presence of Listeria monocytogenes, colony forming units of Listeria monocytogenes and Enterobacteriaceae in the sausage samples were analysed. The sensory evaluation was organised after getting Listeria monocytogenes testing results.

The moisture content, water activity and salt content significantly differed (p < 0.05) among samples, no differences were established in pH, taste and flavour liking. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was not established in samples which indicates that the producer properly applies a hurdle technology in fermented sausage production.

Sensory evaluation results showed higher scores for texture and appearance in fermented sausages with glucono-delta-lactone. The study results confirmed that fermented sausages with glucono-delta-lactone during 3 weeks of drying can achieve corresponding safety criteria and sensory properties which are set for semidry fermented sausages.

Mots clés

  • fermentation
  • fermented sausages
  • physicochemical parameters
  • sensory evaluation
access type Accès libre

Agriculture Policy Scores of Selected Countries Through the Technique for Order of Preference (TOPSIS) Method

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 7 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of agricultural sectors in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries using selected criteria, to identify the deficiencies in agricultural policies, to explore competitive advantages and to guide food and nutrition policies. The analyses of this research use the secondary of time series data between the years 1967 - 2016 from 10 countries including; Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam which are the member of ASEAN. This research uses the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method and the data used for the mentioned countries include the following criteria; total agricultural production value of the land, self-sufficiency of animal products criteria, self-sufficiency of crop products criteria, rural population rate, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, and value of foreign trade in agricultural products. The result of proximity coefficients calculated with the TOPSIS method, which according to the number of proximity and maximum benefit analysis should be done according to the order of preference. It is stated that Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia were the most successful countries in the agricultural policy performance in 1967. As for last decades, Malaysia became the most successful country in agricultural policy performance. We can infer from the results that Malay industrial sector triggered the agricultural sector by supplying financial investment atmosphere.

Mots clés

  • TOPSIS method
  • ASEAN countries
  • agriculture policies
access type Accès libre

Determination and Optimization of Feeding Device Parametres in the Plant for Preparing Liquid Feed Mixtures

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 13 - 20

Résumé

Abstract

Feeding young animals is a very important stage during their growing-up period, but in order to provide them with essential nutrients, they are fed with liquid feeds, whole milk substitute in particular (WMS). The technique for reconstituting WMS consists of dissolving it in water followed by mixing, but it is significant to follow the cooking recipe strictly, so it is necessary to develop a system with a feeding (dosing) device that will make it possible to solve this problem. Theoretical and experimental studies of the feeding device have been conducted in order to optimize the technological process of mixing liquid feed. Theoretically, the quality of determining the mixture during dosing was established for the purpose of further research. The influence of the design and technological parameters of the feeding device was experimentally studied, and its efficiency was evaluated. It was found that as the inclination angle α increases from 67,50 to 700, the rotation speed n being from 850 to 1500 min−1, the maximum probability of staying in the tolerance field ΔP=96% is reached, and feed discharge Q ranges from 540 to 660 kg h−1. The research makes it possible to develop a feeding device at the design stage, meeting the requirements of the recipe, having high discharge rates and the lowest energy consumption.

Mots clés

  • component
  • efficiency
  • liquid feed
  • feeding device
  • mixture
access type Accès libre

Impact of Crop Rotation and Soil Tillage on the Severity of Winter Wheat Leaf Blotches

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 21 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

Reduced tillage is considered as one of the main tools to save biological diversity; however, it increases pressure of diseases, including wheat leaf blotches. The aim of present study was to clarify the impact of reduced soil tillage on the development of winter wheat leaf blotches in different schemes of crop rotation. The impact of different growing technologies on the severity of winter wheat disease was evaluated in a two-factorial experiment: A – soil tillage system, and B – different combinations of wheat pre-pre-crop and pre-crop (wheat, oilseed rape, barley and faba beans). Diseases were assessed every 10 days approximately and total impact of diseases was evaluated by calculating AUDPC (Area under Diseases Progress Curve). Tan spot, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis was dominated disease over the long period, regardless of meteorological conditions. Development of Septoria leaf blotch was not influenced by neither crop rotation nor soil tillage. The level of tan spot was essentially higher after wheat, regardless of the pre-pre-crop. Reduced soil tillage promoted severity of tan spot. Ploughing mitigated effect of previous crops and differences in tan spot level were insignificant. Despite many positive effects of conservation tillage, increasing of fungicide treatment could be necessary, in conditions, when the tan spot is most devastating and widespread wheat disease.

