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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2509-8934
Pierwsze wydanie
22 Feb 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 68 (2019): Zeszyt 1 (January 2019)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2509-8934
Pierwsze wydanie
22 Feb 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

20 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Forward, backward selection and variation analysis of growth traits in half-sib Larix kaempferi families

Data publikacji: 18 Jan 2019
Zakres stron: 1 - 8

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tree height and diameter at breast height of 30 half-sib Larix kaempferi families were analyzed at different ages. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in growth among dif­ferent families. Phenotypic variation coefficients of the traits tree height and diameter at breast height among families of different ages ranged from 11.04 % to 31.74 % and 19.01 % to 19.83 %, respectively. Average heritability of tree height and diameter at breast height ranged from 0.87 to 0.96 and 0.93 to 0.96, respectively. Significant positive correlations were obser­ved among all traits at different ages. By the method of multip­le-traits comprehensive, six families (L18, L12, L8, L3, L25 and L20) were selected as being elite using a 20 % selection ratio at 12 years of age. Average values of these elite families were 11.15 % and 16.83 % higher than the total average for height and diameter at breast height, and genetic gains were 10.53 % and 15.79 %, respectively. Forty five elite individual plants were selected using a 5 % selection ratio which were 23.47 % and 24.90 % higher than the overall average for height and diame­ter at breast height, respectively.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Half-sib
  • Larix kaempferi
  • Genetic
  • Variation
  • Compre­hensive evaluation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Maintaining genetic variation in breeding populations of Radiata pine in New Zealand

Data publikacji: 28 Feb 2019
Zakres stron: 9 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

Advanced generation selection (AS) for the future breeding population (BP), becam a focus of tree breeders‘ thinking in the mid 1970s., particularly with Pinus radiata in New Zealand (NZ). Multitrait selection among families was generally recommen­ded, but this reduced genetic variation in the future breeding population. From Shaw and Hood‘s (1985) stochastic simulation, later confirmed by Rosvall, Lindgren and Mullin‘s (1998) stochastic simulation on Norway spruce, it was realised that selecting within families rather than among families of a new breeding population avoided any reduction of genetic variation in the BP. Heritabilities were low for seedling within-family selection but clonal replication within families should strongly increase heritabilities. Gains from cloned versus seedling populations of equal numbers of plants were also deterministically simulated (Shelbourne et al. 2007), and balanced (within-family) selec­tion gains from the cloned populations were all higher than seedling equivalents at heritabilities of 0.5 and under. The late P.A. Jefferson‘s (2016) Breeding Management Plan (which will be soon superceded) contains a re description of New Zealand (NZ) radiata pine breeding. Selections were made in crosses from the earlier program and OP see and scion mate­rial were collected from all 360 selections. OP family tests of selections have been planted at 11 sites in NZ and 7 in New South Wales and Tasmania, and scions of their female parents have all been grafted at an archive. Crosses made in the archive are being cloned and the programme was committed to within-family selection to retain genetic variance for the future closed breeding population. Clonally-replicated testing paired with within-family selection is the solution for balancing long-term gain and diversity in BP and PP.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pinus radiata
  • genetic variation
  • breeding population
  • within-
  • among-family selection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Pollen fertility and seed viability of putative hybrid swarms of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo in Slovakia

Data publikacji: 28 Feb 2019
Zakres stron: 14 - 21

Abstrakt

Abstract

Generally acknowledged reduction of the interspecific hybrid fertility was utilized in evaluation of the putative hybrid swarms of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and mountain dwarf pine (P. mugo Turra) viability under field conditions. Pollen viability and seed quality of the trees from the four contact zones of P. syl­vestris and P. mugo in Slovakia were compared with the corres­ponding characteristics of the pure populations of these spe­cies from three reference localities. Pollen germination percentage was comparable in contact zones and control populations of the species. Statistically significant differences between the parent and hybrid groups were detected in pollen tube length only. In general, pollen tubes of the pure species populations were longer than those in contact zones. At the cone level, the individuals from contact zones possessed shor­ter cones than the trees of pure species populations P. mugo and P. sylvestris. This was paralleled by a lower number of seeds per cone in contact zones and higher amount of seeds per cone in the P. mugo population. Striking differences between individuals of the contact zones and reference populations were revealed also in germination potentials of their seeds. Significantly higher proportions of germinating seeds was found in the reference populations of P. mugo and P. sylvestris than in their contact zones. Contrary to seed quality parame­ters mentioned above, the fractions of filled but non-germina­ting seeds and amounts of empty seeds were higher in contact zones than in the parental species populations, indicating hig­her frequency occurrence of abortive embryogenesis in the former. The lower fertility characteristics of the individuals from contact zones indicate their hybrid nature.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pinus mugo
  • P. sylvestris
  • contact zones
  • fertility
access type Otwarty dostęp

Development of microsatellite markers from genomic DNA of Parashorea malaanonan (Dipterocarpaceae) using next-generation sequencing

Data publikacji: 28 Feb 2019
Zakres stron: 22 - 25

Abstrakt

Abstract

Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed, using Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina), from genomic DNA of Parashorea malaanonan, a species of the Dipterocarpa­ceae which is ecologically and economically important in the Philippines. Thirty adult trees from a natural population were used to assess the success of PCR amplification and the degree of polymorphism. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to 13, and observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.200 to 0.808 and from 0.301 to 0.890 respectively. Total exclusion probabilities for the first and second parents over the 20 loci were 0.99932499 and 0.99999723 respectively. The high level of polymorphism at these loci makes it possible to obtain precise estimates of genetic parameters and thus the markers will help in studies on population genetics, conservation gene­tics, and molecular ecology of P. malaanonan.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dipterocarpaceae
  • microsatellite markers
  • Paras­horea malaanonan
  • next generation sequencing
  • simple sequence repeat
access type Otwarty dostęp

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Pistacia chinensis Bunge (Anacardiaceae)

Data publikacji: 26 Mar 2019
Zakres stron: 26 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pistacia chinensis Bunge (Anacardiaceae) is a native, dioecious, perennial arbor, and an important bioenergy plant. Twelve microsatellite markers were developed for P. chinensis to evaluate genetic diversity and population genetic structure when this species was subject to landscape fragmentation. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed in P. chinensis using a microsatellite-enriched genomic library based on magnetic beads. These loci were characterized in 24 individuals from three populations located on Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province, China. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to sixteen. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.1250 to 0.8750 and 0.2333 to 0.8917, respectively. These microsatellite loci will be applied in further studies on the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of P. chinensis. This study will improve understanding of the effects of landscape fragmentation, and help conserve and manage the species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Anacardiaceae
  • microsatellites
  • Pistacia chinensis
  • landscape fragmentation
  • population genetics
access type Otwarty dostęp

