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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2719-9509
Publicado por primera vez
01 Jan 1992
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 21 (2005): Edición 8 (December 2005)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2719-9509
Publicado por primera vez
01 Jan 1992
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

6 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Tien C. (T.C.) Tso, Recipient of the 2005 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 423 - 424

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Measurement of Gas Diffusion Capacity of Cigarette Papers

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 425 - 434

Resumen

Abstract

Apparatus suitable for measuring gas diffusion capacity of cigarette paper was assembled and evaluated. The apparatus provides semi-automated means for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide diffusing through a small area of the paper, and computation of a paper thickness-dependent diffusion capacity of the sample. Measurements are rapid and can be made in about 30 s. Diffusion capacity measurements were repeatable and reproducible to within about 1%. Variability of the diffusion capacity values was much lower than that observed for permeability measurements. For these reasons, the apparatus is useful for quality assessment and research applications. Diffusion capacity was measured for cigarette papers of inherent permeability ranging from 6 to 62 cm/min. As expected from prevailing theory, the diffusion capacity values generally increased with permeability. The diffusion capacity measured for electrostatically perforated papers was only slightly higher (about 6-11%) than the unperforated base paper despite large increases in permeability. This result indicates that diffusion capacity is governed by small pores in the paper. The apparatus is capable of measuring banded areas of papers designed for reduced ignition propensity. Diffusion capacity values for banded areas were lower than those of non-banded paper of similar permeability, suggesting that the band material preferentially occludes small pores in the paper.

Acceso abierto

Smoking Behavior: How Close to the Tipping Do Consumers Actually Smoke?

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 435 - 440

Resumen

Abstract

When smoked by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) method, the standard butt length for filtered cigarettes is specified as tipping plus 3 mm. One of the criticisms of this standard is that the tipping overlap hides some of the tobacco column and that consumers actually smoke cigarettes past the tipping.

The objective of this study was to determine how consumers actually smoke their usual brand when smoking in their everyday environment. A portable device was designed to collect and preserve cigarettes from consumers after smoking. In use, the smoldering cigarette is dropped into the device and it is closed. Upon closing, the cigarette is extinguished, the mouth end of the filter is cut and separated for further analysis, and the date and time are recorded.

Fifty adult smokers per brand were recruited across 5 US cities (10 smokers/city). A wide range of brands was studied: menthol and non-menthol, 1 mg to 18 mg FTC ‘tar’ yield, 17 to 25 mm circumference, and both 85 and 100 mm lengths. A total of 10528 cigarettes from 803 subjects covering 17 brands was measured.

The subjects were provided with one pack of their usual brand, as well as a collection device, and were instructed on how to use the device. The devices were collected on subsequent days. The cigarettes were then removed and the distance from the tipping to the char line was measured. The overall median butt length was tipping plus 6.7 mm with an overall average of tipping plus 8.4 mm. There was no significant effect of FTC ‘tar’ yield on either mean (p = 0.72) or median (p = 0.92) butt length.

Acceso abierto

Identification and Quantification of Sucrose Esters in Various Turkish Tobaccos

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 441 - 450

Resumen

Abstract

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to compare and quantify sucrose esters (SE) in five different tobaccos. The concentration of SE varied from 340 to 950 µg/g. In order to quantify the SE in each tobacco, the trimethylsilane (TMS) derivative of each sample was analyzed via GC-MS. It appeared that in the five tobaccos, the intensities of the five chosen SE-derived molecular masses increased in the order m/z 622 < 636 < 678 < 650 < 664 for samples 1-3, but for samples 4 and 5, the m/z 678 and 650 were reversed. In order to qualitatively characterize the various SE chromatographic fractions LC-MS was used. It was determined that the lowest parent SE m/z in which acetyl was attached to glucose was detected at m/z 566 (10 carbons), and the highest m/z was found at 692 (19 carbons). Some m/z values showed more than one peak which indicated the presence of isomers. All samples showed the presence of at least five different SE peaks wherein acetyl was attached to fructose (i.e. m/z 205). Also, acyl unsaturation was observed in selected fractions.

Acceso abierto

Analysis of Protein Amino Acids in Tobacco Using Microwave Digestion of Plant Material

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 451 - 465

Resumen

Abstract

This paper describes a technique using microwave digestion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which makes possible the analysis of protein amino acids in tobacco. The technique involves first the measurement of free amino acids, a hydrolysis using microwave digestion, and a measurement of total resulting amino acids. The content of protein amino acids is determined from the difference of total and free amino acids. The digestion is performed with aqueous 6 N HCl (with 1% phenol) for two hours in a microwave at 120°C in sealed vials. The GC-MS analysis is performed after the amino acids are derivatized with N-methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). The technique provides reliable results with less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD) for most amino acids. Only the determination of very low level amino acids is affected by larger errors. The method provides results for free amino acids that are in very good agreement with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and also results for protein levels in tobacco in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Results are given for several single grade tobaccos and for tobacco blends from four Kentucky reference cigarettes.