Mots clés

  • pre-crop
  • pre-pre-crop
  • reduced tillage
access type Accès libre

The Efficiency of Different Wood Coatings against Water Surface Absorption

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 28 - 37

Résumé

Abstract

In the market of the Latvia different wood surface coating materials suitable for use in outdoor conditions are offered, but available information on the efficiency of these against direct water exposure is insufficient. For structural timber building elements, such as glued laminated timber (GLT), the surface coating should be applied taking into account technological, visual or colour changes (ISO 7724:1984) and – last, but not least – economic aspects are considered. Wood surfaces coated with coating materials, such as varnishes, paints, etc. can stabilize some properties such as movement of moisture content, dimensional changes and attack by microorganisms and fungi. The changes in the moisture content of timber may influence such important parameters as mechanical properties and the total life time of the structural timber elements. A study has been conducted with the aim of assessing the efficiency of coating materials used for wood protection against water absorption. In this study, six different commercial coating products used for the treatment of spruce (Picea Abies L. Karst.) and pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) samples were tested. The efficiency of different coating substances was assessed using two modified test methods according to the standards EN 382-2 (1994) and EN 927-5 (2006), determining the surface water absorption after immersion in water for 24 h and the dynamics of water absorption of the glued laminated timber for 696 h kept in water. As a result of the study, it has been ascertained that organic solvent-based commercial coating products are more efficient against short-term and long-term wood water absorption compared to oil-based coating materials.

Mots clés

  • construction wood
  • pine and spruce
  • heartwood and sapwood
  • oils
  • paints
access type Accès libre

Project Valuation and Risk Assessment in Food Product Development: Evidence from Fuzzy Real Option Valuation

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 38 - 52

Résumé

Abstract

To survive in today's competitive environment, companies must continuously develop and offer customers new products. To increase the probability of a successful business case of investing in the development of a new product, careful attention must be paid to risk analysis in terms of the present value of future potential income. The article considers an example of the research work of the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, in the framework of which a technical and technological project was developed to produce a new product, like Mediterranean anchovy, from cheaper Baltic sprats. The main goal of this work is to explore the application multi-factor sensitivity and fuzzy real option analysis to the valuation of new product development project.

The multivariate analysis of the sensitivity of the financial model of the greenfield production project described in this article revealed the main risk groups, as well as their degree of influence on the assessment of the Net Present Value of the project by a potential investor. The use of Fuzzy Real Option Valuation made it possible to evaluate the project with uncertain parameters, as well as to calculate the potential upside from preliminary refinement of parameters to eliminate negative scenarios.

The described approach is applicable to risk assessment of new food product development and allows investors to make a more informed decision about participation in such projects.

Mots clés

  • new products
  • project valuation
  • sensitivity and real option analysis
  • uncertainty
  • fuzzy numbers
access type Accès libre

Resilience of Milk Supply Chains during and after the COVID-19 Crisis in Latvia

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 53 - 64

Résumé

Abstract

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on national economies are characterized as the worst economic turmoil in recent years, as economic growth slowed to the level of the 2008 global financial crisis. At the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020, economic growth surveys did not project that the novel virus could have a negative impact on economic growth. As a result of the rapid spread of the virus and the increase in the number of infection cases, national governments took strict measures to limit the spread of the virus, which led to a significant deterioration in the economic situation in all industries of the economy. Agriculture plays an important role in providing food to the country’s population, yet the pandemic made a negative impact on sales volumes and prices in the domestic and international markets. The research aims to assess the impacts of the pandemic on milk supply chains in Latvia and come up with solutions to stabilizing the situation in the dairy sector. The national restrictions to combat the pandemic also hampered the dairy sector concerning the sale of raw milk and finished products in foreign markets, thereby leading to overproduction and stockpiling of the finished products, price dumping and a significant decrease in milk purchase prices to or below the production cost level for many dairy farms. Although there is no indication that the pandemic would lead to a decrease in the numbers of livestock and farms or output in early 2021, it is too early to assess the overall impact of the pandemic on dairy farming, as uncertainty over the duration of pandemic restrictions is a major risk to farm survival. The operation of the dairy sector was stabilized by means of the support provided by the government, as well as the farms’ accumulated financial and feed resources. In order to identify future challenges for milk supply chains, the research performed an analysis of operational risks for milk producers and processors to identify the most important risks and design recommendations for their elimination. The longer there is uncertainty about the return of the dairy sector to pre-pandemic output levels, the more likely it is that the pandemic is going to lead to a decrease in the numbers of dairy livestock and farms.