Impact of fertility variation on genetic diversity and phenotypic traits in second generation seed production areas and clonal seed orchards of Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Data publikacji: 09 Apr 2019
Zakres stron: 29 - 40

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fertility and gene diversity were estimated in three second generation (F2) seed stands (SPA 1-3) and two clone trials (CSO 1&2) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis to assess the impact on seed crop. F2 seedlots were evaluated in comparison to native provenances, ten commercial clones and interspecific hybrids at diverse sites. SPA 1&2 were genetic gain trials of five first generation (F1) orchard seedlots, SPA 3 a plantation of one F1 orchard seedlot, and CSOs were clone trials of 21 commercial clones established at two contrasting sites. Fertility variation, as indicated by sibling coefficient, was high (Ψ, 9-14) in the SPAs as only about 26 % trees were fertile compared to 81 % trees in CSOs. Effective population size was higher in SPA 1 and 2 (Ns, 95 and 74, respectively) than SPA 3 (Ns = 39). Fertility was highly skewed in CSO 2 resulting in low effective population size (Ns = 2) compared to CSO 1 (Ns = 11). Constant seed collection enabled 3-fold increase in relative population size and 22 % higher predicted gene diversity in CSO 2. Genetic diversity (He) estimated using SSR markers was higher in SPA 1&2 and native provenances (NAT), compared to SPA 3 and CSO 1, whereas CSO 2 and clones had lower values. There was a high positive correlation between estimated He and predicted gene diversity values of SPAs and CSOs. He was positively correlated to mean field survival and negatively correlated to kraft pulp yield (KPY), evaluated at three years in progeny trials across three locations. Number of alleles per locus was higher in SPAs and native provenances compared to CSOs and clones. Discriminant principal component analysis clustered CSO, NAT and SPA seedlots in different groups while commercial E. camaldulensis clones clustered close to NAT. Multilocus outcrossing rate was generally high (tm, 91-100 %), though selfing was observed in two families of SPA 3 and CSO 2. Selected interspecific hybrid families of commercial E. camaldulensis clones (with E. urophylla and E. pellita) evaluated at two of the sites had higher He and KPY than clones at three years.

Słowa kluczowe

  • genetic improvement
  • mating system
  • seed orchard
  • provenance
  • hybrids
  • progeny trial
  • gene diversity
  • molecular markers
  • pulp yield
  • inbreeding
access type Otwarty dostęp

Development of microsatellite markers for the critically endangered conifer Glyptostrobus pensilis (Cupressaceae) using transcriptome data

Data publikacji: 09 Apr 2019
Zakres stron: 41 - 44

Abstrakt

Abstract

Glyptostrobus pensilis (Cupressaceae) is a critically endangered conifer which occurs in China, Laos, and Vietnam where it is only known from a few populations. Here we aim to develop microsatellite markers which can be used to study the genetic variation within this species. Using transcriptome data we tested 170 SSR loci for polymorphism in 16 samples. Twenty-three loci were polymorphic and selected for the genetic analysis of 83 individuals from three Chinese populations. The number of alleles per locus and population ranged from one to eight, the observed and expected heterozygosity from Ho = 0.00-1.00 and He = 0.00-0.83, respectively. Fifteen loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in at least one of the three populations. The majority of loci could also be successfully amplified in four related species, namely Cryptomeria fortunei, Taxodium distichum, Taxodium ascendens and Cunninghamia lanceolata. These developed microsatellites are suitable for population genetic studies of Glyptostrobus pensilis and related species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • : Glyptostrobus pensilis
  • next-generation sequencing
  • Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)
  • simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers
access type Otwarty dostęp

Variance components and parent–offspring cor- relations of growth traits vary among the initial planting spacings in Zelkova serrata

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 45 - 50

Abstrakt

Abstract

Variance components of tree height (HT) and stem diameter at 1.3 m above the ground (DBH) were investigated for the eight open-pollinated families of Zelkova serrata (Thumb.) Makino planted with three different initial planting spacings in a progeny test site, Chiba, Japan. Parent–offspring correlations were also evaluated by using these families and their mother trees. The smallest values of HT and DBH were observed in the narrowest initial planting spacing (1.10 x 1.10 m) compared to those in medium (1.30 x 1.36 m) and wide (2.00 x 1.80 m) spacings, suggesting that adverse effects of competition with neighboring trees occurred on both height and radial growth. Similar to HT and DBH, the initial planting spacings also affected the genetic parameter estimates: the ratio of family variance component to total phenotypic variance showed the highest value in narrow initial planting spacing for both HT and DBH. Thus, family variance component might include competition effects, leading to biased genetic parameter estimates. In contrast, parent–offspring correlation coefficients showed the highest value in wide initial planting spacing where competition effect might be smaller. Therefore, the growth traits of Z. serrata might be inherited from the parent to the offspring when competition effect was small.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Competition effects
  • Inheritance from parent to off- spring
  • Planting density management
  • Repeatability
  • Tree breeding for hardwood
access type Otwarty dostęp

B-Chromosomes in Gymnosperms

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 51 - 54

Abstrakt

Abstract

B-chromosomes show a non-random distribution in different taxa of gymnosperms. They are generally smaller and show similar centromeric position as the normal complement and are heterochromatic in nature and may show DAPI or CMA banding. They are generally devoid of any gene content, do not pair at meiosis and show accumulation through female line. They show incremental effect on genome size and some adaptive value in particular ecological conditions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • B-chromosomes
  • gymnosperms
  • frequency
  • meiotic pairing
  • adaptive value
access type Otwarty dostęp

DNA extraction and amplification from Pinaceae dry wood

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 55 - 57

Abstrakt

Abstract

Wood constitutes the unique source of DNA in dead trees, but extraction of adequate quality DNA from dry wood is usually challenging. However, many different molecular studies require the use of such DNA. We have standardized and validated a modified CTAB protocol to isolate DNA from dry wood from Abies pinsapo and Cedrus atlantica species. Due to the degradation and very little DNA that is normally present in the wood from dead trees we have developed a PCR based test to certify the quality of the extracted samples. In the present study, we have proved too the effectiveness of this methodology to isolate DNA from conifer dry wood samples of sufficient quality to perform further molecular genetic experiments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dry wood
  • DNA isolation
  • CTAB
  • 18S
  • Abies pinsapo
  • Cedrus atlantica
access type Otwarty dostęp

