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Rural Sustainability Research

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Rural Sustainability Research

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2256-0939
Première publication
30 Aug 2012
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 38 (2017): Edition 333 (November 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2256-0939
Première publication
30 Aug 2012
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

4 Articles
access type Accès libre

Do Social Networks have Effects on the Risk Attitude of Commercial Poultry Farmers? Evidence from Southwest Nigeria

Publié en ligne: 10 Nov 2017
Pages: 2 - 13

Résumé

Abstract

Poultry production decision setting is full of risk and imperfect information. Attitude towards risk is a measure of farmers’ willingness to take risks which is an important determinant in their production decisions. Strong social capital emanating from social networks can lead to efficient risk management strategies, thereby minimizing risks faced by the farmers. Therefore, the effects of social capital on the risk attitude of small-scale commercial poultry farmers in Oyo state were assessed. Data were collected from two hundred small-scale farmers and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, factorial analysis, multinomial logit and a two-stage least square. Results showed that 52.5%, 37.5% and 10% of the poultry farmers were risk averse, risk neutral and risk preferring, respectively. About 31.4% and 68.6% of the female and male farmers respectively were risk averse. Close to a fifth, a quarter and two-thirds of the risk averse, risk neutral and risk takers respectively contributed 21-30% of the decisions in the associations. Fourteen percent of the farmers belonged to homogeneous groups. The choice of being risk averse was affected by marital status, educational level, family size, percentage spent on poultry income and aggregate social capital. There was no reverse causality between risk attitude and social capital.

Mots clés

  • social capital
  • risk behaviour
  • multi-item scale
  • reverse causality
  • poultry farmers
access type Accès libre

Effects of the Treatment Method of Reproductive Performance in Cows with Retention of Fetal Membranes

Publié en ligne: 10 Nov 2017
Pages: 14 - 23

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the research was to find out an appropriate method of treatment of retention of fetal membranes (RFM) in cows for conditions of Latvia. Three protocols for the treatment of retained fetal membranes in dairy cows were evaluated in a field trial. Cows that retained the fetal membranes for more than 24 hours were assigned to three treatment groups. Group 1 – control group; group 2 – cows with RFM, which were removed manually, and cows were intrauterine treated with antibiotics; group 3 – cows with RFM, which were not removed, and cows were intrauterine treated with antibiotics, and group 4 – cows with RFM, which were not removed, and cows were not treated. In animals with a decreased feed consumption or milk production, body temperature above 39.5 °C, systemic therapy was applied with ceftiofur hydrochloride or procaine benzilpenicillin. In order to establish subclinical endometritis, all cows were histologically examined on the 42nd day postpartum (PP). Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed both in cows with RFM and control group cows. Results indicated that better reproductive results were in cows of group 2 and group 4. Actually, results indicated that treatment of RFM without intrauterine manipulation and parenteral treatment could be as effective as conventional treatment including RFM detachment and local antibiotic treatment.

Mots clés

  • cows
  • retained fetal membranes
  • treatment methods
  • reproduction performance
access type Accès libre

Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

Publié en ligne: 10 Nov 2017
Pages: 24 - 31

Résumé

Abstract

Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST) extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively) with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%). Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW) after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents) g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

Mots clés

  • antioxidants
  • by-products
  • crispbreads
  • extrusion
  • phenolics
access type Accès libre

Financial Literacy of Rural Population as a Determinant of Saving Behavior in Kazakhstan

Publié en ligne: 10 Nov 2017
Pages: 32 - 42

Résumé

Abstract

In rural Kazakhstan, the credit and insurance services are limited and the state support is weak. Therefore, households’ saving is crucial to provide an insurance against the economic and social shocks. The main goal of this study is to contribute to the literature on financial literacy in emerging economies, namely, the effect of financial literacy on saving rates of rural population. Being well educated not always means to be financial literate and make efficient decisions regarding one’s own finance. People with a lower formal education level but with better experience in consuming financial products could be better prepared for making financial decisions including those related to savings. In this paper other socio-economic determinants of saving rates were taken into account, such as an income level, family size and an employment status. This research was carried out in Pavlodar region of Kazakhstan, and the data collection took place in spring 2014. In total, 405 households were surveyed. Results of the analysis show that if a respondent gives at least one correct answer, it positively affects the saving rates as well as one can observe that the higher the financial literacy level, the higher are the saving rates. Availability of state supported financial education programs for rural people will significantly contribute to the financial literacy improvement. At the same time, providing various and appropriate financial products in rural areas will motivate rural people to search for new knowledge and require authorities to intensify activities in this field.