Mots clés

  • COVID-19
  • impact on agriculture
  • dairy sector resilience
  • supply chains
access type Accès libre

Impact of High-pressure Impregnation and Fire Protective Coatings on the Reaction to Fire Performance of Birch Plywood

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 65 - 75

Résumé

Abstract

Birch plywood has a wide range of applications for interior and exterior use. The demand for plywood with improved fire protection properties and good visual appearance is increasing year by year. The impregnation at high pressure of the whole plywood panels is one of the options to achieve it. The aim of this study was to develop good visual looking birch plywood product for interior design purposes as well evaluate different influencing factors to reaction to fire properties of fire-retardant treated birch plywood. This study consists of three parts. At the first stage, high pressure industrially impregnated plywood properties were studied by two influencing factors – distribution of fire retardant in plywood panel plane and sanding process influence on reaction to fire performance of product. At the second stage, seven different industrial finishing systems were selected for covering high-pressure impregnated birch plywood and their effect on fire reaction performance was studied. In addition, two surface coating systems were studied on standard birch plywood substrate. At the third stage, intumescent coating consumption effect on reaction to fire performance was studied. The reaction to fire performance of birch plywood was evaluated by performing a flammability test using the Single Burning Item test according to EN 13823:2010. It was found that high pressure impregnation of plywood cannot ensure even saturation of fire retardant throughout the sheet, which significantly affects the fire performance of product. The impact of different finishing materials to reaction to fire performance has been described by the results of this research.

Mots clés

  • Birch plywood
  • reaction to fire
  • fire retardants
  • impregnation
access type Accès libre

Analysis of Financial Support Instruments for Social Enterprises in Latvia

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 76 - 84

Résumé

Abstract

Social enterprises have positive effect on sustainable development, and they have become an important instrument for solving social problems (especially in rural areas), as the national and local governments alone cannot solve all such problems. To foster the development of social entrepreneurship, Latvia has introduced several support instruments for social enterprises, which include tax relief, privileged procurement contracts, grants, as well as non-monetary kinds of support. However, social entrepreneurs often point out that support from the national and local governments is insufficient, while the support instruments stipulated in the Social Enterprise Law are not widely used. Therefore, the aim of the research is to analyse national and local government support instruments for social enterprises in Latvia. The research found that the most important financial instrument fostering the development of social entrepreneurship in Latvia is a grant scheme administered by the Ministry of Welfare and the JSC Development Finance Institution Altum, which is available in the range of EUR 5000 to 200000 for investment and working capital. In the period 2017-2020, 94 social entrepreneurship projects with a total budget of EUR 6 million were supported, which could be viewed as significant financial support. In contrast, immovable property tax relief, exemption from enterprise income tax (on profits) and relief from this tax for several categories of non-business expenses are considered by social entrepreneurs to be an insignificant kind of support. There is also lack of experience and practice regarding the inclusion of social criteria in public procurement in Latvia.

Mots clés

  • social enterprise
  • social entrepreneurship
  • support instruments for social enterprises
access type Accès libre

Status of the Precision Beekeeping Development in Latvia

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 86 - 92

Résumé

Abstract

Information and communication technologies are part of almost any branch of human lives. During the last decade also beekeeping joined the direction of application of IT tools and solutions and precision beekeeping was defined. Still in the beekeeping many operations and observations are completed manually, and there is a potential to switch to the digital realisation. Information technologies can be used in the beekeeping to partly support the beekeepers by implementation of automatic or semi-automatic solutions for bee colony remote monitoring, apiary record making and other actions. The aim of this paper is to make a summary of the usage of information technology tools by the beekeepers in Latvia, summarizing precision beekeeping development status and conclude about its future development potential. To achieve this aim, in cooperation with Latvian Beekeepers Association, a beekeepers survey was conducted. More than 200 beekeepers shared thoughts and opinions about their application of information and communication technologies for monitoring the bee colonies and apiary management. The summary of the survey conducted is described in this study.