Growth performance of hybrid poplar clones on two agricultural sites with and without early irrigation and fertilization

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 58 - 66

Abstrakt

Abstract

Growth, clone rank, genotype x environment interaction, and effects of early fertilization and irrigation were evaluated for 56 hybrid poplar clones after three years’ growth on two agricultural sites in Indiana, USA. Forty-eight percent of the clones were Populus deltoides x P. nigra (DxN) crosses made with a female parent of Minnesota provenance, with the hybrids or female parent screened in Minnesota for survival, growth rate, and disease tolerance or resistance. Forty-one percent of the clones had at least one parent from provenances that are more southerly and/or have more moderate climates of provenance origin than Minnesota. Eleven percent of the clones were screened in Minnesota but were either not DXN crosses or did not have parents from Minnesota provenances in their parentage. Height growth averaged 1.78 m per year for all clones over all treatments and 2.02 m per year for the fastest- growing six clones (top 10th percentile). Tree bole volume for the fastest-growing 10 % of the clones was 70 % larger than the average of two commercial standard clones. The clonal effect was dominant in comparison to site, treatment, and interaction effects. The fertilizer, irrigation, and fertilizer x irrigation treatments tended to increase growth, but the statistical significance of the treatment effects differed by site, and the treatments explained only a small portion of the variance. Clone rank was the same on both sites, regardless of treatment, except for the fertilizer x irrigation treatment. DxN clones linked to Minnesota parentage out-performed most clones of more southerly or other more moderate climatic origins, in these tests conducted far south of Minnesota. The data provide further evidence of broad adaptability of DxN hybrids with female P. deltoides parents of Minnesota provenance, possibly eliminating the need for narrow breeding zones and reducing the number of screening tests needed at different latitudes, saving time and money. Tests are planned to further analyze and possibly extend this inference.

Słowa kluczowe

  • hybrid poplars
  • Populus
  • irrigation
  • fertilization
  • genotype x environment interaction
  • breeding
access type Otwarty dostęp

Genetic evaluation of Cryptomeria japonica breeding materials for male-sterile trees

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 67 - 72

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pyramiding of male-sterile genes in Cryptomeria japonica is currently being carried out in Niigata prefecture, Japan. This is the first attempt to apply pyramid breeding to forest trees. As the breeding materials for male sterility are limited, special attention must be given to increased genetic relatedness in the process of pyramid breeding to avoid the effects of inbreeding depression as much as possible. In this study, we estimated genetic relatedness based on 246 genome-wide SNP markers for male-sterile individuals in Niigata Prefecture (n = 6) and individuals doubly heterozygous for two male-sterile genes (hereafter referred to as “double-hetero”) produced by marker- assisted selection (n = 124). The pairwise relatedness estimates between male-sterile individuals selected from the same area in Niigata Prefecture were low (−0.01 ± 0.08, mean ± standard deviation), suggesting that there will be almost no negative effects even if the F1 of these male-sterile individuals is used for artificial crossing. On the other hand, the pairwise relatedness between double-hetero individuals in this study was higher than the theoretical relatedness values, as individuals with the slightly higher relatedness were used as parents in artificial crossings. However, there was a large variance in pairwise relatedness for double-hetero individuals. This result suggested that it may be possible to avoid the adverse effects of inbreeding depression by using a pair of double-heteros with lower relatedness for artificial crossing, when we produce a double-homo using the limited breeding materials of male- sterile individuals. It will also be important to continue additional selection of new breeding material for male sterility.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Male sterility
  • Relatedness
  • Conifers
  • Marker-assisted selection (MAS)
  • Pyramid breeding
access type Otwarty dostęp

Genetic control of silvicultural traits in Balfourodendron riedelianum (ENGL.) ENGL.

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 73 - 78

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Atlantic Forest has very high levels of biodiversity and is considered one of the most important and threatened biomes in the world. Balfourodendron riedelianum is one of the forest’s characteristic tree species that is currently under considered endangered due to timber extraction and forest fragmentation. With the goal of generating information that may contribute to the genetic conservation of B. riedelianum, genetic parameters are estimated for quantitative traits important for silviculture in a provenance and progeny test located in the Experimental Station of Luiz Antônio, São Paulo State, Brazil. The test was established in 1986 and consists of three provenances, from which open-pollinated seeds from 19 seed trees were collected. The following traits were evaluated at 32 years of age: diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (H), stem height (SH), stem straightness (SS), and forking (FOR). The estimates were carried out using the REML/BLUP method. Significant genetic variation among progenies was detected for all traits (except SH) and between provenances for DBH. The coefficient of individual genetic variation (CVgi) ranged from 2.5 to 9.5 %. The mean heritability among progeny (hf2$h_f^2$) was substantial for DBH (0.44) and FOR (0.36), enabling the selection of families with the highest DBH and lowest FOR for population improvement. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations among traits were also found. We conclude that there is genetic variability in the population that can be exploited in future breeding programs and for the genetic conservation of the species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Genetic variation
  • genetic enhancement
  • pau-marfim
  • provenance and progeny test
  • tree improvement
access type Otwarty dostęp

Obituary - Professor Kostas Panetsos (1930-2018)

Data publikacji: 12 Aug 2019
Zakres stron: 79 - 80

Abstrakt

access type Otwarty dostęp

Validation of microsatellite loci for Balfourodendron riedelianum through analysis of Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic linkage disequilibrium

Data publikacji: 19 Aug 2019
Zakres stron: 81 - 84

Abstrakt

Abstract

Balfourodendron riedelianum is a tropical tree endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome that is currently endangered due to forest fragmentation and extensive exploitation. Three populations of the species are conserved ex situ in a provenance and progeny test at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station, São Paulo State, Brazil. To verify if seven microsatellite loci developed for the species can be used as genetic markers in analyses focused on conservation and sustainable use strategies, leaf tissue samples were collected from the three provenances and from 17 seed trees in one provenance. We analyzed Mendelian inheritance and genetic linkage for the 17 seed trees and genotypic linkage disequilibrium for individuals from the three provenances. For six of the seven loci analyzed, all 17 seed trees showed heterozygosity. The inheritance and genetic linkage analyses were performed using respective locus, while the genotypic linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed for the seven loci. After Bonferroni correction, none of the 75 tests showed deviation from Mendelian segregation and genetic linkage, nor did we detect genotypic linkage disequilibrium. The results suggest that six of the seven loci can be used for population genetics studies on B. riedelianum.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Atlantic Forest
  • Conservation genetics
  • Inheritance
  • Microsatellite markers
  • Tropical tree species
access type Otwarty dostęp

