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Children's Language and Communicative Knowledge, Part Two. In childhood and beyond, Heft Editor: Barbara Bokus

Volumen 18 (2014): Heft 2 (August 2014)
Children's Language and Communicative Knowledge, Part One. In Memory of Professor Grace Wales Shugar, Heft Editor: Barbara Bokus

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Volumen 17 (2013): Heft 3 (December 2013)

Volumen 17 (2013): Heft 2 (September 2013)

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Language as a Tool for Interaction, Heft Editor: Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi

Volumen 16 (2012): Heft 1 (June 2012)

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Volumen 12 (2008): Heft 1 (June 2008)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2083-8506
ISSN
1234-2238
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1997
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 17 (2013): Heft 2 (September 2013)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2083-8506
ISSN
1234-2238
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1997
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

8 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Doubtfulness – A Dialogical Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 101 - 113

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The current globalizing world stimulates many doubts. Doubtfulness is a starting point for inner dialogue. Internal dialogical activity often reduces the experience of uncertainty by integration of contrasting ideas. Sometimes, however, the result is quite opposite - doubts grow rather than being reduced. The paper proposes a dialogical model of doubtfulness and presents empirical findings which are consistent with the model. Additionally, the functions of doubtfulness and internal dialogue in philosophy and science are discussed. On one hand, as empirical results show, doubtfulness can be linked to anxiety which blocks human thinking and acting. On the other hand, as exemplified by Galileo, doubt demands a deeper analysis of the situation and is conducive to human development, in personal or even in socio-cultural space.

Schlüsselwörter

  • doubtfulness
  • internal dialogue
  • dialogicality
  • dialogical model of doubtfulness
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Irony as a Means of Perception Through Communication Channels. Emotions, Attitude and IQ Related to Irony Across Gender

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 115 - 132

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper explores why certain adults are, or at least consider themselves to be, more ironic than others. The study looked at comprehension and application of irony compared to subjective affective evaluation of irony reported by Polish-speaking adults and with relation to nonverbal intelligence measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised-Polish versions (WAIS-R(PL), 2004). Fifty-four subjects aged 20-66 years (28 females and 26 males) participated in Study 1 on subjective perception of irony. The comprehension, emotional valence and social functions of ironic meanings as well as the degree to which subjects perceived themselves as ironic were assessed through a self-report questionnaire. Inter-correlations were performed and related to the performance quotient (IQ) which was measured in Study 2, where 45 (24 females and 21 males) out of the 54 participants were tested with performance subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised-Polish versions (WAIS-R(PL), 2004). The nonverbal intelligence scale was administered. Performance on nonverbal intelligence tests is not limited by language abilities and its analysis and can be considered important for future cultural comparative studies. Subjects who perceived themselves as ironic showed a higher nonverbal IQ in comparison to subjects who described themselves as non-ironic or barely ironic. The pragmatic qualities of irony were analyzed for their affective valuation and balanced for gender. Individual differences and gender effects in the perception of the social functions of ironic utterances were found. The paper describes the implicit emotional layer conveyed in irony and its importance in irony processing and comprehension.

Schlüsselwörter

  • irony
  • irony comprehension
  • emotions
  • attitude
  • IQ
  • gender
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Strategies to Discredit Opponents: Russian Presentations of Events in Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 133 - 156

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Discourse in this paper is represented by the totality of texts (Koller, 2004, p. 18) covering events in former Soviet republics such as Ukraine, Georgia and the Baltic countries. Over 100 texts have been collected from the most popular Russian newspapers, Argumenty i Fakty and Komsomol’skaia Pravda, between 2004 and 2010 in order to compile a “discourse of Russian satellites.” Even though the contemporary Russian press avoids the totalitarian habits of Soviet times such as monoglossia, dysphemisms (language of insults), sanctions and social commands, it still attempts to exercise control over the formation of readers’ opinions. The Russian press tries to channel the reaction of their audience toward disapproval of independent nations. The objective of this article is to summarize those narrative techniques which generate negative responses toward sovereign countries of the former Soviet Union. These techniques, which are called “strategies for discrediting opponents,” include sourcing favorable and unfavorable opinions, humorous framing, ironic statements and constructing a negative background. The means of control are subtle, but they are no less effective than through direct coercion.