Acceso abierto

Conference Report: 59th Tobacco Science Research Conference (TSRC), September 25-28, 2005, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 466 - 468

Resumen

6 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Tien C. (T.C.) Tso, Recipient of the 2005 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 423 - 424

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Measurement of Gas Diffusion Capacity of Cigarette Papers

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 425 - 434

Resumen

Abstract

Apparatus suitable for measuring gas diffusion capacity of cigarette paper was assembled and evaluated. The apparatus provides semi-automated means for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide diffusing through a small area of the paper, and computation of a paper thickness-dependent diffusion capacity of the sample. Measurements are rapid and can be made in about 30 s. Diffusion capacity measurements were repeatable and reproducible to within about 1%. Variability of the diffusion capacity values was much lower than that observed for permeability measurements. For these reasons, the apparatus is useful for quality assessment and research applications. Diffusion capacity was measured for cigarette papers of inherent permeability ranging from 6 to 62 cm/min. As expected from prevailing theory, the diffusion capacity values generally increased with permeability. The diffusion capacity measured for electrostatically perforated papers was only slightly higher (about 6-11%) than the unperforated base paper despite large increases in permeability. This result indicates that diffusion capacity is governed by small pores in the paper. The apparatus is capable of measuring banded areas of papers designed for reduced ignition propensity. Diffusion capacity values for banded areas were lower than those of non-banded paper of similar permeability, suggesting that the band material preferentially occludes small pores in the paper.

Acceso abierto

Smoking Behavior: How Close to the Tipping Do Consumers Actually Smoke?

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 435 - 440

Resumen

Abstract

When smoked by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) method, the standard butt length for filtered cigarettes is specified as tipping plus 3 mm. One of the criticisms of this standard is that the tipping overlap hides some of the tobacco column and that consumers actually smoke cigarettes past the tipping.

The objective of this study was to determine how consumers actually smoke their usual brand when smoking in their everyday environment. A portable device was designed to collect and preserve cigarettes from consumers after smoking. In use, the smoldering cigarette is dropped into the device and it is closed. Upon closing, the cigarette is extinguished, the mouth end of the filter is cut and separated for further analysis, and the date and time are recorded.

Fifty adult smokers per brand were recruited across 5 US cities (10 smokers/city). A wide range of brands was studied: menthol and non-menthol, 1 mg to 18 mg FTC ‘tar’ yield, 17 to 25 mm circumference, and both 85 and 100 mm lengths. A total of 10528 cigarettes from 803 subjects covering 17 brands was measured.

The subjects were provided with one pack of their usual brand, as well as a collection device, and were instructed on how to use the device. The devices were collected on subsequent days. The cigarettes were then removed and the distance from the tipping to the char line was measured. The overall median butt length was tipping plus 6.7 mm with an overall average of tipping plus 8.4 mm. There was no significant effect of FTC ‘tar’ yield on either mean (p = 0.72) or median (p = 0.92) butt length.

Acceso abierto

Identification and Quantification of Sucrose Esters in Various Turkish Tobaccos

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 441 - 450

Resumen

Abstract

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to compare and quantify sucrose esters (SE) in five different tobaccos. The concentration of SE varied from 340 to 950 µg/g. In order to quantify the SE in each tobacco, the trimethylsilane (TMS) derivative of each sample was analyzed via GC-MS. It appeared that in the five tobaccos, the intensities of the five chosen SE-derived molecular masses increased in the order m/z 622 < 636 < 678 < 650 < 664 for samples 1-3, but for samples 4 and 5, the m/z 678 and 650 were reversed. In order to qualitatively characterize the various SE chromatographic fractions LC-MS was used. It was determined that the lowest parent SE m/z in which acetyl was attached to glucose was detected at m/z 566 (10 carbons), and the highest m/z was found at 692 (19 carbons). Some m/z values showed more than one peak which indicated the presence of isomers. All samples showed the presence of at least five different SE peaks wherein acetyl was attached to fructose (i.e. m/z 205). Also, acyl unsaturation was observed in selected fractions.

Acceso abierto

Analysis of Protein Amino Acids in Tobacco Using Microwave Digestion of Plant Material

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 451 - 465

Resumen

Abstract

This paper describes a technique using microwave digestion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which makes possible the analysis of protein amino acids in tobacco. The technique involves first the measurement of free amino acids, a hydrolysis using microwave digestion, and a measurement of total resulting amino acids. The content of protein amino acids is determined from the difference of total and free amino acids. The digestion is performed with aqueous 6 N HCl (with 1% phenol) for two hours in a microwave at 120°C in sealed vials. The GC-MS analysis is performed after the amino acids are derivatized with N-methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). The technique provides reliable results with less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD) for most amino acids. Only the determination of very low level amino acids is affected by larger errors. The method provides results for free amino acids that are in very good agreement with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and also results for protein levels in tobacco in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Results are given for several single grade tobaccos and for tobacco blends from four Kentucky reference cigarettes.

Acceso abierto

Conference Report: 59th Tobacco Science Research Conference (TSRC), September 25-28, 2005, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2014
Páginas: 466 - 468

Resumen

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