Short note: Development of a new set of SNP markers to measure genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of Mongolian oak (Quercus mon­golica Fisch. ex Ledeb.) in the Far East of Russia

Data publikacji: 21 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 85 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

We developed a new set of 25 nuclear (nc), 12 chloroplast (cp) and 7 mitochondrial (mt) SNPs and used it to genotype 371 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb.) trees from seven locations in a 200 km by 400 km area in the Russian Far East. One of the locations in an area of 15 km by 25 km east of the city Ussuriusk was analyzed more intensively with 188 collected trees. The genetic differentiation at the nuclear SNPs was small to moderate and for the plastid SNPs it was high when considering all trees from the seven locations. The gene pool distances between locations were for 19 out of 21 pairs statistically highly significant. There was no correlation of genetic and spatial distances. Only three different multilocus-haplotypes could be identified and 42 two-loci-combinations of plastid SNPs could be used to identify them. Conclusions for the practical application such as timber tracking and gene conservation are discussed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Quercus mongolica
  • genetic differentiation
  • genetic diversity
  • SNPs
  • nuclear
  • plastid
  • mitochondrial
access type Otwarty dostęp

Biomass production and characteristics of short rotation plantations of clones of Gmelina arborea in three spacings

Data publikacji: 18 Nov 2019
Zakres stron: 92 - 100

Abstrakt

Abstract

The first attempts to establish energy crops in the tropical regi­on using short rotation species are premised on the utilization of clones for wood production. Therefore, the present study is aimed at examining the growth aspects (survival, diameter and tree height), leaf architecture (leaf area index [LAI], number and angle of the branches and sylleptic branches), biomass production, as well as biomass flow at the age of 24 months of two clones of Gmelina arborea in short rotation crops within three spacings (1.0x1.0 m, 0.75x0.75 m and 1.0x0.5 m). The results showed an increment with age, as the diameter increa­sed from 3.00 cm at six months to 8.0 cm at 24 months, where­as the total height increased from 2.00 m at six months to 10.00 m at 24 months. Clone survival varied from 20 to 60 %, whereas the LAI, branch angle and sylleptic branches increased with age. The differences between clones appeared after 12 months. Biomass production was similar between clones, from 6 ton/ha at six months to 67 ton/ha at 24 months, with clone 2 showing greater biomass flow than clone 1. On the basis of biomass pro­duction results and the development of diameter as well as height, clone 1 is recommended for spacing 1.0x1.0 m and clo­ne 2 for spacings 0.75x0.75 m and 1.0x0.5 m.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fast growth
  • tropical species
  • plantation density
  • woody crops
  • energy crops
access type Otwarty dostęp

Discovery of Geographically Robust Hybrid Poplar Clones

Data publikacji: 18 Nov 2019
Zakres stron: 101 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

Hybrid poplar clonal growth in the states (regions) of Minnesota (MN), Indiana (IN), Michigan (MI), and New York (NY) USA was analyzed to discover 10 geographically robust (geo-robust) clones, all P. deltoides x P. nigra (D x N) hybrids previously tested and screened in MN, that were broadly adapted across latitudinal and longitudinal ranges of 9 and 20 degrees, respectively. The clonal effect for growth explained 25 to 36 % of the total variance, 2.5–4.1 times the clone x site interaction. Clone explained 24 to 46 % of total variation in canker occurrence on two sites. Genetic gain in growth was calculated relative to commercial check clones. Genetic gain in growth of geo-robust clones exceeded that of random clones by 24 to 44 %. Geo-robust clones and the best clones on each site were not significantly different on the MN sites, but best clones outperformed geo-robust clones on the other sites by 10 to 39 % genetic gain. Geo-robust clones grew faster than commercial check clones on all but the MI site. The reduction in genetic gain for growth due to using broadly adapted clones relative to the best clones has to be compared to the additional costs and benefits of multiple breeding zones.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breeding zones
  • clonal adaptability
  • genotype x environment interaction
  • hybrid poplars
  • Populus
access type Otwarty dostęp

Genetic differentiation of Quercus robur in the South-Ural

Data publikacji: 26 Nov 2019
Zakres stron: 111 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

We studied the genetic composition of 200 pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) trees at nine nuclear microsatellite gene loci. We sampled nine locations in an area of 1100 km by 400 km in the South-Ural. The question was to analyse the genetic differentiation of the oaks at the south-east edge of the species distribution area. We observed relatively high values of genetic differentiation and fixation (delta=0.387, FST=0.0652, FST(Hedrick)=0.407) compared to values from the centre of the species distribution range. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed three genetic groups. Presence of all genetic groups was detected at all locations, but oak trees in the extreme east of the Ural Mountains were genetically most different. We hypothesise that genetic drift influenced the observed pattern.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Marginal populations
  • microsatellites
  • pedunculate oak
  • genetic structure
  • Russia
access type Otwarty dostęp

Genotype by environment interaction and teak (Tectona grandis L.) selection in Costa Rica

Data publikacji: 02 Dec 2019
Zakres stron: 116 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract

A teak progeny trial was established with four replicates at different sites along the northern Pacific region of Costa Rica. The trials followed a randomized block design, with 28 open pollinated families and 36 seedlings per family per site. Data from 7 years-old trees was analyzed both for each test location separately and for all locations combined. High individual heritability was found for diameter, which translates to higher breeding potential. The all locations combined analysis showed high genetic variation, with individual heritabilities reaching up to 22 %. Genotype by Environment (GxE) interactions explained only 2.5 % of total phenotypic variation. The genetic correlation (rg) among all four sites was 0.69. Hence, it is concluded that GxE interactions are not problematic for breeding purposes since they are not complex in nature. This teak breeding population showed strong genetic stability and performed well in most environments in the study area. The Hojancha location showed high genetic correlation with all other sites; therefore, it should be chosen for future testing and selection of elite genotypes. Selection of the 20 best individuals, allowing for up to two individuals per family, would result in a 1.78 cm (11 %) gain in diameter. Furthermore, based on this selection the inbreeding coefficient (F) in the offspring would only reach 2.9 %, while the expected effective population size (Ne) would be16.97 individuals. This selection scheme could reduce rotation age by almost two years, since the diameter goal of 40 cm would be reached earlier than the usual 20 years cycle. The results suggest that the progeny trial can be maintained as a single breeding population, suitable for planting in any site along the Northern Pacific region of Costa Rica.

