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Children's Language and Communicative Knowledge, Part Two. In childhood and beyond, Heft Editor: Barbara Bokus

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Children's Language and Communicative Knowledge, Part One. In Memory of Professor Grace Wales Shugar, Heft Editor: Barbara Bokus

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Language as a Tool for Interaction, Heft Editor: Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi

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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2083-8506
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1997
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 22 (2018): Heft 1 (January 2018)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2083-8506
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1997
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

25 Artikel

Special Issue: Developmental Psycholinguistics: Old Questions, New Answers, Edited by Marlena Bartczak, Ewa Haman, Natalia Banasik-Jemielniak

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Effect of the content complexity on hesitations in adolescents’ narratives

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 1 - 20

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper presents analysis of the hesitations in adolescents’ narratives. The speech disfluencies in the adolescents differ from those of the adults by frequency of self-corrections and pauses of hesitation. The adolescents rarely turn to repair their narratives but often interrupt the speech flow by pauses while telling a story stimulated by a wordless book. The lack of self-corrections reflects the specific problems with self-control and self-regulation due to immaturity of the executive function. Narrating about a complex multi-propositional event, the adolescents often experienced hesitation that provoked more self-repairs and hesitation pauses compared to the telling the story about a simple event. The description of the relatively simple content was more complicated syntactically than that of the multi-propositional event. Meanwhile, the content complexity significantly influences frequency of the silent hesitation pauses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • adolescents
  • narratives
  • hesitations
  • pause
  • event complexity
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Why shouldn’t she spit on his grave? Critical discourse analysis of the revenge narratives in american popular film from the developmental point of view

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 287 - 306

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

One of the premises of developmental psycholinguistics is that we live our life according to certain narratives that are learned through language and media. These narratives teach children to express emotions and to attribute actions in a variety of life situations; they construct the way in which the threatening feelings such as anger, injustice, or the urge of vengeance are experienced. In this paper, we present a critical analysis of the gendered discourse in popular American cinema, based on the plot analysis of 60 films featuring male or female protagonist seeking revenge. We use critical discourse analysis to decipher the patterns of the gender roles, behaviors, and emotions, which these movies intent to force upon the viewer. As the psychological research does not clearly testify to gender differences in the experience and expression of the trait anger, we would like to argue that it is a matter of the socially moderated narrative patterns, rather than inborn tendencies, that urges boys and girls to play such different roles in those situations as well as experience them in distinct ways. Our most crucial conclusion is that Western societies have developed the narrative-based mechanisms which later helped to successfully discourage women from expressing anger in the form of physical aggression, under the threat of being left out of the discourses of femininity and, in some cases, humanity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • gender
  • narratives
  • discourse analysis
  • revenge
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Predicting Model for Aggressive Directiveness in Light of Tadeusz Tomaszewski's Theory of Action: Structural and Data Mining Approach

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 354 - 371

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study focused on verifying the relationship between the ability to meet parental goals, parental difficulty, the child's representation in the parent's mind, and aggressive directiveness. The project refers to Tomaszewski’s theory of action as well as to Gurycka's theory of parental mistakes, in which the inability to achieve parental goals is treated as the main cause of experienced parental difficulties. The analyses were performed on data collected from 158 mothers of preschool children. The analyses were performed using structural equations as well as associative algorithms and artificial intelligence algorithms: cluster analysis and artificial neural networks. The structural model revealed strong relations between variables. The cluster analysis revealed three characteristic profiles in the maternal population that are distinguished by the level of analyzed variables. The artificial neural network revealed that, on the basis of the variables included in the model, the parents’ results in aggressive directiveness can be predicted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • theory of action
  • parental goals
  • difficult situation
  • aggressive directiveness
  • predictive model
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Right Cerebral Hemisphere Language and Communication Functions in Females and Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Normal Intelligence

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 372 - 393

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to compare the functioning of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing adolescents matched for age and IQ, in terms of right hemisphere language communication. Sex differences in that area were also analyzed. Seventy-nine individuals with normal intelligence with ASD, fluent in their native spoken language and aged 10-20 years (41 females), and 79 typically developing individuals (control group, 39 females) were tested. The Polish adaptation of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (RHLB-PL) was used for participants aged 13-20 years, while children aged 10-12 years were tested using an experimental version of the RHLBPL for young children designed by E. Łojek. Individuals with ASD scored lower in the Humor Test and Discourse Analysis, and made more remarks in the Comments Test about the tasks than the control group. The two groups scored differently in two measures of verbal intellectual skills in the Wechsler Scale: Arithmetic and Comprehension. Individuals with ASD scored lower than controls on both of those measures. No sex differences were found for any of the measured variables.

Schlüsselwörter

  • autism spectrum disorders
  • sex differences
  • language
  • communication
  • right cerebral hemisphere
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“Do You Remember Going to the Beach?”: References to Internal States in Polish and American Mother-Preschooler Shared Narratives

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Nov 2018
Seitenbereich: 441 - 466

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The present study examined references to cognitive states and emotions in narratives produced by mothers and preschoolers (aged 3 or 5 years) in Polish and American families. Participants were 32 mother-child dyads from Poland and 32 mother-child dyads from the United States. The two samples were matched with regard to child age, child gender, maternal age, and maternal education. The mother-child dyads were asked to tell three personal narratives. The co-constructed narratives were coded for mother and child references to cognitive states and emotions. Polish mothers were found to include significantly more references to cognitive states in their narratives than American mothers. Results also revealed significant correlations between mothers’ and children’s references to cognitive states across both samples. Related to child development, 5-year-olds produced significantly more tokens in the narratives than 3-year-olds. This study shows that mothers’ use of cognitive state terms in shared narratives with their young children differs across two Western cultural contexts. The results of this study are discussed with regard to two themes in developmental psycholinguistics: relations between maternal and child language use, and cross-cultural variation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • narrative
  • cognitive states
  • cross-cultural
  • preschooler
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Whorfian potential in child language

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Nov 2018
Seitenbereich: 467 - 491

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

As toddlers begin the language acquisition process, event memory and the capacity for dead-reckoning are developing in the cognitive domain, providing the potential to think about the relative location of events in time and objects in space. While the language they happen to be learning varies in structure, every language has a way of coding the location of events / objects in time / space. We can think of the toddler as a code breaker who arrives at the acquisition problem with a set of language information processing abilities. Depending how temporal and / or spatial location is coded in the language, it will make the toddler’s code-breaking problem more or less difficult, providing the potential to facilitate acquisition. Benjamin Whorf argued that the structure of a child’s language influences the course of conceptual development within the realms of temporal and spatial thinking. If the structure of a particular language matches the toddler’s processing capacities in either the temporal or spatial domain, then the resulting precocious acquisition in that domain provides the potential to influence conceptual development. This paper investigates such a potential in child language, i.e., a developmental Whorfian hypothesis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • linguistic relativity
  • child language
  • cognitive development
  • time
  • space
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How Do Parents Use Mental State Language During Narration To Their 2- and 4-Year-Old Children?