Schlüsselwörter

  • appraisal theory
  • discourse strategies
  • negative perception
  • dialogic perspectives
  • humor
  • metaphor
  • Russian press
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

“You Can Choose… Or We Would Go to ‘Turkeys’ or to Houses” – Verbal Interactions of Five-Year-Old Children During Story Creation

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 157 - 174

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper presents the results of an analysis of interactions which appeared during group storytelling. One of two methods was used for the storytelling: the Storyline method or the Associations Pyramid method. Seventy five-year-old children took part in the study. The results show that children are able to use different strategies to create a story together, the language and communication competence of the children is already well developed, and the children are ready for effective cooperation

Schlüsselwörter

  • verbal interaction
  • storytelling
  • Storyline method
  • Associations Pyramid method
  • children’s cooperation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

On the Social Nature of Linguistic Prescriptions

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 175 - 187

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper proposes an empirical method to investigate linguistic prescriptions as inherent corrective behaviors. The behaviors in question may but need not necessarily be supported by any explicit knowledge of rules. It is possible to gain insight into them, for example by extracting information about corrections from revision histories of texts (or by analyzing speech corpora where users correct themselves or one another). One easily available source of such information is the revision history of Wikipedia. As is shown, the most frequent and short corrections are limited to linguistic errors such as typos (and editorial conventions adopted in Wikipedia). By perusing an automatically generated revision corpus, one gains insight into the prescriptive nature of language empirically. At the same time, the prescriptions offered are not reducible to descriptions of the most frequent linguistic use.

Schlüsselwörter

  • descriptivism
  • prescriptivism
  • normativity
  • corpora research
  • Wikipedia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Adaptation of The Western Aphasia Battery in Bangla

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 189 - 201

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aphasia following an acquired neurological insult necessitates an in-depth evaluation of the primary and secondary language symptoms. Of all the tools available for aphasia diagnosis, the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB; Kertesz, 1982) has proved to be one of the most comprehensive test batteries for describing the aphasia symptom complex. Several authors have pointed out the need for language-specific tools for the assessment of aphasia. But in Bengali, the most prevalent language in eastern India, no formal language assessment tool was available to date. The present study adapted the original WAB in Bengali to give the Bengali WAB (B-WAB). The study was completed in three phases: development, standardization and validation of the B-WAB. The test material was developed preserving the total number of items, however minor changes were made wherever necessary so that it matched the sociolinguistic norms in this part of the country. It was standardized in a group of 150 normal individuals in five different age groups ranging from 18-70 years, and normative values were provided for each subtest for each group. For establishing validity, it was administered to 30 aphasic subjects and the results indicated that the B-WAB was a valid tool for testing individuals with aphasia.

Schlüsselwörter

  • aphasia
  • Bengali
  • WAB
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inflectional Change Patterns in Arabic

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 203 - 227

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Most approaches to inflectional morphology propose a single-default representation. This research on Jordanian Arabic offers an analysis having more than one default inflection. This is accomplished by showing that unlike previous morphological accounts like the single-mechanism model, dual-mechanism model, and the schema model (cf. Pinker, 1990; Rumelhart & McClelland, 1986; and Bybee, 1985), the current research relies upon the ‘openness’ mechanism to define defaultness. Openness is thus defined as the ability of the inflectional process to accept new forms into a language. The corpus used in this research contains diminutives, verbal nouns, derivatives, and loan words used in JA. Other defining factors are modified in this research, such as regularity (rule-based mechanism) and productivity (type frequency). The findings of this research indicate that there are two possible defaults in Jordanian Arabic ordered in terms of openness: the sound feminine plural and the iambic broken plural. The findings have the implication that a language’s grammar can have a multi-default system.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Arabic language
  • inflection
  • grammar
  • language patterns
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Book Review: Robert C. Gardner, Motivation and Second Language Acquisition: The Socio-Educational Model

