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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2509-8934
Pierwsze wydanie
22 Feb 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 56 (2007): Zeszyt 1-6 (December 2007)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2509-8934
Pierwsze wydanie
22 Feb 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

42 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Maintenance of Genetic Structure in Progenies of Marginal Mountainous and Steppe Populations of Three Species of Pinaceae Lindl. Family in Ukraine

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

Comparative investigations of the genetic variation have been conducted at 8 to 10 polymorphic allozyme loci in samples of embryos and maternal plants from marginal populations of Abies alba Mill., Pinus pallasiana D. Don and Pinus sylvestris var cretacea Kalenicz. ex Kom. in Ukraine. It was found that the allele frequencies of the loci analysed were maintained in progenies of maternal plants of these populations. However, the population genotype structure of embryos was shifted towards an excess of homozygous genotypes. The highly variable loci of the maternal plants make the greatest contribution to the homozygotation of progenies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pinaceae Lindl.
  • marginal populations
  • embryos
  • allozyme variation
  • genetic structure
Otwarty dostęp

Resistance of Castanea Clones to Phytophthora Cinnamomi: Testing and Genetic Control

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 11 - 21

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Chestnut
  • ink disease resistance
  • heritability
  • phenotypic and genotypic correlations
  • root collar rot
  • correlation stem tes
Otwarty dostęp

I-SSR Markers Revealed Inconsistent Phylogeographic Patterns among Populations of Japanese Red Pines in Korea

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 22 - 26

Abstrakt

Abstract

To monitor the level and distribution pattern of genetic diversity in countrywide populations of Japanese red pines in Korea, 80 I-SSR variants were analyzed from 192 individuals in 11 populations. The previously reported data, obtained from the 8 populations of this species, were incorporated into the estimation of the population genetic statistics. Relatively higher level of genetic diversity was observed in 19 populations of Japanese red pines (mean of 0.453) than those in other tree species. From the results of AMOVA, majority of genetic diversity (92%) was allocated within populations, which brought about the moderate degree of population differentiation (ϕST= 0.08). Two genetic groups were observed from the dendrogram reconstructed by UPGMA. Overall correlation between genetic relationships and geographic affinity was inconsistent among the 19 populations. Some probable genetic disturbances, induced by either human interference or the natural process of regeneration for the species after devastation, might be responsible for the discrepancy between genetic relationships and geographical distribution of the populations. These results suggested that simple geographic or ecological grouping might not represent the genetic zone of the Korean populations of Japanese red pines, and that more careful approach should be made for designating in situ gene conservation of this species in Korea.

Słowa kluczowe

  • gene conservation
  • genetic diversity
  • genetic relationships
  • I-SSR variants
  • AMOVA
  • population differentiation
Otwarty dostęp

Identification of AFLP Markers Associated with Embryonic Root Development in Populus tomentosa Carr

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 27 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Embryonic root (radicle) development in the mature embryo following germination is essential for the formation of the root organ in plants. In this study a phenotype described by a lack of proper radicle development was identified in an intraspecific hybrid of Populus tomentosa Carr.. Association of this trait with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) markers was investigated in a segregating F1 population generated by intraspecific-controlled crossing between a highly fertile female P. tomentosa clone “5082” and a male P. tomentosa clone “JY”. A total of 3193 seeds were obtained, and the rate of germination found to be 48.74% at 15 to 20 days. 376 (24%) of seedlings were shown to lack a root organ following visual assessment of the developing radicle. Genetic regulation of this trait appeared to be via a single dominant gene or a set of tightly linked genes, based on the 3:1 ratio of the rooting versus nonrooting seed embryos. A Bulked Segregant Analysis approach using 5600 AFLP markers was applied to this population and revealed 2 AFLP markers, EcoRI + GAG/ Mse I + AAT-492 and EcoRI + GAG/Mse I + CCA-502, that were associated with the radicle development-controlling locus in P. tomentosa. The AFLP markers identified have potential for application in hybrid breeding via marker assisted selection, and provide a starting point for map based cloning of the radical development-controlling gene.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Bulked Segregation Analysis
  • Populus tomentosa Carr.
  • Qualitative Trait
  • Dominant Gene
Otwarty dostęp

Growth Performance and Variability in Different Clones of Gmelina arborea (ROXB.)