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 516 - 533

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Parents influence the development of children’s social understanding by using mental state terms that denote concepts which children are about to develop (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006, 2008) or via the usage of contrastive and/or causal mental state talk (Peterson & Slaughter, 2003). The present longitudinal study examined parent-child dyads and assessed parental mental state talk (MST) during picture-book narration. Seventy-four parents told their children a story twice, when the children were 2 and 4 years old. The same wordless picture book was used to elicit the narration at each time point. Two criteria were used to classify MST: type of utterance (affective, perceptual, or cognitive) and complexity of utterance (simple or clarifying). Parental MST was more frequent in narrations to 4-yearolds than to 2-year-olds. Parents directed more complex MST to 4-year-old children than to 2-year-olds. Affective references were most common at both time points, while cognitive utterances hardly occurred. Nevertheless, growing trends were observed in all types of MST. The results suggest that parents match their MST to the children’s level of social understanding development.

Schlüsselwörter

  • parental narration
  • parental mental state talk
  • social understanding
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Metaphorical Competence in Multilingual Context of Language Acquisition and Learning

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 534 - 556

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

It has been defended since Gibbs (1994) that in proper contexts people mostly use the metaphorical asset of a message rather than its literal meaning, which means that we tend to express ourselves metaphorically and that conceptual metaphors and metonymies are features of communicative interaction. In the present paper we discuss the notion of metaphorical competence (Aleshtar & Dowlatabadi, 2014: 1895) in the process of language acquisition and learning of a (multilingual) speaker in a multilingual context. Based on previous studies by Sinha and Jansen (2004), Kövecses (2005), Palmer & Sharifian (2007), Gibbs & Colston (2012) and Sharifian (2015), among others, we postulate that research in the area should be centred not exclusively on Language but on interaction in a triangle Cognition - Language - Culture, We defend the way one conceptualises the world is based on bodily experience, and is mediated by culture (cf. Yu, 2003, 2009; Batoréo, 2017a). In this study we present research from different language backgrounds both occidental (European Portuguese, English and Polish) and oriental ones (Mandarin Chinese). It focuses on conceptualization of emotions (e.g., emotional expression of feeling hungry) and moral values (e.g. courage). The analysis shows that it implies culture anchorage and/or physiological and cultural embodiment. We defend that conceptual appropriateness and metaphor awareness play a fundamental role in the acquisition of figurative language (cf. Doiz & Elizari, 2013), which is at least partially motivated, and thus can be object of insightful learning (cf. Boers et al., 2004).

Schlüsselwörter

  • metaphorical competence
  • language acquisition and learning
  • cognitive linguistics
  • cultural linguistics
  • (physiological and cultural) embodiment
  • figurative language
  • conceptual appropriateness
  • metaphor awareness
  • Chinese
  • English
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
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From Pre-Grammaticality to Proficiency in L1: Acquiring and Developing Infinitival Usage in Hebrew

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 557 - 580

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study traces the developmental route in acquisition and use of infinitives (e.g., lišon ‘to sleep’, le-exol ‘to-eat’, la-asot ’to-do’) in Hebrew as a first language, proceeding from the initial, “pre-grammatical“ emergence of linguistic forms among toddlers to structure-based knowledge and proficient use of the same devices in adolescence. Analysis involves a varied data-base of L1 oral Hebrew usage in: parent-child interactions of children aged 1;6 to 3;0 years; elicited storybook-based narratives of preschoolers; and personal-experience narratives and expository talks of schoolchildren, adolescents, and adults. Findings show that infinitives constitute an interesting test-case for examining the route from initial emergence via acquisition to maturely proficient command of a given subsystem in L1. Infinitival structures in Modern Hebrew, a language with an impoverished system of nonfinite verbs and lacking in auxiliaries of the kind common in Standard Average European, reveal a long developmental path, showing increasing complexity at all levels of language use: morphological form, types of syntactic constructions, semantic content, and discursive function, the latter primarily for the purpose of achieving textual connectivity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • L1 aquisition
  • infinitives
  • Hebrew

Special Issue: Language as a Part of Action, Edited By Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi, Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

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Attentional actions – an ecological-enactive account of utterances of concrete words

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2018
Seitenbereich: 90 - 123

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper proposes an ecological-enactive account of utterances of concrete words - words used to indicate observable situations, events, objects, or characteristics. Building on the education of attention model of learning, utterances of concrete words are defined as attentional actions: a repeatable form of behaviour performed by a person to indicate (i.e. point out) a particular aspect of the current situation to someone in order to achieve something. Based on recent empirical evidence on categorical colour perception, attentional actions are proposed to constrain the ongoing phenotypic reorganisation of persons into task-specific devices. The paper ends by situating the proposed account in a wider theoretical perspective on language. This paper serves two purposes: first, it undermines the scope objection against the ecological-enactive approach, and second, it provides a novel explanation for recent empirical evidence with respect to the role of language in categorical colour perception

Schlüsselwörter

  • attentional action
  • enactivism
  • ecological psychology
  • word learning
  • word-meaning
  • categorical perception
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Utterances as tool-mediated specifications of affordances - ecological pragmatics

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2018
Seitenbereich: 124 - 163

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The established descriptions of information structure assume that the basic cognitive unit is a categorization, and that the basic semantic structure is a predication. Descriptions based on these assumptions, however, cannot provide an adequate analysis of certain types of utterances that form a part of activities. The article presents a solution to this problem based on Wittgenstein’s private language argument and the concept of information in Gibson's theory of affordances. The basic cognitive assumption is that performers of activities attend to variations in the environment, for example visibility, and perceive the states of variations (e.g., 3000 feet). A state is defined as a local, temporary occurrence of a stimulus configuration that specifies an affordance. The basic pragmatic assumption, then, is that performers of activities share the states of variations by means of utterances. This ecological-pragmatic assumption allows for a rethinking of the usefulness of the reference-predicate distinction and bring forward different dimensions of informational analysis of utterances. It is claimed that an informative and accurate analysis of utterances that form a part of activities relies two distinctions: a distinction between a convention based regulation of attention and a convention based specification of an affordance, and a distinction between sharing information and nesting information

Schlüsselwörter

  • information structure
  • Affordances
  • Activities
  • topic
  • focus
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Dialogue and language as factors contributing to transformative learning in academic tutoring

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2018
Seitenbereich: 164 - 186