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 229 - 232

Zusammenfassung

8 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Doubtfulness – A Dialogical Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 101 - 113

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The current globalizing world stimulates many doubts. Doubtfulness is a starting point for inner dialogue. Internal dialogical activity often reduces the experience of uncertainty by integration of contrasting ideas. Sometimes, however, the result is quite opposite - doubts grow rather than being reduced. The paper proposes a dialogical model of doubtfulness and presents empirical findings which are consistent with the model. Additionally, the functions of doubtfulness and internal dialogue in philosophy and science are discussed. On one hand, as empirical results show, doubtfulness can be linked to anxiety which blocks human thinking and acting. On the other hand, as exemplified by Galileo, doubt demands a deeper analysis of the situation and is conducive to human development, in personal or even in socio-cultural space.

Schlüsselwörter

  • doubtfulness
  • internal dialogue
  • dialogicality
  • dialogical model of doubtfulness
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Irony as a Means of Perception Through Communication Channels. Emotions, Attitude and IQ Related to Irony Across Gender

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 115 - 132

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper explores why certain adults are, or at least consider themselves to be, more ironic than others. The study looked at comprehension and application of irony compared to subjective affective evaluation of irony reported by Polish-speaking adults and with relation to nonverbal intelligence measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised-Polish versions (WAIS-R(PL), 2004). Fifty-four subjects aged 20-66 years (28 females and 26 males) participated in Study 1 on subjective perception of irony. The comprehension, emotional valence and social functions of ironic meanings as well as the degree to which subjects perceived themselves as ironic were assessed through a self-report questionnaire. Inter-correlations were performed and related to the performance quotient (IQ) which was measured in Study 2, where 45 (24 females and 21 males) out of the 54 participants were tested with performance subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised-Polish versions (WAIS-R(PL), 2004). The nonverbal intelligence scale was administered. Performance on nonverbal intelligence tests is not limited by language abilities and its analysis and can be considered important for future cultural comparative studies. Subjects who perceived themselves as ironic showed a higher nonverbal IQ in comparison to subjects who described themselves as non-ironic or barely ironic. The pragmatic qualities of irony were analyzed for their affective valuation and balanced for gender. Individual differences and gender effects in the perception of the social functions of ironic utterances were found. The paper describes the implicit emotional layer conveyed in irony and its importance in irony processing and comprehension.

Schlüsselwörter

  • irony
  • irony comprehension
  • emotions
  • attitude
  • IQ
  • gender
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Strategies to Discredit Opponents: Russian Presentations of Events in Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 133 - 156

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Discourse in this paper is represented by the totality of texts (Koller, 2004, p. 18) covering events in former Soviet republics such as Ukraine, Georgia and the Baltic countries. Over 100 texts have been collected from the most popular Russian newspapers, Argumenty i Fakty and Komsomol’skaia Pravda, between 2004 and 2010 in order to compile a “discourse of Russian satellites.” Even though the contemporary Russian press avoids the totalitarian habits of Soviet times such as monoglossia, dysphemisms (language of insults), sanctions and social commands, it still attempts to exercise control over the formation of readers’ opinions. The Russian press tries to channel the reaction of their audience toward disapproval of independent nations. The objective of this article is to summarize those narrative techniques which generate negative responses toward sovereign countries of the former Soviet Union. These techniques, which are called “strategies for discrediting opponents,” include sourcing favorable and unfavorable opinions, humorous framing, ironic statements and constructing a negative background. The means of control are subtle, but they are no less effective than through direct coercion.