Słowa kluczowe

  • GxE interactions
  • tree improvement
  • tropical forestry
  • BLUP/REML
  • progeny test
20 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Forward, backward selection and variation analysis of growth traits in half-sib Larix kaempferi families

Data publikacji: 18 Jan 2019
Zakres stron: 1 - 8

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tree height and diameter at breast height of 30 half-sib Larix kaempferi families were analyzed at different ages. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in growth among dif­ferent families. Phenotypic variation coefficients of the traits tree height and diameter at breast height among families of different ages ranged from 11.04 % to 31.74 % and 19.01 % to 19.83 %, respectively. Average heritability of tree height and diameter at breast height ranged from 0.87 to 0.96 and 0.93 to 0.96, respectively. Significant positive correlations were obser­ved among all traits at different ages. By the method of multip­le-traits comprehensive, six families (L18, L12, L8, L3, L25 and L20) were selected as being elite using a 20 % selection ratio at 12 years of age. Average values of these elite families were 11.15 % and 16.83 % higher than the total average for height and diameter at breast height, and genetic gains were 10.53 % and 15.79 %, respectively. Forty five elite individual plants were selected using a 5 % selection ratio which were 23.47 % and 24.90 % higher than the overall average for height and diame­ter at breast height, respectively.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Half-sib
  • Larix kaempferi
  • Genetic
  • Variation
  • Compre­hensive evaluation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Maintaining genetic variation in breeding populations of Radiata pine in New Zealand

Data publikacji: 28 Feb 2019
Zakres stron: 9 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

Advanced generation selection (AS) for the future breeding population (BP), becam a focus of tree breeders‘ thinking in the mid 1970s., particularly with Pinus radiata in New Zealand (NZ). Multitrait selection among families was generally recommen­ded, but this reduced genetic variation in the future breeding population. From Shaw and Hood‘s (1985) stochastic simulation, later confirmed by Rosvall, Lindgren and Mullin‘s (1998) stochastic simulation on Norway spruce, it was realised that selecting within families rather than among families of a new breeding population avoided any reduction of genetic variation in the BP. Heritabilities were low for seedling within-family selection but clonal replication within families should strongly increase heritabilities. Gains from cloned versus seedling populations of equal numbers of plants were also deterministically simulated (Shelbourne et al. 2007), and balanced (within-family) selec­tion gains from the cloned populations were all higher than seedling equivalents at heritabilities of 0.5 and under. The late P.A. Jefferson‘s (2016) Breeding Management Plan (which will be soon superceded) contains a re description of New Zealand (NZ) radiata pine breeding. Selections were made in crosses from the earlier program and OP see and scion mate­rial were collected from all 360 selections. OP family tests of selections have been planted at 11 sites in NZ and 7 in New South Wales and Tasmania, and scions of their female parents have all been grafted at an archive. Crosses made in the archive are being cloned and the programme was committed to within-family selection to retain genetic variance for the future closed breeding population. Clonally-replicated testing paired with within-family selection is the solution for balancing long-term gain and diversity in BP and PP.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pinus radiata
  • genetic variation
  • breeding population
  • within-
  • among-family selection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Pollen fertility and seed viability of putative hybrid swarms of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo in Slovakia

Data publikacji: 28 Feb 2019
Zakres stron: 14 - 21

Abstrakt

Abstract

Generally acknowledged reduction of the interspecific hybrid fertility was utilized in evaluation of the putative hybrid swarms of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and mountain dwarf pine (P. mugo Turra) viability under field conditions. Pollen viability and seed quality of the trees from the four contact zones of P. syl­vestris and P. mugo in Slovakia were compared with the corres­ponding characteristics of the pure populations of these spe­cies from three reference localities. Pollen germination percentage was comparable in contact zones and control populations of the species. Statistically significant differences between the parent and hybrid groups were detected in pollen tube length only. In general, pollen tubes of the pure species populations were longer than those in contact zones. At the cone level, the individuals from contact zones possessed shor­ter cones than the trees of pure species populations P. mugo and P. sylvestris. This was paralleled by a lower number of seeds per cone in contact zones and higher amount of seeds per cone in the P. mugo population. Striking differences between individuals of the contact zones and reference populations were revealed also in germination potentials of their seeds. Significantly higher proportions of germinating seeds was found in the reference populations of P. mugo and P. sylvestris than in their contact zones. Contrary to seed quality parame­ters mentioned above, the fractions of filled but non-germina­ting seeds and amounts of empty seeds were higher in contact zones than in the parental species populations, indicating hig­her frequency occurrence of abortive embryogenesis in the former. The lower fertility characteristics of the individuals from contact zones indicate their hybrid nature.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pinus mugo
  • P. sylvestris
  • contact zones
  • fertility
access type Otwarty dostęp

Development of microsatellite markers from genomic DNA of Parashorea malaanonan (Dipterocarpaceae) using next-generation sequencing

Data publikacji: 28 Feb 2019
Zakres stron: 22 - 25

Abstrakt

Abstract

Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed, using Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina), from genomic DNA of Parashorea malaanonan, a species of the Dipterocarpa­ceae which is ecologically and economically important in the Philippines. Thirty adult trees from a natural population were used to assess the success of PCR amplification and the degree of polymorphism. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to 13, and observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.200 to 0.808 and from 0.301 to 0.890 respectively. Total exclusion probabilities for the first and second parents over the 20 loci were 0.99932499 and 0.99999723 respectively. The high level of polymorphism at these loci makes it possible to obtain precise estimates of genetic parameters and thus the markers will help in studies on population genetics, conservation gene­tics, and molecular ecology of P. malaanonan.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dipterocarpaceae
  • microsatellite markers
  • Paras­horea malaanonan
  • next generation sequencing
  • simple sequence repeat
access type Otwarty dostęp

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Pistacia chinensis Bunge (Anacardiaceae)

Data publikacji: 26 Mar 2019
Zakres stron: 26 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pistacia chinensis Bunge (Anacardiaceae) is a native, dioecious, perennial arbor, and an important bioenergy plant. Twelve microsatellite markers were developed for P. chinensis to evaluate genetic diversity and population genetic structure when this species was subject to landscape fragmentation. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed in P. chinensis using a microsatellite-enriched genomic library based on magnetic beads. These loci were characterized in 24 individuals from three populations located on Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province, China. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to sixteen. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.1250 to 0.8750 and 0.2333 to 0.8917, respectively. These microsatellite loci will be applied in further studies on the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of P. chinensis. This study will improve understanding of the effects of landscape fragmentation, and help conserve and manage the species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Anacardiaceae
  • microsatellites
  • Pistacia chinensis
  • landscape fragmentation
  • population genetics
access type Otwarty dostęp