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Among a number of teaching practices, personalized education is gaining in popularity owing to its enticing appeal of a novel, humanistic attitude with unparalleled pedagogical results unlike those observed in traditional standardized mass education models. As part of the fourth moment in the history of education (according to the timeline in Davis, Sumara and Kapler, 2015), personalized education under the guise of tutoring or educational coaching is boldly re-entering schools and the academic world. Observing the daily practices of tutors and educational coaches on various levels of schooling, we can note a number of features which contribute to the emergence of a model where learning becomes an autonomous, lived experience. In this model communication is understood as a collaborative dialogical practice, which leads us to see learning as a result of interactivity in the learner-tutor dyad afforded by geo-spatial conditions, physio-psychological elements and language. All these contribute to the occurrence of transformative results as evidenced in student post-tutoring narratives. In this paper we present learning in the dialogical tutor-tutee paradigm as a distributed, embodied, and enacted meaning-making process rather than mere ‘sending’ and ‘receiving’ of substantive information (e.g., De Jaegher and DiPaolo, 2007; Neuman and Cowley, 2013). Described as such, the method fits in the paradigm of self-regulated learning. We therefore postulate the claim that personalised education as exemplified by tutoring is co-agential and prompts learning on multiple timescales. Consequently, cognition and learning in tutoring is enactment of knowledge, while coordinating speech rather than knowledge transmission

Schlüsselwörter

  • interactivity
  • learning
  • language
  • embodiment
  • meaning-making
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Playing cards: spatial arrangements for observational learning

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2018
Seitenbereich: 187 - 197

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper looks at how players of a card game create spatial arrangements of playing cards, and the cognitive and communicative effects of such arrangements. The data is an episode of two 8-year old children and a teacher playing the combinatorial card game Set, in the setting of the leisure-time center. The paper explores and explains how the visual resources of the game are used for externalizing information in terms of distributed cognition and epistemic actions. The paper also examines how other participants attend to the visual arrangements and self-directed talk of the active player. The argument is that externalizing information may be a strategy for reducing cognitive load for the individual problem-solver, but it is also a communicative behaviour affecting other participants and causing them to engage with the problem and the problem-solver. Seeing and hearing players who have succeeded in finding a set provide observers with rich learning opportunities, and increases their motivation to play the game. From the point of view of learning design, the consequence of this is that bystanders merit to be considered as the potential learners of a pedagogical game as much as the players themselves

Schlüsselwörter

  • Visual artifacts
  • spatial arrangements
  • self-directed speech
  • observational learning
  • game design
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A blended quantitative-ethnographic method for describing vocal sonification in dance coaching

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 198 - 237

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper we present a micro-analytic description of the role vocalizing plays in a single case of professional dance instruction. We use a novel mix of qualitative and quantitative tools in order to investigate, and more thoroughly characterize, various forms of vocal co-organization. These forms involve a choreographer using vocalization to couple acoustic dynamics to the dynamics of their bodily movements, while demonstrating a dance routine, in order to enable watching dancers to coordinate the intrabodily dynamics of their own simultaneous performances. In addition to this descriptive project, the paper also suggests how such forms of coordination might emerge, by identifying those forms of voice-body coupling as potential instances of “instructional vocal sonification”. We offer a tentative theoretical model of how vocal sonification might operate when it is used in the teaching of movement skills, and in the choreographic teaching of dance in particular. While non-vocal sonification (both physical and computer-generated) is increasingly well-studied as a means of regulating coordinated inter-bodily movement, we know of no previous work that has systematically approached vocal sonification. We attempt to lay groundwork for future research by showing how our model of instructional vocal sonification might plausibly account for some of the effects of vocalization that we observe here. By doing so, the paper both provides a solid basis for hypothesis generation about a novel class of phenomena (i.e., vocal sonification), and contributes to bridging the methodological gap between isolated descriptions and statistical occurrences of a given type of event.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vocal sonification
  • dance choreography
  • cognitive ethnography
  • interaction dynamics
  • interpersonal coordination
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Humor as interactional affordances: an ecological perspective on humor in social interaction

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 238 - 259

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In adopting new theoretical advancements within linguistics and ecological psychology, this paper investigates humor from an ecological perspective in naturally occurring social interaction. In doing so, it is claimed that the notions of language as coordination and values-realizing can provide a new understanding of humor as it appears in human interaction. This argument will be unfolded as a rethinking of Wallace Chafe’s notion of nonseriousness (Chafe, 2007) that re-conceptualizes Chafe’s idea of a ‘mental state’ of nonseriousness in terms of interactional affordances and values realizing. This perspective is laid out in in-depth analyses of video recordings of two real-life examples from different settings: two siblings playing and a sequence from a couple-therapy session. It is claimed that both examples of interactional humor can be explained by re-conceptualizing humor as a distinct way of being together. Thus, the emergence of humor is enabled by a shift in the coordinative dynamics rather than by a transfer of semantic ‘content’ from a speaker to a hearer. Finally, humor is investigated as a temporal phenomenon integrating immediate ’here-and-now’ environmental features with socio-cultural expectations on a longer time-scale. In this way humor is viewed as a particular type of values-realizing activity that constrains our actions, re-directs our attention, and thereby enables us to act in a more playful and joyous manner.

Schlüsselwörter

  • social interaction
  • humor
  • affordances
  • interpersonal coordination
  • values realizing
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Concepts and action: where does the embodiment debate leave us?

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 260 - 280

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The behavioural evidence of sensorimotor activity during conceptual processing, along with that from neurological research, ignited the debate around the extent to which concept representations are embodied or amodal. Such evidence continues to fuel the debate but it is open to interpretation as being consistent with a variety of the theoretical positions and so it is possible that further, similar evidence may not lead to its resolution. In this paper we propose that independent value accrues from following this line of research through the enhanced understanding of the factors that influence agents’ conceptual processing of action and how this interacts with the agent’s goals in real environments. This approach is in line with broad principles of embodied cognition and is worthy of pursuit regardless of what the results may (or may not) tell us about conceptual representation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • embodied concepts
  • categorisation
  • language comprehension
  • action
  • goals
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Language as a part of action: multidimensional time-scale integration of language and cognition

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 281 - 286

Zusammenfassung

Regular Issue

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Unidimensionality and construct validity of the Self-Regulating Capacity in Vocabulary Learning (SRCvoc) in Iranian EFL context: item-level responses versus item parcels

Online veröffentlicht: 24 May 2018
Seitenbereich: 21 - 38

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study investigated the psychometric properties of self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale (Tseng, Dornyei, & Schmitt, 2006) in the Iranian EFL context. For this purpose, a sample of 1167 high school students completed the Persian SRCvoc in the main phase. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. It showed acceptable reliability in both piloting and main phases. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) showed that the SRCvoc is composed of three factors. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the three-factor model of the SRCvoc and Tseng et al.’s (2006) five-factor model of the SRCvoc with item-level indicators showed that both models did not fit the data. The findings of this study imply that the item-parcels in Tseng et al. (2006) may have masked the nature of the factor structure of the self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale. It should therefore be re-theorized.