Schlüsselwörter

  • appraisal theory
  • discourse strategies
  • negative perception
  • dialogic perspectives
  • humor
  • metaphor
  • Russian press
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

“You Can Choose… Or We Would Go to ‘Turkeys’ or to Houses” – Verbal Interactions of Five-Year-Old Children During Story Creation

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 157 - 174

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper presents the results of an analysis of interactions which appeared during group storytelling. One of two methods was used for the storytelling: the Storyline method or the Associations Pyramid method. Seventy five-year-old children took part in the study. The results show that children are able to use different strategies to create a story together, the language and communication competence of the children is already well developed, and the children are ready for effective cooperation

Schlüsselwörter

  • verbal interaction
  • storytelling
  • Storyline method
  • Associations Pyramid method
  • children’s cooperation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

On the Social Nature of Linguistic Prescriptions

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 175 - 187

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper proposes an empirical method to investigate linguistic prescriptions as inherent corrective behaviors. The behaviors in question may but need not necessarily be supported by any explicit knowledge of rules. It is possible to gain insight into them, for example by extracting information about corrections from revision histories of texts (or by analyzing speech corpora where users correct themselves or one another). One easily available source of such information is the revision history of Wikipedia. As is shown, the most frequent and short corrections are limited to linguistic errors such as typos (and editorial conventions adopted in Wikipedia). By perusing an automatically generated revision corpus, one gains insight into the prescriptive nature of language empirically. At the same time, the prescriptions offered are not reducible to descriptions of the most frequent linguistic use.

Schlüsselwörter

  • descriptivism
  • prescriptivism
  • normativity
  • corpora research
  • Wikipedia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Adaptation of The Western Aphasia Battery in Bangla

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 189 - 201

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aphasia following an acquired neurological insult necessitates an in-depth evaluation of the primary and secondary language symptoms. Of all the tools available for aphasia diagnosis, the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB; Kertesz, 1982) has proved to be one of the most comprehensive test batteries for describing the aphasia symptom complex. Several authors have pointed out the need for language-specific tools for the assessment of aphasia. But in Bengali, the most prevalent language in eastern India, no formal language assessment tool was available to date. The present study adapted the original WAB in Bengali to give the Bengali WAB (B-WAB). The study was completed in three phases: development, standardization and validation of the B-WAB. The test material was developed preserving the total number of items, however minor changes were made wherever necessary so that it matched the sociolinguistic norms in this part of the country. It was standardized in a group of 150 normal individuals in five different age groups ranging from 18-70 years, and normative values were provided for each subtest for each group. For establishing validity, it was administered to 30 aphasic subjects and the results indicated that the B-WAB was a valid tool for testing individuals with aphasia.

Schlüsselwörter

  • aphasia
  • Bengali
  • WAB
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inflectional Change Patterns in Arabic

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 203 - 227

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Most approaches to inflectional morphology propose a single-default representation. This research on Jordanian Arabic offers an analysis having more than one default inflection. This is accomplished by showing that unlike previous morphological accounts like the single-mechanism model, dual-mechanism model, and the schema model (cf. Pinker, 1990; Rumelhart & McClelland, 1986; and Bybee, 1985), the current research relies upon the ‘openness’ mechanism to define defaultness. Openness is thus defined as the ability of the inflectional process to accept new forms into a language. The corpus used in this research contains diminutives, verbal nouns, derivatives, and loan words used in JA. Other defining factors are modified in this research, such as regularity (rule-based mechanism) and productivity (type frequency). The findings of this research indicate that there are two possible defaults in Jordanian Arabic ordered in terms of openness: the sound feminine plural and the iambic broken plural. The findings have the implication that a language’s grammar can have a multi-default system.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Arabic language
  • inflection
  • grammar
  • language patterns
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Book Review: Robert C. Gardner, Motivation and Second Language Acquisition: The Socio-Educational Model

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 229 - 232

Zusammenfassung

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