Impact of fertility variation on genetic diversity and phenotypic traits in second generation seed production areas and clonal seed orchards of Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Data publikacji: 09 Apr 2019
Zakres stron: 29 - 40

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fertility and gene diversity were estimated in three second generation (F2) seed stands (SPA 1-3) and two clone trials (CSO 1&2) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis to assess the impact on seed crop. F2 seedlots were evaluated in comparison to native provenances, ten commercial clones and interspecific hybrids at diverse sites. SPA 1&2 were genetic gain trials of five first generation (F1) orchard seedlots, SPA 3 a plantation of one F1 orchard seedlot, and CSOs were clone trials of 21 commercial clones established at two contrasting sites. Fertility variation, as indicated by sibling coefficient, was high (Ψ, 9-14) in the SPAs as only about 26 % trees were fertile compared to 81 % trees in CSOs. Effective population size was higher in SPA 1 and 2 (Ns, 95 and 74, respectively) than SPA 3 (Ns = 39). Fertility was highly skewed in CSO 2 resulting in low effective population size (Ns = 2) compared to CSO 1 (Ns = 11). Constant seed collection enabled 3-fold increase in relative population size and 22 % higher predicted gene diversity in CSO 2. Genetic diversity (He) estimated using SSR markers was higher in SPA 1&2 and native provenances (NAT), compared to SPA 3 and CSO 1, whereas CSO 2 and clones had lower values. There was a high positive correlation between estimated He and predicted gene diversity values of SPAs and CSOs. He was positively correlated to mean field survival and negatively correlated to kraft pulp yield (KPY), evaluated at three years in progeny trials across three locations. Number of alleles per locus was higher in SPAs and native provenances compared to CSOs and clones. Discriminant principal component analysis clustered CSO, NAT and SPA seedlots in different groups while commercial E. camaldulensis clones clustered close to NAT. Multilocus outcrossing rate was generally high (tm, 91-100 %), though selfing was observed in two families of SPA 3 and CSO 2. Selected interspecific hybrid families of commercial E. camaldulensis clones (with E. urophylla and E. pellita) evaluated at two of the sites had higher He and KPY than clones at three years.

Słowa kluczowe

  • genetic improvement
  • mating system
  • seed orchard
  • provenance
  • hybrids
  • progeny trial
  • gene diversity
  • molecular markers
  • pulp yield
  • inbreeding
access type Otwarty dostęp

Development of microsatellite markers for the critically endangered conifer Glyptostrobus pensilis (Cupressaceae) using transcriptome data

Data publikacji: 09 Apr 2019
Zakres stron: 41 - 44

Abstrakt

Abstract

Glyptostrobus pensilis (Cupressaceae) is a critically endangered conifer which occurs in China, Laos, and Vietnam where it is only known from a few populations. Here we aim to develop microsatellite markers which can be used to study the genetic variation within this species. Using transcriptome data we tested 170 SSR loci for polymorphism in 16 samples. Twenty-three loci were polymorphic and selected for the genetic analysis of 83 individuals from three Chinese populations. The number of alleles per locus and population ranged from one to eight, the observed and expected heterozygosity from Ho = 0.00-1.00 and He = 0.00-0.83, respectively. Fifteen loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in at least one of the three populations. The majority of loci could also be successfully amplified in four related species, namely Cryptomeria fortunei, Taxodium distichum, Taxodium ascendens and Cunninghamia lanceolata. These developed microsatellites are suitable for population genetic studies of Glyptostrobus pensilis and related species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • : Glyptostrobus pensilis
  • next-generation sequencing
  • Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)
  • simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers
access type Otwarty dostęp

Variance components and parent–offspring cor- relations of growth traits vary among the initial planting spacings in Zelkova serrata

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 45 - 50

Abstrakt

Abstract

Variance components of tree height (HT) and stem diameter at 1.3 m above the ground (DBH) were investigated for the eight open-pollinated families of Zelkova serrata (Thumb.) Makino planted with three different initial planting spacings in a progeny test site, Chiba, Japan. Parent–offspring correlations were also evaluated by using these families and their mother trees. The smallest values of HT and DBH were observed in the narrowest initial planting spacing (1.10 x 1.10 m) compared to those in medium (1.30 x 1.36 m) and wide (2.00 x 1.80 m) spacings, suggesting that adverse effects of competition with neighboring trees occurred on both height and radial growth. Similar to HT and DBH, the initial planting spacings also affected the genetic parameter estimates: the ratio of family variance component to total phenotypic variance showed the highest value in narrow initial planting spacing for both HT and DBH. Thus, family variance component might include competition effects, leading to biased genetic parameter estimates. In contrast, parent–offspring correlation coefficients showed the highest value in wide initial planting spacing where competition effect might be smaller. Therefore, the growth traits of Z. serrata might be inherited from the parent to the offspring when competition effect was small.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Competition effects
  • Inheritance from parent to off- spring
  • Planting density management
  • Repeatability
  • Tree breeding for hardwood
access type Otwarty dostęp

B-Chromosomes in Gymnosperms

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 51 - 54

Abstrakt

Abstract

B-chromosomes show a non-random distribution in different taxa of gymnosperms. They are generally smaller and show similar centromeric position as the normal complement and are heterochromatic in nature and may show DAPI or CMA banding. They are generally devoid of any gene content, do not pair at meiosis and show accumulation through female line. They show incremental effect on genome size and some adaptive value in particular ecological conditions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • B-chromosomes
  • gymnosperms
  • frequency
  • meiotic pairing
  • adaptive value
access type Otwarty dostęp

DNA extraction and amplification from Pinaceae dry wood

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 55 - 57

Abstrakt

Abstract

Wood constitutes the unique source of DNA in dead trees, but extraction of adequate quality DNA from dry wood is usually challenging. However, many different molecular studies require the use of such DNA. We have standardized and validated a modified CTAB protocol to isolate DNA from dry wood from Abies pinsapo and Cedrus atlantica species. Due to the degradation and very little DNA that is normally present in the wood from dead trees we have developed a PCR based test to certify the quality of the extracted samples. In the present study, we have proved too the effectiveness of this methodology to isolate DNA from conifer dry wood samples of sufficient quality to perform further molecular genetic experiments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dry wood
  • DNA isolation
  • CTAB
  • 18S
  • Abies pinsapo
  • Cedrus atlantica
access type Otwarty dostęp

Growth performance of hybrid poplar clones on two agricultural sites with and without early irrigation and fertilization