Schlüsselwörter

  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • construct validity
  • exploratory factor analysis
  • unidimensionality
  • self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning (SRCvoc)
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Intersubjectivity and the domains of social interaction: proposal of a cross-sectional approach

Online veröffentlicht: 24 May 2018
Seitenbereich: 39 - 70

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Intersubjectivity is a concept central to human interaction, broadly understood as the sharing of minds. There is a rich diversity of conceptualizations of intersubjectivity, but detailed operationalization for its component processes in social interactions are scarce. We propose a novel approach to examine detailed variation in intersubjectivity in interaction. Our approach combines two previously formulated frameworks: the hierarchically organized developmental levels of intersubjectivity put forth in the field of developmental psychology, and three domains or orders of social interaction - affect, deontics, and epistemics - discussed in conversation analytic research literature. The interdisciplinary integration of these two frameworks allows a more crystallized view of intersubjectivity, which will benefit our understanding of the fine-scale social interaction processes as they vary in the course of the moment-to-moment unfolding of social action, across different stages of human social development, and between individuals belonging to different clinical groups and even to different species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • social interaction
  • affectivity
  • intersubjectivity
  • deontics
  • epistemics
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Have you shot anyone? How combat veterans manage privacy with family and friends

Online veröffentlicht: 24 May 2018
Seitenbereich: 71 - 89

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This qualitative research project employed semi-structured interviews (analyzed with qualitative coding techniques) to examine how (N = 22) male American combat veterans manage privacy. The two-fold purpose of this study was to determine how combat veterans adhere to or deviate from the principles of communication privacy management theory (CPM). Secondly, to provide new knowledge that can shape counseling strategies and transition programs to account for how veterans manage their privacy. Some of the significant findings are that veterans believe that merely participating in combat implicitly creates a collective boundary that all veterans must maintain to protect the group. Secondly, the veterans did not use boundary coordination or privacy rule development. Instead, they relied upon internal rules that helped them craft a disclosure that minimized risk. Veterans reported having dense privacy boundaries by default, even towards members of their own family. These dense boundaries present significant obstacles to therapists working with veterans and their families.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Communication Privacy Management Theory
  • Combat Veterans
  • Rehabilitation and Reintegration
  • Moral Injury
  • Combat Trauma
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Efficiency of Executive Functions and Literacy Among Children With Specific Language Impairment

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2018
Seitenbereich: 307 - 327

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Recently, extensive studies investigating executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been performed. In the present study, we compared the level of executive functions (i.e., inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) and literacy skills between 53 healthy children and 53 children with SLIs between the ages of 3 and 11 years. The groups were matched by age, gender and parental education level. Executive functions were assessed using the Children Card Sort, and the Literacy Assessment Battery was applied to measure literacy skills. The patients with SLI displayed a significantly lower level of cognitive flexibility than that of the healthy children. No significant differences were observed between the groups in inhibitory control and the majority of literacy skills. The results confirm the hypothesis that patients with SLI experience difficulties in cognitive flexibility.

Schlüsselwörter

  • executive functions
  • inhibitory control
  • cognitive flexibility
  • specific language impairment
  • literacy
  • sorting task
  • children
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Analysis of Verbal Fluency Output on Semantic Categories of ‘Food’ and ‘Vehicle’ in Typically Developing Malayalam Speaking Children

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 328 - 353

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the wake of limited knowledge on verbal fluency performance in typically developing children, the present study aims at investigating the semantic fluency performance of Malayalam speaking children across age, gender and tasks. Using a cross-sectional study design, semantic fluency performance (on food and vehicle fluency tasks) was investigated in 1015 Malayalam speaking typically developing children aged 5 to 15 years. The findings revealed the positive influence of age and task with no substantial difference between gender groups, with good inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. The study outcomes depicted a distinct pattern of continuous and linear developmental trend in organizational strategies, with no specific age band showing any dramatic increase in performance. Semantic fluency as a task has great potential within the developmental context for understanding the highly language, culture, and task based word retrieval mechanism.

Schlüsselwörter

  • semantic fluency
  • typically developing children
  • Malayalam language
  • vehicle fluency
  • food fluency
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Effects of Four Voice Qualities and Formant Dispersion on Perception of a Female Voice

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 394 - 416

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Stimuli produced by a female speaker with four different voice qualities - modal, girlish, breathy and creaky - were manipulated to have more or less formant dispersion and were rated on four scales (dominance, attractiveness, sexiness and youthfulness) by men and women. Stimuli with less formant dispersion were rated more dominant and those with more dispersed formants were rated as less dominant. Breathy voice and girlish voice were rated more attractive and sexy. Stimuli with a creaky voice were rated less attractive and sexy, as were stimuli with less formant dispersion. Girlish voices and those with greater formant dispersion were rated as more youthful; creaky voices and those with less formant dispersion were rated as less youthful. There were also gender differences in ratings of attractiveness and youthfulness. Our results suggest that women’s voice qualities can affect perceptions of their attractiveness, sexiness and youthfulness. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of social signaling.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vocal judgments
  • female voice
  • voice qualities
  • formant dispersion
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Interrelations Between Perspective Taking and Reading Experience: A Longitudinal View on Students in the Fifth Year of School

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 417 - 440

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Social perspective taking (SPT) and the coordination of subjective and alternative perspectives are paramount to social behavior. Scholars tend to agree that approaches to conceptualizing SPT relate to interpersonal understanding and to language skills. The aim of this study was to determine whether interrelations exist between children’s SPT and experience in reading because reading requires the reader to take various perspectives. Additionally, receptive vocabulary and reading fluency of 2,105 children were assessed and they completed a questionnaire at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of fifth grade. Results indicated that the students’ SPT was determined by gender and reading experience with books and newspapers. We conclude that this reading experience affects students’ SPT levels positively; that finding can contribute to the development of school-based activities to enhance SPT levels.