Mots clés

  • Precision Beekeeping
  • Precision Apiculture
  • Apiary management
  • Colony monitoring
  • Beekeeping in Latvia
access type Accès libre

State Decoupling Audit of Low-Carbon Agricultural Production

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 94 - 112

Résumé

Abstract

It is stated that the strategic benchmark for transformational changes in the economy is currently low-carbon production, the achievement of which is possible to provide with the consistent application of an arsenal of strict control measures, in particular, the introduction of state audit of low-carbon production. The effectiveness of the mechanism for ensuring the implementation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change has been assessed. The necessity of implementation in the domestic practice of the state audit of low-carbon production by the decoupling approach is proved. The agri-business portfolio has been formed according to the decoupling approach as one of the leaders in greenhouse gas pollution. The author's economic and mathematical models of estimation according to the decoupling approach of the impact of branches of crop and livestock production on environmental pollution are proposed. The dependence of greenhouse gas emissions on the volume of gross output of agricultural production, capital investment and current expenditures on environmental protection has been established. The results of a comparative analysis of the realism of forecasts of changes in greenhouse gas emissions according to the methodology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the author's methodology are highlighted. A roadmap for the introduction of a state low-carbon decoupling audit of the state decoupling audit has been proposed as part of the preparation of the second nationally determined contribution to the Paris Agreement. The expediency of supplementing GRI 300 “Environmental Disclosures” with the group of indicators GRI-305.5 “Reduction of GHG emissions”, formed by the decoupling approach, is substantiated.

Mots clés

  • air pollution
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • low-carbon production
  • state decoupling audit
11 Articles
access type Accès libre

The Influence of Technological Peculiarities on Fermented Sausages’ Quality and Sensory Properties

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 1 - 6

Résumé

Abstract

Fermentation is one of the ancient technological processes used in food production which influences the shelf-life of meat and meat products, also significantly affects the sensory properties like aroma and flavour. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the elaborated technology for a new fermented sausage production on the product quality and sensory properties. Sausages were produced by the standard technology using glucono-delta-lactone or starter culture. The drying of samples differs from 3 to 4 weeks at the same conditions; samples were dried for 4 weeks which produced with the starter culture, and 3 weeks which produced with glucono-delta-lactone. The sausages were tested at the end of the production, analysing pH, water activity, moisture and salt content, as well as the presence of Listeria monocytogenes, colony forming units of Listeria monocytogenes and Enterobacteriaceae in the sausage samples were analysed. The sensory evaluation was organised after getting Listeria monocytogenes testing results.

The moisture content, water activity and salt content significantly differed (p < 0.05) among samples, no differences were established in pH, taste and flavour liking. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was not established in samples which indicates that the producer properly applies a hurdle technology in fermented sausage production.

Sensory evaluation results showed higher scores for texture and appearance in fermented sausages with glucono-delta-lactone. The study results confirmed that fermented sausages with glucono-delta-lactone during 3 weeks of drying can achieve corresponding safety criteria and sensory properties which are set for semidry fermented sausages.

Mots clés

  • fermentation
  • fermented sausages
  • physicochemical parameters
  • sensory evaluation
access type Accès libre

Agriculture Policy Scores of Selected Countries Through the Technique for Order of Preference (TOPSIS) Method

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 7 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of agricultural sectors in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries using selected criteria, to identify the deficiencies in agricultural policies, to explore competitive advantages and to guide food and nutrition policies. The analyses of this research use the secondary of time series data between the years 1967 - 2016 from 10 countries including; Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam which are the member of ASEAN. This research uses the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method and the data used for the mentioned countries include the following criteria; total agricultural production value of the land, self-sufficiency of animal products criteria, self-sufficiency of crop products criteria, rural population rate, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, and value of foreign trade in agricultural products. The result of proximity coefficients calculated with the TOPSIS method, which according to the number of proximity and maximum benefit analysis should be done according to the order of preference. It is stated that Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia were the most successful countries in the agricultural policy performance in 1967. As for last decades, Malaysia became the most successful country in agricultural policy performance. We can infer from the results that Malay industrial sector triggered the agricultural sector by supplying financial investment atmosphere.