Mots clés

  • finance
  • literacy
  • rural
  • savings rate
  • credit
4 Articles
access type Accès libre

Do Social Networks have Effects on the Risk Attitude of Commercial Poultry Farmers? Evidence from Southwest Nigeria

Publié en ligne: 10 Nov 2017
Pages: 2 - 13

Résumé

Abstract

Poultry production decision setting is full of risk and imperfect information. Attitude towards risk is a measure of farmers’ willingness to take risks which is an important determinant in their production decisions. Strong social capital emanating from social networks can lead to efficient risk management strategies, thereby minimizing risks faced by the farmers. Therefore, the effects of social capital on the risk attitude of small-scale commercial poultry farmers in Oyo state were assessed. Data were collected from two hundred small-scale farmers and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, factorial analysis, multinomial logit and a two-stage least square. Results showed that 52.5%, 37.5% and 10% of the poultry farmers were risk averse, risk neutral and risk preferring, respectively. About 31.4% and 68.6% of the female and male farmers respectively were risk averse. Close to a fifth, a quarter and two-thirds of the risk averse, risk neutral and risk takers respectively contributed 21-30% of the decisions in the associations. Fourteen percent of the farmers belonged to homogeneous groups. The choice of being risk averse was affected by marital status, educational level, family size, percentage spent on poultry income and aggregate social capital. There was no reverse causality between risk attitude and social capital.

Mots clés

  • social capital
  • risk behaviour
  • multi-item scale
  • reverse causality
  • poultry farmers
access type Accès libre

Effects of the Treatment Method of Reproductive Performance in Cows with Retention of Fetal Membranes

Publié en ligne: 10 Nov 2017
Pages: 14 - 23

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the research was to find out an appropriate method of treatment of retention of fetal membranes (RFM) in cows for conditions of Latvia. Three protocols for the treatment of retained fetal membranes in dairy cows were evaluated in a field trial. Cows that retained the fetal membranes for more than 24 hours were assigned to three treatment groups. Group 1 – control group; group 2 – cows with RFM, which were removed manually, and cows were intrauterine treated with antibiotics; group 3 – cows with RFM, which were not removed, and cows were intrauterine treated with antibiotics, and group 4 – cows with RFM, which were not removed, and cows were not treated. In animals with a decreased feed consumption or milk production, body temperature above 39.5 °C, systemic therapy was applied with ceftiofur hydrochloride or procaine benzilpenicillin. In order to establish subclinical endometritis, all cows were histologically examined on the 42nd day postpartum (PP). Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed both in cows with RFM and control group cows. Results indicated that better reproductive results were in cows of group 2 and group 4. Actually, results indicated that treatment of RFM without intrauterine manipulation and parenteral treatment could be as effective as conventional treatment including RFM detachment and local antibiotic treatment.

Mots clés

  • cows
  • retained fetal membranes
  • treatment methods
  • reproduction performance
access type Accès libre

Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

Publié en ligne: 10 Nov 2017
Pages: 24 - 31

Résumé

Abstract

Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST) extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively) with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%). Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW) after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents) g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

Mots clés

  • antioxidants
  • by-products
  • crispbreads
  • extrusion
  • phenolics
access type Accès libre

Financial Literacy of Rural Population as a Determinant of Saving Behavior in Kazakhstan

Publié en ligne: 10 Nov 2017
Pages: 32 - 42

Résumé

Abstract

In rural Kazakhstan, the credit and insurance services are limited and the state support is weak. Therefore, households’ saving is crucial to provide an insurance against the economic and social shocks. The main goal of this study is to contribute to the literature on financial literacy in emerging economies, namely, the effect of financial literacy on saving rates of rural population. Being well educated not always means to be financial literate and make efficient decisions regarding one’s own finance. People with a lower formal education level but with better experience in consuming financial products could be better prepared for making financial decisions including those related to savings. In this paper other socio-economic determinants of saving rates were taken into account, such as an income level, family size and an employment status. This research was carried out in Pavlodar region of Kazakhstan, and the data collection took place in spring 2014. In total, 405 households were surveyed. Results of the analysis show that if a respondent gives at least one correct answer, it positively affects the saving rates as well as one can observe that the higher the financial literacy level, the higher are the saving rates. Availability of state supported financial education programs for rural people will significantly contribute to the financial literacy improvement. At the same time, providing various and appropriate financial products in rural areas will motivate rural people to search for new knowledge and require authorities to intensify activities in this field.

Mots clés

  • finance
  • literacy
  • rural
  • savings rate
  • credit

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