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 32 - 36

Abstrakt

Abstract

A clonal trial of Gmelina arborea consisting of seventy clones selected from ten geographical locations in four states of northeast India was evaluated for and 0.37 with a genetic gain of 18.1, 24.6 and 30.1%, respectively. Diameter at breast height (DBH) was determined to be an important trait with maximum genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation of 18.6 and 30.4%, respectively. Clones selected from the geographical location of Lanka (Assam) were better performers over other locations. Clone 106 attained the greatest height (517 cm) and DGL (119 mm), whereas Clone 108 performed poorly for all the traits studied. Clone 106 maintained its superiority from an early age of 12 months. Clones 009, 017 and 079 showed an increasing trend for height, and markedly changed rankings from 13th, 15th and 20th positions at the age of 12 months to 2nd, 4th and 15th positions at 24 months of age. The interim assessment of different clones indicated large genetic improvement possibilities in G. arborea. and 0.37 with a genetic gain of 18.1, 24.6 and 30.1%, respectively. Diameter at breast height (DBH) was determined to be an important trait with maximum genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation of 18.6 and 30.4%, respectively. Clones selected from the geographical location of Lanka (Assam) were better performers over other locations. Clone 106 attained the greatest height (517 cm) and DGL (119 mm), whereas Clone 108 performed poorly for all the traits studied. Clone 106 maintained its superiority from an early age of 12 months. Clones 009, 017 and 079 showed an increasing trend for height, and markedly changed rankings from 13th, 15th and 20th positions at the age of 12 months to 2nd, 4th and 15th positions at 24 months of age. The interim assessment of different clones indicated large genetic improvement possibilities in G. arborea.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Gmelina arborea
  • clones
  • heritability
  • genetic advance
  • genetic gain
Otwarty dostęp

A Study of Population Variation and Inheritance in Sitka Spruce

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 36 - 44

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Picea sitchensis
  • genetic variation
  • heritability
  • grafted-ramets
  • parental population
  • progeny testing
  • correlated response
  • selection intensity
Otwarty dostęp

Comparing Morphological With Genetic Distances Between Populations: A New Method and its Application to the Prosopis chilensis – P. flexuosa complex

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 45 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

The biological units that are the object of management, preservation and improvement for the development of sustainable productive systems in natural areas, need to be differentiated and analyzed. Attending to this need, a new morphological distance is presented in this work. This distance is based on qualitative criteria and is applied to numerical taxonomy studies. The characteristics of this trait allow its comparison with the genetic distance of GREGORIUS (1974). Both parameters are essential tools in basic studies of native species populations. The morphological distance is applied to reveal genetically differentiated units in a swarm of hybrids between closely related species, and this result is compared with the results obtained from the application of traditional methods of numerical taxonomy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • genetic distance
  • morphological distance
  • taxonomic distance
  • Prosopis species
Otwarty dostęp

The Genetic Structure of Sorocea bonplandii in Southern Brazilian Forest Fragments: AFLP Diversity

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 51 - 58

Abstrakt

Abstract

To analyse possible genetic erosion due to fragmentation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest ecosystem, we investigated the genetic diversity within and among one large and six small populations of one of the key species of this ecosystem, Sorocea bonplandii, using AFLP analyses of 468 plants. Eight primer pairs yielded 299 polymorphic fragments for analysis. S. bonplandii was characterized by an unusually high genetic diversity within the species and also within individual populations, around 94% of the total genetic diversity occurred within populations. Genetic distances between populations were low in spite of extensive fragmentation. Genetic distance was significantly correlated with geographical distances between fragments, but these differences may have existed before fragmentation. Our results have direct implications for sustainable management of S. bonplandii, indicating that conservation strategies might be based on a random sample of trees taken throughout the Atlantic forest. However, the minimum population size required for maintaining the huge genetic diversity of this species is unknown. In order to establish a sustainable management plan for the species, further ecological studies are needed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dioecious plant
  • forest fragmentation
  • genetic diversity
  • Moraceae
  • Subtropical Atlantic Forest
Otwarty dostęp

Allelic Diversity Revealed Through SSR Polymorphisms at the Locus Encoding HMG-CoA Reductase in Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 58 - 65

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was carried out to define the extent of allelic variation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene (HMGR) in wild Hevea accessions, based on SSR polymorphisms existing at their 3’-untranslated regions (UTRs). Existence of two microsatellite alleles and their repeat compositions was demonstrated earlier in cultivated rubber clones. Both alleles contained perfect poly (AG)n repeats interrupted by a short sequence of 12 nucleotides and allelic variation at this microsatellite locus was the result of repeat length polymorphisms. In wild populations of rubber, nine microsatellite alleles (‘A’ to ‘I’) were identified at the HMGR locus revealing a wide allelic diversity compared to cultivated clones. Out of nine, four alleles (‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’ and ‘G’) were present in higher frequencies than the others. In total, 15 allelic combinations were noticed for HMGR among wild accessions and four of them were unique. Twenty-five out of 60 wild accessions were found to be homozygous for the above four alleles (‘BB’, ‘CC’, ‘DD’ and ‘GG’) and the rest were heterozygous, characterized by 11 different allelic combinations. Repeat-length polymorphisms were noticed in these four alleles prevailing among wild Hevea accessions. Genetic relatedness of Mato Grosso accessions with cultivated Hevea clones, as revealed through this study, is in agreement with earlier reports on phylogenetic studies using molecular markers. This work is a significant step towards understanding the functional variability of HMGR for latex production in Hevea brasiliensis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • allelic diversity
  • Hevea brasiliensis
  • HMG-CoA reductase
  • simple sequence repeats (SSRs)
Otwarty dostęp