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 58 - 66

Abstrakt

Abstract

Growth, clone rank, genotype x environment interaction, and effects of early fertilization and irrigation were evaluated for 56 hybrid poplar clones after three years’ growth on two agricultural sites in Indiana, USA. Forty-eight percent of the clones were Populus deltoides x P. nigra (DxN) crosses made with a female parent of Minnesota provenance, with the hybrids or female parent screened in Minnesota for survival, growth rate, and disease tolerance or resistance. Forty-one percent of the clones had at least one parent from provenances that are more southerly and/or have more moderate climates of provenance origin than Minnesota. Eleven percent of the clones were screened in Minnesota but were either not DXN crosses or did not have parents from Minnesota provenances in their parentage. Height growth averaged 1.78 m per year for all clones over all treatments and 2.02 m per year for the fastest- growing six clones (top 10th percentile). Tree bole volume for the fastest-growing 10 % of the clones was 70 % larger than the average of two commercial standard clones. The clonal effect was dominant in comparison to site, treatment, and interaction effects. The fertilizer, irrigation, and fertilizer x irrigation treatments tended to increase growth, but the statistical significance of the treatment effects differed by site, and the treatments explained only a small portion of the variance. Clone rank was the same on both sites, regardless of treatment, except for the fertilizer x irrigation treatment. DxN clones linked to Minnesota parentage out-performed most clones of more southerly or other more moderate climatic origins, in these tests conducted far south of Minnesota. The data provide further evidence of broad adaptability of DxN hybrids with female P. deltoides parents of Minnesota provenance, possibly eliminating the need for narrow breeding zones and reducing the number of screening tests needed at different latitudes, saving time and money. Tests are planned to further analyze and possibly extend this inference.

Słowa kluczowe

  • hybrid poplars
  • Populus
  • irrigation
  • fertilization
  • genotype x environment interaction
  • breeding
access type Otwarty dostęp

Genetic evaluation of Cryptomeria japonica breeding materials for male-sterile trees

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 67 - 72

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pyramiding of male-sterile genes in Cryptomeria japonica is currently being carried out in Niigata prefecture, Japan. This is the first attempt to apply pyramid breeding to forest trees. As the breeding materials for male sterility are limited, special attention must be given to increased genetic relatedness in the process of pyramid breeding to avoid the effects of inbreeding depression as much as possible. In this study, we estimated genetic relatedness based on 246 genome-wide SNP markers for male-sterile individuals in Niigata Prefecture (n = 6) and individuals doubly heterozygous for two male-sterile genes (hereafter referred to as “double-hetero”) produced by marker- assisted selection (n = 124). The pairwise relatedness estimates between male-sterile individuals selected from the same area in Niigata Prefecture were low (−0.01 ± 0.08, mean ± standard deviation), suggesting that there will be almost no negative effects even if the F1 of these male-sterile individuals is used for artificial crossing. On the other hand, the pairwise relatedness between double-hetero individuals in this study was higher than the theoretical relatedness values, as individuals with the slightly higher relatedness were used as parents in artificial crossings. However, there was a large variance in pairwise relatedness for double-hetero individuals. This result suggested that it may be possible to avoid the adverse effects of inbreeding depression by using a pair of double-heteros with lower relatedness for artificial crossing, when we produce a double-homo using the limited breeding materials of male- sterile individuals. It will also be important to continue additional selection of new breeding material for male sterility.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Male sterility
  • Relatedness
  • Conifers
  • Marker-assisted selection (MAS)
  • Pyramid breeding
access type Otwarty dostęp

Genetic control of silvicultural traits in Balfourodendron riedelianum (ENGL.) ENGL.

Data publikacji: 15 Jun 2019
Zakres stron: 73 - 78

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Atlantic Forest has very high levels of biodiversity and is considered one of the most important and threatened biomes in the world. Balfourodendron riedelianum is one of the forest’s characteristic tree species that is currently under considered endangered due to timber extraction and forest fragmentation. With the goal of generating information that may contribute to the genetic conservation of B. riedelianum, genetic parameters are estimated for quantitative traits important for silviculture in a provenance and progeny test located in the Experimental Station of Luiz Antônio, São Paulo State, Brazil. The test was established in 1986 and consists of three provenances, from which open-pollinated seeds from 19 seed trees were collected. The following traits were evaluated at 32 years of age: diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (H), stem height (SH), stem straightness (SS), and forking (FOR). The estimates were carried out using the REML/BLUP method. Significant genetic variation among progenies was detected for all traits (except SH) and between provenances for DBH. The coefficient of individual genetic variation (CVgi) ranged from 2.5 to 9.5 %. The mean heritability among progeny (hf2$h_f^2$) was substantial for DBH (0.44) and FOR (0.36), enabling the selection of families with the highest DBH and lowest FOR for population improvement. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations among traits were also found. We conclude that there is genetic variability in the population that can be exploited in future breeding programs and for the genetic conservation of the species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Genetic variation
  • genetic enhancement
  • pau-marfim
  • provenance and progeny test
  • tree improvement
access type Otwarty dostęp

Obituary - Professor Kostas Panetsos (1930-2018)

Data publikacji: 12 Aug 2019
Zakres stron: 79 - 80

Abstrakt

access type Otwarty dostęp

Validation of microsatellite loci for Balfourodendron riedelianum through analysis of Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic linkage disequilibrium

Data publikacji: 19 Aug 2019
Zakres stron: 81 - 84

Abstrakt

Abstract

Balfourodendron riedelianum is a tropical tree endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome that is currently endangered due to forest fragmentation and extensive exploitation. Three populations of the species are conserved ex situ in a provenance and progeny test at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station, São Paulo State, Brazil. To verify if seven microsatellite loci developed for the species can be used as genetic markers in analyses focused on conservation and sustainable use strategies, leaf tissue samples were collected from the three provenances and from 17 seed trees in one provenance. We analyzed Mendelian inheritance and genetic linkage for the 17 seed trees and genotypic linkage disequilibrium for individuals from the three provenances. For six of the seven loci analyzed, all 17 seed trees showed heterozygosity. The inheritance and genetic linkage analyses were performed using respective locus, while the genotypic linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed for the seven loci. After Bonferroni correction, none of the 75 tests showed deviation from Mendelian segregation and genetic linkage, nor did we detect genotypic linkage disequilibrium. The results suggest that six of the seven loci can be used for population genetics studies on B. riedelianum.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Atlantic Forest
  • Conservation genetics
  • Inheritance
  • Microsatellite markers
  • Tropical tree species
access type Otwarty dostęp