Schlüsselwörter

  • reading
  • embodied cognition
  • social representations
  • developmental perspectives
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Reading alphasyllabic hindi: contributions from phonological and orthographic domains

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Nov 2018
Seitenbereich: 492 - 515

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Phonological and orthographic processing are important cognitive skills required in reading. The present study attempts to investigate the role of phonological processing and orthographic knowledge, in reading alphasyllabic Hindi orthography. The sample constituted 65 children from Grade 4. The result of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that the variance in reading fluency was significantly explained by phonological processing and orthographic knowledge measured through the tasks of rapid automatized naming, syllable deletion and dictation. The variance in reading accuracy was significantly explained only by orthographic knowledge measured through a dictation task. Phonological short-term memory showed significant correlations with all the reading measures but was non-significant in explaining the unique variance in reading. The limitation of the study and suggestions for future research is discussed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • semantic Alphasyllabic
  • Phonological awareness
  • Rapid automatized naming
  • Spoonerism
25 Artikel

Special Issue: Developmental Psycholinguistics: Old Questions, New Answers, Edited by Marlena Bartczak, Ewa Haman, Natalia Banasik-Jemielniak

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Effect of the content complexity on hesitations in adolescents’ narratives

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 1 - 20

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper presents analysis of the hesitations in adolescents’ narratives. The speech disfluencies in the adolescents differ from those of the adults by frequency of self-corrections and pauses of hesitation. The adolescents rarely turn to repair their narratives but often interrupt the speech flow by pauses while telling a story stimulated by a wordless book. The lack of self-corrections reflects the specific problems with self-control and self-regulation due to immaturity of the executive function. Narrating about a complex multi-propositional event, the adolescents often experienced hesitation that provoked more self-repairs and hesitation pauses compared to the telling the story about a simple event. The description of the relatively simple content was more complicated syntactically than that of the multi-propositional event. Meanwhile, the content complexity significantly influences frequency of the silent hesitation pauses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • adolescents
  • narratives
  • hesitations
  • pause
  • event complexity
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Why shouldn’t she spit on his grave? Critical discourse analysis of the revenge narratives in american popular film from the developmental point of view

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 287 - 306

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

One of the premises of developmental psycholinguistics is that we live our life according to certain narratives that are learned through language and media. These narratives teach children to express emotions and to attribute actions in a variety of life situations; they construct the way in which the threatening feelings such as anger, injustice, or the urge of vengeance are experienced. In this paper, we present a critical analysis of the gendered discourse in popular American cinema, based on the plot analysis of 60 films featuring male or female protagonist seeking revenge. We use critical discourse analysis to decipher the patterns of the gender roles, behaviors, and emotions, which these movies intent to force upon the viewer. As the psychological research does not clearly testify to gender differences in the experience and expression of the trait anger, we would like to argue that it is a matter of the socially moderated narrative patterns, rather than inborn tendencies, that urges boys and girls to play such different roles in those situations as well as experience them in distinct ways. Our most crucial conclusion is that Western societies have developed the narrative-based mechanisms which later helped to successfully discourage women from expressing anger in the form of physical aggression, under the threat of being left out of the discourses of femininity and, in some cases, humanity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • gender
  • narratives
  • discourse analysis
  • revenge
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Predicting Model for Aggressive Directiveness in Light of Tadeusz Tomaszewski's Theory of Action: Structural and Data Mining Approach

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 354 - 371

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study focused on verifying the relationship between the ability to meet parental goals, parental difficulty, the child's representation in the parent's mind, and aggressive directiveness. The project refers to Tomaszewski’s theory of action as well as to Gurycka's theory of parental mistakes, in which the inability to achieve parental goals is treated as the main cause of experienced parental difficulties. The analyses were performed on data collected from 158 mothers of preschool children. The analyses were performed using structural equations as well as associative algorithms and artificial intelligence algorithms: cluster analysis and artificial neural networks. The structural model revealed strong relations between variables. The cluster analysis revealed three characteristic profiles in the maternal population that are distinguished by the level of analyzed variables. The artificial neural network revealed that, on the basis of the variables included in the model, the parents’ results in aggressive directiveness can be predicted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • theory of action
  • parental goals
  • difficult situation
  • aggressive directiveness
  • predictive model
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Right Cerebral Hemisphere Language and Communication Functions in Females and Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Normal Intelligence

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 372 - 393

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to compare the functioning of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing adolescents matched for age and IQ, in terms of right hemisphere language communication. Sex differences in that area were also analyzed. Seventy-nine individuals with normal intelligence with ASD, fluent in their native spoken language and aged 10-20 years (41 females), and 79 typically developing individuals (control group, 39 females) were tested. The Polish adaptation of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (RHLB-PL) was used for participants aged 13-20 years, while children aged 10-12 years were tested using an experimental version of the RHLBPL for young children designed by E. Łojek. Individuals with ASD scored lower in the Humor Test and Discourse Analysis, and made more remarks in the Comments Test about the tasks than the control group. The two groups scored differently in two measures of verbal intellectual skills in the Wechsler Scale: Arithmetic and Comprehension. Individuals with ASD scored lower than controls on both of those measures. No sex differences were found for any of the measured variables.

Schlüsselwörter

  • autism spectrum disorders
  • sex differences
  • language
  • communication
  • right cerebral hemisphere
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“Do You Remember Going to the Beach?”: References to Internal States in Polish and American Mother-Preschooler Shared Narratives

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Nov 2018
Seitenbereich: 441 - 466

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The present study examined references to cognitive states and emotions in narratives produced by mothers and preschoolers (aged 3 or 5 years) in Polish and American families. Participants were 32 mother-child dyads from Poland and 32 mother-child dyads from the United States. The two samples were matched with regard to child age, child gender, maternal age, and maternal education. The mother-child dyads were asked to tell three personal narratives. The co-constructed narratives were coded for mother and child references to cognitive states and emotions. Polish mothers were found to include significantly more references to cognitive states in their narratives than American mothers. Results also revealed significant correlations between mothers’ and children’s references to cognitive states across both samples. Related to child development, 5-year-olds produced significantly more tokens in the narratives than 3-year-olds. This study shows that mothers’ use of cognitive state terms in shared narratives with their young children differs across two Western cultural contexts. The results of this study are discussed with regard to two themes in developmental psycholinguistics: relations between maternal and child language use, and cross-cultural variation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • narrative
  • cognitive states
  • cross-cultural
  • preschooler
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Whorfian potential in child language

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Nov 2018
Seitenbereich: 467 - 491

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

As toddlers begin the language acquisition process, event memory and the capacity for dead-reckoning are developing in the cognitive domain, providing the potential to think about the relative location of events in time and objects in space. While the language they happen to be learning varies in structure, every language has a way of coding the location of events / objects in time / space. We can think of the toddler as a code breaker who arrives at the acquisition problem with a set of language information processing abilities. Depending how temporal and / or spatial location is coded in the language, it will make the toddler’s code-breaking problem more or less difficult, providing the potential to facilitate acquisition. Benjamin Whorf argued that the structure of a child’s language influences the course of conceptual development within the realms of temporal and spatial thinking. If the structure of a particular language matches the toddler’s processing capacities in either the temporal or spatial domain, then the resulting precocious acquisition in that domain provides the potential to influence conceptual development. This paper investigates such a potential in child language, i.e., a developmental Whorfian hypothesis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • linguistic relativity
  • child language
  • cognitive development
  • time
  • space
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How Do Parents Use Mental State Language During Narration To Their 2- and 4-Year-Old Children?