Interspecific Differences in Postharvest Quality on Mexican Christmas Trees

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 65 - 73

Abstrakt

Abstract

There are no comparative studies in postharvest quality of Mexican Christmas trees. The objective of this study was to identify the best postharvest performing Mexican cultivated species. The experiment was done in the 2004-2005 season with six replications (trees) of Abies religiosa, Cupressus lindleyi, Pinus ayacahuite, and Pseudotsuga menziesii; from two provenances (Tlaxcala and Veracruz) for the last two species. Cultural management was similar. Each tree was placed under dry conditions according to a completely randomized design. Secondary branches, twig diameter and density, initial and final weight, biomass allocation, areas and volumes, total and twig moisture content, foliage density, color, chlorophyll a/b ratio, CO2 and ethylene production were evaluated. Analyses of variance, comparisons of means, correlation, and simple regression were performed. The four studied species displayed undesirable characteristics. Genetic improvement is required. P. menziesii showed values nearer ideotype breeding in more variables. The best provenance was Tlaxcala. Several correlations between variables showed tradeoffs in selecting the best species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Species testing
  • postharvest quality
  • Christmas tree
  • Abies religiosa
  • Pinus ayacahuite
  • Cupressus lindleyi
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii
  • Mexico
Otwarty dostęp

Differential Growth and Rooting of Upland and Peatland Black Spruce, Picea mariana, in Drained and Flooded Soils

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 73 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

A reciprocal experiment was analyzed to determine whether 30 open-pollinated families of peatland and upland populations of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] sampled from a single area in north-central Alberta, Canada, performed consistently when grown in either flooded or well-drained soils (i.e., if there is a family x soil interaction or generally called genotype x environment interaction (GEI)). The data for the analysis consisted of five traits (height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root/shoot dry weight ratio and number of braches) describing growth and rooting performance of tree seedlings in flooded and drained soils (root environments) in a greenhouse for 16 weeks. A mixed-model analysis was used to characterize GEI. The analysis revealed an interesting contrast of GEI patterns between the peatland vs. upland populations: GEI was absent (as indicated by a perfect correlation between flooded and drained soils) in peatland population but present in the upland population. Our results from the characterization of GEI are also consistent with the well-known theory about selection in different environments that correlated responses due to indirect selection are in general less than direct responses. The contrasting patterns of GEI in peatland vs. upland populations may be reflective of different strategies of adaptation to the contrasting environmental conditions, with the peatland trees growing slowly but steadily and with the upland populations growing fast and very responsive to environmental changes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Black spruce
  • genetic correlations
  • genotype-environment interaction
  • reciprocal experiment
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Performance and Maximizing Genetic Gain Through Direct and Indirect Selection in Cherrybark Oak

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 80 - 87

Abstrakt

Abstract

In 1987, an open-pollinated test of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagodae Raf.) was established on a loess site in Carlisle County, Kentucky. The test contained 37 half-sib families representing eight provenances from Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Virginia. Height measurements were taken at ages one, three, five, ten, and fifteen, and diameter at ages five, ten, and fifteen. Significant differences existed among provenances and among families within provenances. Seed sources from the west-central Mississippi area performed better for both diameter and height, yet no overall geographic trend was apparent. The top three families were all from the Warren Co., Mississippi source while two of the top three diameter families were from Washington Co., MS and the third was from Warren Co., Mississippi. Survival among the eight provenances was constant from age one to ten. A drop in survival was shown between ages 10 and 15, probably a result of inter-tree competition. Height and diameter growth between ages five and 10 was nearly double that prior to age five and between ages 10 and 15. Family heritabilities for height and diameter were calculated for each measurement year. Family heritabilities for diameter ranged from 0.55 to 0.70 while height ranged from 0.50 to 0.70. Strong age-age correlations for height, diameter, and volume were found indicating good trait predictability from early measurements. Genetic gain equations were used to identify the optimum selection age and trait for maximizing age 15 volume. Early selection of families within provenances should yield gains in height, diameter, and volume.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cherrybark oak
  • provenance
  • genetics
  • selection
  • genetic gain
Otwarty dostęp

Short Note: Seed Source Variation in Seedling and Nodulation Characters in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 88 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