Short note: Development of a new set of SNP markers to measure genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of Mongolian oak (Quercus mon­golica Fisch. ex Ledeb.) in the Far East of Russia

Data publikacji: 21 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 85 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

We developed a new set of 25 nuclear (nc), 12 chloroplast (cp) and 7 mitochondrial (mt) SNPs and used it to genotype 371 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb.) trees from seven locations in a 200 km by 400 km area in the Russian Far East. One of the locations in an area of 15 km by 25 km east of the city Ussuriusk was analyzed more intensively with 188 collected trees. The genetic differentiation at the nuclear SNPs was small to moderate and for the plastid SNPs it was high when considering all trees from the seven locations. The gene pool distances between locations were for 19 out of 21 pairs statistically highly significant. There was no correlation of genetic and spatial distances. Only three different multilocus-haplotypes could be identified and 42 two-loci-combinations of plastid SNPs could be used to identify them. Conclusions for the practical application such as timber tracking and gene conservation are discussed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Quercus mongolica
  • genetic differentiation
  • genetic diversity
  • SNPs
  • nuclear
  • plastid
  • mitochondrial
access type Otwarty dostęp

Biomass production and characteristics of short rotation plantations of clones of Gmelina arborea in three spacings

Data publikacji: 18 Nov 2019
Zakres stron: 92 - 100

Abstrakt

Abstract

The first attempts to establish energy crops in the tropical regi­on using short rotation species are premised on the utilization of clones for wood production. Therefore, the present study is aimed at examining the growth aspects (survival, diameter and tree height), leaf architecture (leaf area index [LAI], number and angle of the branches and sylleptic branches), biomass production, as well as biomass flow at the age of 24 months of two clones of Gmelina arborea in short rotation crops within three spacings (1.0x1.0 m, 0.75x0.75 m and 1.0x0.5 m). The results showed an increment with age, as the diameter increa­sed from 3.00 cm at six months to 8.0 cm at 24 months, where­as the total height increased from 2.00 m at six months to 10.00 m at 24 months. Clone survival varied from 20 to 60 %, whereas the LAI, branch angle and sylleptic branches increased with age. The differences between clones appeared after 12 months. Biomass production was similar between clones, from 6 ton/ha at six months to 67 ton/ha at 24 months, with clone 2 showing greater biomass flow than clone 1. On the basis of biomass pro­duction results and the development of diameter as well as height, clone 1 is recommended for spacing 1.0x1.0 m and clo­ne 2 for spacings 0.75x0.75 m and 1.0x0.5 m.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fast growth
  • tropical species
  • plantation density
  • woody crops
  • energy crops
access type Otwarty dostęp

Discovery of Geographically Robust Hybrid Poplar Clones

Data publikacji: 18 Nov 2019
Zakres stron: 101 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

Hybrid poplar clonal growth in the states (regions) of Minnesota (MN), Indiana (IN), Michigan (MI), and New York (NY) USA was analyzed to discover 10 geographically robust (geo-robust) clones, all P. deltoides x P. nigra (D x N) hybrids previously tested and screened in MN, that were broadly adapted across latitudinal and longitudinal ranges of 9 and 20 degrees, respectively. The clonal effect for growth explained 25 to 36 % of the total variance, 2.5–4.1 times the clone x site interaction. Clone explained 24 to 46 % of total variation in canker occurrence on two sites. Genetic gain in growth was calculated relative to commercial check clones. Genetic gain in growth of geo-robust clones exceeded that of random clones by 24 to 44 %. Geo-robust clones and the best clones on each site were not significantly different on the MN sites, but best clones outperformed geo-robust clones on the other sites by 10 to 39 % genetic gain. Geo-robust clones grew faster than commercial check clones on all but the MI site. The reduction in genetic gain for growth due to using broadly adapted clones relative to the best clones has to be compared to the additional costs and benefits of multiple breeding zones.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breeding zones
  • clonal adaptability
  • genotype x environment interaction
  • hybrid poplars
  • Populus
access type Otwarty dostęp

Genetic differentiation of Quercus robur in the South-Ural

Data publikacji: 26 Nov 2019
Zakres stron: 111 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

We studied the genetic composition of 200 pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) trees at nine nuclear microsatellite gene loci. We sampled nine locations in an area of 1100 km by 400 km in the South-Ural. The question was to analyse the genetic differentiation of the oaks at the south-east edge of the species distribution area. We observed relatively high values of genetic differentiation and fixation (delta=0.387, FST=0.0652, FST(Hedrick)=0.407) compared to values from the centre of the species distribution range. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed three genetic groups. Presence of all genetic groups was detected at all locations, but oak trees in the extreme east of the Ural Mountains were genetically most different. We hypothesise that genetic drift influenced the observed pattern.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Marginal populations
  • microsatellites
  • pedunculate oak
  • genetic structure
  • Russia
access type Otwarty dostęp

Genotype by environment interaction and teak (Tectona grandis L.) selection in Costa Rica

Data publikacji: 02 Dec 2019
Zakres stron: 116 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract

A teak progeny trial was established with four replicates at different sites along the northern Pacific region of Costa Rica. The trials followed a randomized block design, with 28 open pollinated families and 36 seedlings per family per site. Data from 7 years-old trees was analyzed both for each test location separately and for all locations combined. High individual heritability was found for diameter, which translates to higher breeding potential. The all locations combined analysis showed high genetic variation, with individual heritabilities reaching up to 22 %. Genotype by Environment (GxE) interactions explained only 2.5 % of total phenotypic variation. The genetic correlation (rg) among all four sites was 0.69. Hence, it is concluded that GxE interactions are not problematic for breeding purposes since they are not complex in nature. This teak breeding population showed strong genetic stability and performed well in most environments in the study area. The Hojancha location showed high genetic correlation with all other sites; therefore, it should be chosen for future testing and selection of elite genotypes. Selection of the 20 best individuals, allowing for up to two individuals per family, would result in a 1.78 cm (11 %) gain in diameter. Furthermore, based on this selection the inbreeding coefficient (F) in the offspring would only reach 2.9 %, while the expected effective population size (Ne) would be16.97 individuals. This selection scheme could reduce rotation age by almost two years, since the diameter goal of 40 cm would be reached earlier than the usual 20 years cycle. The results suggest that the progeny trial can be maintained as a single breeding population, suitable for planting in any site along the Northern Pacific region of Costa Rica.

Słowa kluczowe

  • GxE interactions
  • tree improvement
  • tropical forestry
  • BLUP/REML
  • progeny test

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