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 516 - 533

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Parents influence the development of children’s social understanding by using mental state terms that denote concepts which children are about to develop (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006, 2008) or via the usage of contrastive and/or causal mental state talk (Peterson & Slaughter, 2003). The present longitudinal study examined parent-child dyads and assessed parental mental state talk (MST) during picture-book narration. Seventy-four parents told their children a story twice, when the children were 2 and 4 years old. The same wordless picture book was used to elicit the narration at each time point. Two criteria were used to classify MST: type of utterance (affective, perceptual, or cognitive) and complexity of utterance (simple or clarifying). Parental MST was more frequent in narrations to 4-yearolds than to 2-year-olds. Parents directed more complex MST to 4-year-old children than to 2-year-olds. Affective references were most common at both time points, while cognitive utterances hardly occurred. Nevertheless, growing trends were observed in all types of MST. The results suggest that parents match their MST to the children’s level of social understanding development.

Schlüsselwörter

  • parental narration
  • parental mental state talk
  • social understanding
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Metaphorical Competence in Multilingual Context of Language Acquisition and Learning

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 534 - 556

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

It has been defended since Gibbs (1994) that in proper contexts people mostly use the metaphorical asset of a message rather than its literal meaning, which means that we tend to express ourselves metaphorically and that conceptual metaphors and metonymies are features of communicative interaction. In the present paper we discuss the notion of metaphorical competence (Aleshtar & Dowlatabadi, 2014: 1895) in the process of language acquisition and learning of a (multilingual) speaker in a multilingual context. Based on previous studies by Sinha and Jansen (2004), Kövecses (2005), Palmer & Sharifian (2007), Gibbs & Colston (2012) and Sharifian (2015), among others, we postulate that research in the area should be centred not exclusively on Language but on interaction in a triangle Cognition - Language - Culture, We defend the way one conceptualises the world is based on bodily experience, and is mediated by culture (cf. Yu, 2003, 2009; Batoréo, 2017a). In this study we present research from different language backgrounds both occidental (European Portuguese, English and Polish) and oriental ones (Mandarin Chinese). It focuses on conceptualization of emotions (e.g., emotional expression of feeling hungry) and moral values (e.g. courage). The analysis shows that it implies culture anchorage and/or physiological and cultural embodiment. We defend that conceptual appropriateness and metaphor awareness play a fundamental role in the acquisition of figurative language (cf. Doiz & Elizari, 2013), which is at least partially motivated, and thus can be object of insightful learning (cf. Boers et al., 2004).

Schlüsselwörter

  • metaphorical competence
  • language acquisition and learning
  • cognitive linguistics
  • cultural linguistics
  • (physiological and cultural) embodiment
  • figurative language
  • conceptual appropriateness
  • metaphor awareness
  • Chinese
  • English
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
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From Pre-Grammaticality to Proficiency in L1: Acquiring and Developing Infinitival Usage in Hebrew

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Dec 2018
Seitenbereich: 557 - 580

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study traces the developmental route in acquisition and use of infinitives (e.g., lišon ‘to sleep’, le-exol ‘to-eat’, la-asot ’to-do’) in Hebrew as a first language, proceeding from the initial, “pre-grammatical“ emergence of linguistic forms among toddlers to structure-based knowledge and proficient use of the same devices in adolescence. Analysis involves a varied data-base of L1 oral Hebrew usage in: parent-child interactions of children aged 1;6 to 3;0 years; elicited storybook-based narratives of preschoolers; and personal-experience narratives and expository talks of schoolchildren, adolescents, and adults. Findings show that infinitives constitute an interesting test-case for examining the route from initial emergence via acquisition to maturely proficient command of a given subsystem in L1. Infinitival structures in Modern Hebrew, a language with an impoverished system of nonfinite verbs and lacking in auxiliaries of the kind common in Standard Average European, reveal a long developmental path, showing increasing complexity at all levels of language use: morphological form, types of syntactic constructions, semantic content, and discursive function, the latter primarily for the purpose of achieving textual connectivity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • L1 aquisition
  • infinitives
  • Hebrew

Special Issue: Language as a Part of Action, Edited By Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi, Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

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Attentional actions – an ecological-enactive account of utterances of concrete words

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2018
Seitenbereich: 90 - 123

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper proposes an ecological-enactive account of utterances of concrete words - words used to indicate observable situations, events, objects, or characteristics. Building on the education of attention model of learning, utterances of concrete words are defined as attentional actions: a repeatable form of behaviour performed by a person to indicate (i.e. point out) a particular aspect of the current situation to someone in order to achieve something. Based on recent empirical evidence on categorical colour perception, attentional actions are proposed to constrain the ongoing phenotypic reorganisation of persons into task-specific devices. The paper ends by situating the proposed account in a wider theoretical perspective on language. This paper serves two purposes: first, it undermines the scope objection against the ecological-enactive approach, and second, it provides a novel explanation for recent empirical evidence with respect to the role of language in categorical colour perception

Schlüsselwörter

  • attentional action
  • enactivism
  • ecological psychology
  • word learning
  • word-meaning
  • categorical perception
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Utterances as tool-mediated specifications of affordances - ecological pragmatics

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2018
Seitenbereich: 124 - 163

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The established descriptions of information structure assume that the basic cognitive unit is a categorization, and that the basic semantic structure is a predication. Descriptions based on these assumptions, however, cannot provide an adequate analysis of certain types of utterances that form a part of activities. The article presents a solution to this problem based on Wittgenstein’s private language argument and the concept of information in Gibson's theory of affordances. The basic cognitive assumption is that performers of activities attend to variations in the environment, for example visibility, and perceive the states of variations (e.g., 3000 feet). A state is defined as a local, temporary occurrence of a stimulus configuration that specifies an affordance. The basic pragmatic assumption, then, is that performers of activities share the states of variations by means of utterances. This ecological-pragmatic assumption allows for a rethinking of the usefulness of the reference-predicate distinction and bring forward different dimensions of informational analysis of utterances. It is claimed that an informative and accurate analysis of utterances that form a part of activities relies two distinctions: a distinction between a convention based regulation of attention and a convention based specification of an affordance, and a distinction between sharing information and nesting information

Schlüsselwörter

  • information structure
  • Affordances
  • Activities
  • topic
  • focus
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Dialogue and language as factors contributing to transformative learning in academic tutoring

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2018
Seitenbereich: 164 - 186