Mots clés

  • TOPSIS method
  • ASEAN countries
  • agriculture policies
access type Accès libre

Determination and Optimization of Feeding Device Parametres in the Plant for Preparing Liquid Feed Mixtures

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 13 - 20

Résumé

Abstract

Feeding young animals is a very important stage during their growing-up period, but in order to provide them with essential nutrients, they are fed with liquid feeds, whole milk substitute in particular (WMS). The technique for reconstituting WMS consists of dissolving it in water followed by mixing, but it is significant to follow the cooking recipe strictly, so it is necessary to develop a system with a feeding (dosing) device that will make it possible to solve this problem. Theoretical and experimental studies of the feeding device have been conducted in order to optimize the technological process of mixing liquid feed. Theoretically, the quality of determining the mixture during dosing was established for the purpose of further research. The influence of the design and technological parameters of the feeding device was experimentally studied, and its efficiency was evaluated. It was found that as the inclination angle α increases from 67,50 to 700, the rotation speed n being from 850 to 1500 min−1, the maximum probability of staying in the tolerance field ΔP=96% is reached, and feed discharge Q ranges from 540 to 660 kg h−1. The research makes it possible to develop a feeding device at the design stage, meeting the requirements of the recipe, having high discharge rates and the lowest energy consumption.

Mots clés

  • component
  • efficiency
  • liquid feed
  • feeding device
  • mixture
access type Accès libre

Impact of Crop Rotation and Soil Tillage on the Severity of Winter Wheat Leaf Blotches

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 21 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

Reduced tillage is considered as one of the main tools to save biological diversity; however, it increases pressure of diseases, including wheat leaf blotches. The aim of present study was to clarify the impact of reduced soil tillage on the development of winter wheat leaf blotches in different schemes of crop rotation. The impact of different growing technologies on the severity of winter wheat disease was evaluated in a two-factorial experiment: A – soil tillage system, and B – different combinations of wheat pre-pre-crop and pre-crop (wheat, oilseed rape, barley and faba beans). Diseases were assessed every 10 days approximately and total impact of diseases was evaluated by calculating AUDPC (Area under Diseases Progress Curve). Tan spot, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis was dominated disease over the long period, regardless of meteorological conditions. Development of Septoria leaf blotch was not influenced by neither crop rotation nor soil tillage. The level of tan spot was essentially higher after wheat, regardless of the pre-pre-crop. Reduced soil tillage promoted severity of tan spot. Ploughing mitigated effect of previous crops and differences in tan spot level were insignificant. Despite many positive effects of conservation tillage, increasing of fungicide treatment could be necessary, in conditions, when the tan spot is most devastating and widespread wheat disease.

Mots clés

  • pre-crop
  • pre-pre-crop
  • reduced tillage
access type Accès libre

The Efficiency of Different Wood Coatings against Water Surface Absorption

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 28 - 37

Résumé

Abstract

In the market of the Latvia different wood surface coating materials suitable for use in outdoor conditions are offered, but available information on the efficiency of these against direct water exposure is insufficient. For structural timber building elements, such as glued laminated timber (GLT), the surface coating should be applied taking into account technological, visual or colour changes (ISO 7724:1984) and – last, but not least – economic aspects are considered. Wood surfaces coated with coating materials, such as varnishes, paints, etc. can stabilize some properties such as movement of moisture content, dimensional changes and attack by microorganisms and fungi. The changes in the moisture content of timber may influence such important parameters as mechanical properties and the total life time of the structural timber elements. A study has been conducted with the aim of assessing the efficiency of coating materials used for wood protection against water absorption. In this study, six different commercial coating products used for the treatment of spruce (Picea Abies L. Karst.) and pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) samples were tested. The efficiency of different coating substances was assessed using two modified test methods according to the standards EN 382-2 (1994) and EN 927-5 (2006), determining the surface water absorption after immersion in water for 24 h and the dynamics of water absorption of the glued laminated timber for 696 h kept in water. As a result of the study, it has been ascertained that organic solvent-based commercial coating products are more efficient against short-term and long-term wood water absorption compared to oil-based coating materials.