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Among a number of teaching practices, personalized education is gaining in popularity owing to its enticing appeal of a novel, humanistic attitude with unparalleled pedagogical results unlike those observed in traditional standardized mass education models. As part of the fourth moment in the history of education (according to the timeline in Davis, Sumara and Kapler, 2015), personalized education under the guise of tutoring or educational coaching is boldly re-entering schools and the academic world. Observing the daily practices of tutors and educational coaches on various levels of schooling, we can note a number of features which contribute to the emergence of a model where learning becomes an autonomous, lived experience. In this model communication is understood as a collaborative dialogical practice, which leads us to see learning as a result of interactivity in the learner-tutor dyad afforded by geo-spatial conditions, physio-psychological elements and language. All these contribute to the occurrence of transformative results as evidenced in student post-tutoring narratives. In this paper we present learning in the dialogical tutor-tutee paradigm as a distributed, embodied, and enacted meaning-making process rather than mere ‘sending’ and ‘receiving’ of substantive information (e.g., De Jaegher and DiPaolo, 2007; Neuman and Cowley, 2013). Described as such, the method fits in the paradigm of self-regulated learning. We therefore postulate the claim that personalised education as exemplified by tutoring is co-agential and prompts learning on multiple timescales. Consequently, cognition and learning in tutoring is enactment of knowledge, while coordinating speech rather than knowledge transmission

Schlüsselwörter

  • interactivity
  • learning
  • language
  • embodiment
  • meaning-making
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Playing cards: spatial arrangements for observational learning

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2018
Seitenbereich: 187 - 197

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper looks at how players of a card game create spatial arrangements of playing cards, and the cognitive and communicative effects of such arrangements. The data is an episode of two 8-year old children and a teacher playing the combinatorial card game Set, in the setting of the leisure-time center. The paper explores and explains how the visual resources of the game are used for externalizing information in terms of distributed cognition and epistemic actions. The paper also examines how other participants attend to the visual arrangements and self-directed talk of the active player. The argument is that externalizing information may be a strategy for reducing cognitive load for the individual problem-solver, but it is also a communicative behaviour affecting other participants and causing them to engage with the problem and the problem-solver. Seeing and hearing players who have succeeded in finding a set provide observers with rich learning opportunities, and increases their motivation to play the game. From the point of view of learning design, the consequence of this is that bystanders merit to be considered as the potential learners of a pedagogical game as much as the players themselves

Schlüsselwörter

  • Visual artifacts
  • spatial arrangements
  • self-directed speech
  • observational learning
  • game design
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A blended quantitative-ethnographic method for describing vocal sonification in dance coaching

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 198 - 237

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper we present a micro-analytic description of the role vocalizing plays in a single case of professional dance instruction. We use a novel mix of qualitative and quantitative tools in order to investigate, and more thoroughly characterize, various forms of vocal co-organization. These forms involve a choreographer using vocalization to couple acoustic dynamics to the dynamics of their bodily movements, while demonstrating a dance routine, in order to enable watching dancers to coordinate the intrabodily dynamics of their own simultaneous performances. In addition to this descriptive project, the paper also suggests how such forms of coordination might emerge, by identifying those forms of voice-body coupling as potential instances of “instructional vocal sonification”. We offer a tentative theoretical model of how vocal sonification might operate when it is used in the teaching of movement skills, and in the choreographic teaching of dance in particular. While non-vocal sonification (both physical and computer-generated) is increasingly well-studied as a means of regulating coordinated inter-bodily movement, we know of no previous work that has systematically approached vocal sonification. We attempt to lay groundwork for future research by showing how our model of instructional vocal sonification might plausibly account for some of the effects of vocalization that we observe here. By doing so, the paper both provides a solid basis for hypothesis generation about a novel class of phenomena (i.e., vocal sonification), and contributes to bridging the methodological gap between isolated descriptions and statistical occurrences of a given type of event.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vocal sonification
  • dance choreography
  • cognitive ethnography
  • interaction dynamics
  • interpersonal coordination
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Humor as interactional affordances: an ecological perspective on humor in social interaction

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 238 - 259

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In adopting new theoretical advancements within linguistics and ecological psychology, this paper investigates humor from an ecological perspective in naturally occurring social interaction. In doing so, it is claimed that the notions of language as coordination and values-realizing can provide a new understanding of humor as it appears in human interaction. This argument will be unfolded as a rethinking of Wallace Chafe’s notion of nonseriousness (Chafe, 2007) that re-conceptualizes Chafe’s idea of a ‘mental state’ of nonseriousness in terms of interactional affordances and values realizing. This perspective is laid out in in-depth analyses of video recordings of two real-life examples from different settings: two siblings playing and a sequence from a couple-therapy session. It is claimed that both examples of interactional humor can be explained by re-conceptualizing humor as a distinct way of being together. Thus, the emergence of humor is enabled by a shift in the coordinative dynamics rather than by a transfer of semantic ‘content’ from a speaker to a hearer. Finally, humor is investigated as a temporal phenomenon integrating immediate ’here-and-now’ environmental features with socio-cultural expectations on a longer time-scale. In this way humor is viewed as a particular type of values-realizing activity that constrains our actions, re-directs our attention, and thereby enables us to act in a more playful and joyous manner.

Schlüsselwörter

  • social interaction
  • humor
  • affordances
  • interpersonal coordination
  • values realizing
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Concepts and action: where does the embodiment debate leave us?

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 260 - 280

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The behavioural evidence of sensorimotor activity during conceptual processing, along with that from neurological research, ignited the debate around the extent to which concept representations are embodied or amodal. Such evidence continues to fuel the debate but it is open to interpretation as being consistent with a variety of the theoretical positions and so it is possible that further, similar evidence may not lead to its resolution. In this paper we propose that independent value accrues from following this line of research through the enhanced understanding of the factors that influence agents’ conceptual processing of action and how this interacts with the agent’s goals in real environments. This approach is in line with broad principles of embodied cognition and is worthy of pursuit regardless of what the results may (or may not) tell us about conceptual representation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • embodied concepts
  • categorisation
  • language comprehension
  • action
  • goals
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Language as a part of action: multidimensional time-scale integration of language and cognition

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Aug 2018
Seitenbereich: 281 - 286

Zusammenfassung

Regular Issue

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Unidimensionality and construct validity of the Self-Regulating Capacity in Vocabulary Learning (SRCvoc) in Iranian EFL context: item-level responses versus item parcels

Online veröffentlicht: 24 May 2018
Seitenbereich: 21 - 38

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study investigated the psychometric properties of self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale (Tseng, Dornyei, & Schmitt, 2006) in the Iranian EFL context. For this purpose, a sample of 1167 high school students completed the Persian SRCvoc in the main phase. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. It showed acceptable reliability in both piloting and main phases. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) showed that the SRCvoc is composed of three factors. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the three-factor model of the SRCvoc and Tseng et al.’s (2006) five-factor model of the SRCvoc with item-level indicators showed that both models did not fit the data. The findings of this study imply that the item-parcels in Tseng et al. (2006) may have masked the nature of the factor structure of the self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale. It should therefore be re-theorized.