Mots clés

  • construction wood
  • pine and spruce
  • heartwood and sapwood
  • oils
  • paints
access type Accès libre

Project Valuation and Risk Assessment in Food Product Development: Evidence from Fuzzy Real Option Valuation

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 38 - 52

Résumé

Abstract

To survive in today's competitive environment, companies must continuously develop and offer customers new products. To increase the probability of a successful business case of investing in the development of a new product, careful attention must be paid to risk analysis in terms of the present value of future potential income. The article considers an example of the research work of the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, in the framework of which a technical and technological project was developed to produce a new product, like Mediterranean anchovy, from cheaper Baltic sprats. The main goal of this work is to explore the application multi-factor sensitivity and fuzzy real option analysis to the valuation of new product development project.

The multivariate analysis of the sensitivity of the financial model of the greenfield production project described in this article revealed the main risk groups, as well as their degree of influence on the assessment of the Net Present Value of the project by a potential investor. The use of Fuzzy Real Option Valuation made it possible to evaluate the project with uncertain parameters, as well as to calculate the potential upside from preliminary refinement of parameters to eliminate negative scenarios.

The described approach is applicable to risk assessment of new food product development and allows investors to make a more informed decision about participation in such projects.

Mots clés

  • new products
  • project valuation
  • sensitivity and real option analysis
  • uncertainty
  • fuzzy numbers
access type Accès libre

Resilience of Milk Supply Chains during and after the COVID-19 Crisis in Latvia

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 53 - 64

Résumé

Abstract

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on national economies are characterized as the worst economic turmoil in recent years, as economic growth slowed to the level of the 2008 global financial crisis. At the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020, economic growth surveys did not project that the novel virus could have a negative impact on economic growth. As a result of the rapid spread of the virus and the increase in the number of infection cases, national governments took strict measures to limit the spread of the virus, which led to a significant deterioration in the economic situation in all industries of the economy. Agriculture plays an important role in providing food to the country’s population, yet the pandemic made a negative impact on sales volumes and prices in the domestic and international markets. The research aims to assess the impacts of the pandemic on milk supply chains in Latvia and come up with solutions to stabilizing the situation in the dairy sector. The national restrictions to combat the pandemic also hampered the dairy sector concerning the sale of raw milk and finished products in foreign markets, thereby leading to overproduction and stockpiling of the finished products, price dumping and a significant decrease in milk purchase prices to or below the production cost level for many dairy farms. Although there is no indication that the pandemic would lead to a decrease in the numbers of livestock and farms or output in early 2021, it is too early to assess the overall impact of the pandemic on dairy farming, as uncertainty over the duration of pandemic restrictions is a major risk to farm survival. The operation of the dairy sector was stabilized by means of the support provided by the government, as well as the farms’ accumulated financial and feed resources. In order to identify future challenges for milk supply chains, the research performed an analysis of operational risks for milk producers and processors to identify the most important risks and design recommendations for their elimination. The longer there is uncertainty about the return of the dairy sector to pre-pandemic output levels, the more likely it is that the pandemic is going to lead to a decrease in the numbers of dairy livestock and farms.

Mots clés

  • COVID-19
  • impact on agriculture
  • dairy sector resilience
  • supply chains
access type Accès libre

Impact of High-pressure Impregnation and Fire Protective Coatings on the Reaction to Fire Performance of Birch Plywood

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 65 - 75

Résumé

Abstract

Birch plywood has a wide range of applications for interior and exterior use. The demand for plywood with improved fire protection properties and good visual appearance is increasing year by year. The impregnation at high pressure of the whole plywood panels is one of the options to achieve it. The aim of this study was to develop good visual looking birch plywood product for interior design purposes as well evaluate different influencing factors to reaction to fire properties of fire-retardant treated birch plywood. This study consists of three parts. At the first stage, high pressure industrially impregnated plywood properties were studied by two influencing factors – distribution of fire retardant in plywood panel plane and sanding process influence on reaction to fire performance of product. At the second stage, seven different industrial finishing systems were selected for covering high-pressure impregnated birch plywood and their effect on fire reaction performance was studied. In addition, two surface coating systems were studied on standard birch plywood substrate. At the third stage, intumescent coating consumption effect on reaction to fire performance was studied. The reaction to fire performance of birch plywood was evaluated by performing a flammability test using the Single Burning Item test according to EN 13823:2010. It was found that high pressure impregnation of plywood cannot ensure even saturation of fire retardant throughout the sheet, which significantly affects the fire performance of product. The impact of different finishing materials to reaction to fire performance has been described by the results of this research.

Mots clés

  • Birch plywood
  • reaction to fire
  • fire retardants
  • impregnation
access type Accès libre

Analysis of Financial Support Instruments for Social Enterprises in Latvia

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 76 - 84

Résumé

Abstract

Social enterprises have positive effect on sustainable development, and they have become an important instrument for solving social problems (especially in rural areas), as the national and local governments alone cannot solve all such problems. To foster the development of social entrepreneurship, Latvia has introduced several support instruments for social enterprises, which include tax relief, privileged procurement contracts, grants, as well as non-monetary kinds of support. However, social entrepreneurs often point out that support from the national and local governments is insufficient, while the support instruments stipulated in the Social Enterprise Law are not widely used. Therefore, the aim of the research is to analyse national and local government support instruments for social enterprises in Latvia. The research found that the most important financial instrument fostering the development of social entrepreneurship in Latvia is a grant scheme administered by the Ministry of Welfare and the JSC Development Finance Institution Altum, which is available in the range of EUR 5000 to 200000 for investment and working capital. In the period 2017-2020, 94 social entrepreneurship projects with a total budget of EUR 6 million were supported, which could be viewed as significant financial support. In contrast, immovable property tax relief, exemption from enterprise income tax (on profits) and relief from this tax for several categories of non-business expenses are considered by social entrepreneurs to be an insignificant kind of support. There is also lack of experience and practice regarding the inclusion of social criteria in public procurement in Latvia.

Mots clés

  • social enterprise
  • social entrepreneurship
  • support instruments for social enterprises
access type Accès libre

Status of the Precision Beekeeping Development in Latvia

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 86 - 92

Résumé

Abstract

Information and communication technologies are part of almost any branch of human lives. During the last decade also beekeeping joined the direction of application of IT tools and solutions and precision beekeeping was defined. Still in the beekeeping many operations and observations are completed manually, and there is a potential to switch to the digital realisation. Information technologies can be used in the beekeeping to partly support the beekeepers by implementation of automatic or semi-automatic solutions for bee colony remote monitoring, apiary record making and other actions. The aim of this paper is to make a summary of the usage of information technology tools by the beekeepers in Latvia, summarizing precision beekeeping development status and conclude about its future development potential. To achieve this aim, in cooperation with Latvian Beekeepers Association, a beekeepers survey was conducted. More than 200 beekeepers shared thoughts and opinions about their application of information and communication technologies for monitoring the bee colonies and apiary management. The summary of the survey conducted is described in this study.

Mots clés

  • Precision Beekeeping
  • Precision Apiculture
  • Apiary management
  • Colony monitoring
  • Beekeeping in Latvia
access type Accès libre

State Decoupling Audit of Low-Carbon Agricultural Production

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2021
Pages: 94 - 112

Résumé

Abstract

It is stated that the strategic benchmark for transformational changes in the economy is currently low-carbon production, the achievement of which is possible to provide with the consistent application of an arsenal of strict control measures, in particular, the introduction of state audit of low-carbon production. The effectiveness of the mechanism for ensuring the implementation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change has been assessed. The necessity of implementation in the domestic practice of the state audit of low-carbon production by the decoupling approach is proved. The agri-business portfolio has been formed according to the decoupling approach as one of the leaders in greenhouse gas pollution. The author's economic and mathematical models of estimation according to the decoupling approach of the impact of branches of crop and livestock production on environmental pollution are proposed. The dependence of greenhouse gas emissions on the volume of gross output of agricultural production, capital investment and current expenditures on environmental protection has been established. The results of a comparative analysis of the realism of forecasts of changes in greenhouse gas emissions according to the methodology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the author's methodology are highlighted. A roadmap for the introduction of a state low-carbon decoupling audit of the state decoupling audit has been proposed as part of the preparation of the second nationally determined contribution to the Paris Agreement. The expediency of supplementing GRI 300 “Environmental Disclosures” with the group of indicators GRI-305.5 “Reduction of GHG emissions”, formed by the decoupling approach, is substantiated.

Mots clés

  • air pollution
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • low-carbon production
  • state decoupling audit

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