Schlüsselwörter

  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • construct validity
  • exploratory factor analysis
  • unidimensionality
  • self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning (SRCvoc)
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Intersubjectivity and the domains of social interaction: proposal of a cross-sectional approach

Online veröffentlicht: 24 May 2018
Seitenbereich: 39 - 70

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Intersubjectivity is a concept central to human interaction, broadly understood as the sharing of minds. There is a rich diversity of conceptualizations of intersubjectivity, but detailed operationalization for its component processes in social interactions are scarce. We propose a novel approach to examine detailed variation in intersubjectivity in interaction. Our approach combines two previously formulated frameworks: the hierarchically organized developmental levels of intersubjectivity put forth in the field of developmental psychology, and three domains or orders of social interaction - affect, deontics, and epistemics - discussed in conversation analytic research literature. The interdisciplinary integration of these two frameworks allows a more crystallized view of intersubjectivity, which will benefit our understanding of the fine-scale social interaction processes as they vary in the course of the moment-to-moment unfolding of social action, across different stages of human social development, and between individuals belonging to different clinical groups and even to different species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • social interaction
  • affectivity
  • intersubjectivity
  • deontics
  • epistemics
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Have you shot anyone? How combat veterans manage privacy with family and friends

Online veröffentlicht: 24 May 2018
Seitenbereich: 71 - 89

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This qualitative research project employed semi-structured interviews (analyzed with qualitative coding techniques) to examine how (N = 22) male American combat veterans manage privacy. The two-fold purpose of this study was to determine how combat veterans adhere to or deviate from the principles of communication privacy management theory (CPM). Secondly, to provide new knowledge that can shape counseling strategies and transition programs to account for how veterans manage their privacy. Some of the significant findings are that veterans believe that merely participating in combat implicitly creates a collective boundary that all veterans must maintain to protect the group. Secondly, the veterans did not use boundary coordination or privacy rule development. Instead, they relied upon internal rules that helped them craft a disclosure that minimized risk. Veterans reported having dense privacy boundaries by default, even towards members of their own family. These dense boundaries present significant obstacles to therapists working with veterans and their families.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Communication Privacy Management Theory
  • Combat Veterans
  • Rehabilitation and Reintegration
  • Moral Injury
  • Combat Trauma
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Efficiency of Executive Functions and Literacy Among Children With Specific Language Impairment

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2018
Seitenbereich: 307 - 327

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Recently, extensive studies investigating executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been performed. In the present study, we compared the level of executive functions (i.e., inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) and literacy skills between 53 healthy children and 53 children with SLIs between the ages of 3 and 11 years. The groups were matched by age, gender and parental education level. Executive functions were assessed using the Children Card Sort, and the Literacy Assessment Battery was applied to measure literacy skills. The patients with SLI displayed a significantly lower level of cognitive flexibility than that of the healthy children. No significant differences were observed between the groups in inhibitory control and the majority of literacy skills. The results confirm the hypothesis that patients with SLI experience difficulties in cognitive flexibility.

Schlüsselwörter

  • executive functions
  • inhibitory control
  • cognitive flexibility
  • specific language impairment
  • literacy
  • sorting task
  • children
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Analysis of Verbal Fluency Output on Semantic Categories of ‘Food’ and ‘Vehicle’ in Typically Developing Malayalam Speaking Children

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 328 - 353

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the wake of limited knowledge on verbal fluency performance in typically developing children, the present study aims at investigating the semantic fluency performance of Malayalam speaking children across age, gender and tasks. Using a cross-sectional study design, semantic fluency performance (on food and vehicle fluency tasks) was investigated in 1015 Malayalam speaking typically developing children aged 5 to 15 years. The findings revealed the positive influence of age and task with no substantial difference between gender groups, with good inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. The study outcomes depicted a distinct pattern of continuous and linear developmental trend in organizational strategies, with no specific age band showing any dramatic increase in performance. Semantic fluency as a task has great potential within the developmental context for understanding the highly language, culture, and task based word retrieval mechanism.

Schlüsselwörter

  • semantic fluency
  • typically developing children
  • Malayalam language
  • vehicle fluency
  • food fluency
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Effects of Four Voice Qualities and Formant Dispersion on Perception of a Female Voice

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 394 - 416

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Stimuli produced by a female speaker with four different voice qualities - modal, girlish, breathy and creaky - were manipulated to have more or less formant dispersion and were rated on four scales (dominance, attractiveness, sexiness and youthfulness) by men and women. Stimuli with less formant dispersion were rated more dominant and those with more dispersed formants were rated as less dominant. Breathy voice and girlish voice were rated more attractive and sexy. Stimuli with a creaky voice were rated less attractive and sexy, as were stimuli with less formant dispersion. Girlish voices and those with greater formant dispersion were rated as more youthful; creaky voices and those with less formant dispersion were rated as less youthful. There were also gender differences in ratings of attractiveness and youthfulness. Our results suggest that women’s voice qualities can affect perceptions of their attractiveness, sexiness and youthfulness. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of social signaling.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vocal judgments
  • female voice
  • voice qualities
  • formant dispersion
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Interrelations Between Perspective Taking and Reading Experience: A Longitudinal View on Students in the Fifth Year of School

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 417 - 440

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Social perspective taking (SPT) and the coordination of subjective and alternative perspectives are paramount to social behavior. Scholars tend to agree that approaches to conceptualizing SPT relate to interpersonal understanding and to language skills. The aim of this study was to determine whether interrelations exist between children’s SPT and experience in reading because reading requires the reader to take various perspectives. Additionally, receptive vocabulary and reading fluency of 2,105 children were assessed and they completed a questionnaire at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of fifth grade. Results indicated that the students’ SPT was determined by gender and reading experience with books and newspapers. We conclude that this reading experience affects students’ SPT levels positively; that finding can contribute to the development of school-based activities to enhance SPT levels.

Schlüsselwörter

  • reading
  • embodied cognition
  • social representations
  • developmental perspectives
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Reading alphasyllabic hindi: contributions from phonological and orthographic domains

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Nov 2018
Seitenbereich: 492 - 515

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Phonological and orthographic processing are important cognitive skills required in reading. The present study attempts to investigate the role of phonological processing and orthographic knowledge, in reading alphasyllabic Hindi orthography. The sample constituted 65 children from Grade 4. The result of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that the variance in reading fluency was significantly explained by phonological processing and orthographic knowledge measured through the tasks of rapid automatized naming, syllable deletion and dictation. The variance in reading accuracy was significantly explained only by orthographic knowledge measured through a dictation task. Phonological short-term memory showed significant correlations with all the reading measures but was non-significant in explaining the unique variance in reading. The limitation of the study and suggestions for future research is discussed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • semantic Alphasyllabic
  • Phonological awareness
  • Rapid automatized naming
  • Spoonerism

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