Study was conducted involving 20 seed sources of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., collected from the greater part of its distributional range to understand the variation, particularly in nodulation pattern associated with seed sources. Seedling height, number of nodules per seedling and seedling biomass exhibited strong seed source dependent variation. While collar diameter and nodule diameter showed statistically non-significant differences among seed sources. Significant positive correlations were observed between growth characters (seedling height, collar diameter and root length). Highly significant positive correlation was observed between total number of nodules/seedling with root length and seedling dry matter indicating the influence of root length on nodulation and in turn the effect of nodulation on seedling biomass production. The selection therefore, should be aimed at seed source with highest level of susceptibility to root nodulation with rhizobia which could perform well in the initial stages of plantation establishment on poor sites.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dalbergia sissoo
  • Seed source
  • Nodulation
  • Variability
  • Selection
Otwarty dostęp

John (Jack) W. Duffield

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 91 - 92

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Selection of Superior Clones by Stability Analysis of Growth Performance in Populus davidiana Dode at Age 12

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 93 - 101

Abstrakt

Abstract

Stability parameters and clone x site interactions for 12-year volume were investigated in seven Populus davidiana (Korean aspen) clonal trials in South Korea. Either 24 or 38 clones were tested in each of the seven sites. All sources of variables such as clone, site, and clone x site interaction were statistically significant (p < 0.01) in the analysis of variance. The average volume of 3,199 trees was 0.043 m3. The different types of stability were shown from selected clones against the test means for volume. Clone Palkong 2 represents a relatively unstable clone that is sensitive to site changes and had greater adaptability to favorable sites. Five clones, Odae 19, Taehyun 9, Sunyeo 4, Sokwang 31, and Taehyun 3, were selected as superior clones based on stability parameters and mean volume. The selected clones have average stability and performed in a predictable manner over different planting sites. A positive relationship between stability parameters and the clone mean performance for volume was noted in this study.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Stability parameters
  • clone x site interactions
  • Populus davidiana
  • adaptability
  • superior clones
Otwarty dostęp

Genotype-Species Interactions in Neighbourhoods of Forest Tree Communities

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 101 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

Studies on plant communities of various annual species suggest that there are particular biotic interactions among individuals from different species which could be the basis for long-term species coexistence. In the course of a large survey on species-genetic diversity relationships in several forest tree communities, it was found that statistically significant differences exist among isozyme genotype frequencies of conspecific tree groups, which differ only by species identity of their neighbours. Based on a specific measure, the association of the neighbouring species with the genotypes of the target species or that of the genotypes with the neighbouring species was quantified. Since only AAT and HEK of the five analysed enzyme systems differed in their genotype frequencies among several tree groups of the same target species, a potential involvement of their enzymatic function in the observed differences was discussed. The results of this study demonstrate a fine-scale genetic differentiation within single tree species of forest communities, which may be the result of biotic interactions between the genetic structure of a species and the species composition of its community. This observation also suggests the importance of intraspecific genetic variation for interspecific adaptation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Association
  • tree species
  • neighbourhood
  • isozymes
  • species-genotype interaction
Otwarty dostęp

Results of an International Provenance Trial of Cordia alliodora in São Paulo, Brazil at Five and 23 Years of Age

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 110 - 117

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken (Boraginaceae) is a tropical timber tree of great economic value that occurs in Latin America and through most of the Caribbean. Genetic variation in growth, form and survival of eight Central America provenances - five from a dry zone and three from a wet zone - were studied five and 23 years after establishment in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Significant differences between dry and wet zone provenances were detected for diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), stem form and survival and between provenances within these zones for height, d.b.h., volume and survival. Provenances from the dry zone had higher growth rates than those from the wet zone. Genetic correlations among ages for these traits were positive but not significant, while ranking of provenances based on growth and survival changed significantly from five to 23 years of age, indicating that measuring traits at five years of age may not be a good predictor of the same traits at 23 years of age. Genetic correlations on growth traits measured at the same age were large and significant, suggesting substantial gains could be made through indirect trait selection. At 23 years of age the La Fortuna provenance performed best for all traits, while Nueva Guinea performed worst for growth traits and survival and Tres Piedras for stem form. The species’ poor growth compared to that of other tropical tree species at the same experimental site suggests that C. alliodora is not the best silvicultural option for the Luiz Antonio region.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tropical tree species
  • genetic structure
  • genetic correlations
  • tree improvement
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Variation and Climatic Impacts on Survival and Growth of White Spruce in Alberta, Canada

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 117 - 127

Abstrakt

Abstract

Because climate has the greatest effect in determining the genetic structure of forest tree species, climatic variables with large effects on growth and survival need to be identified. This would enable proper matching of tree populations to planting sites in the present and future climates. We analysed 24-year survival (S24), height (H24) and diameter (D24) from a series of white spruce provenance trials with 46 populations and 8 test sites in Alberta, Canada. We determined: (1) the amount and pattern of genetic variation, (2) the response of populations to climatic transfer and (3) the potential effects of climate change (2030-2039) on H24 and S24 of the species in Alberta. We found that: (1) using the intraclass correlation, the between-population genetic variance was 10.6% (H24) and 6.6% (D24) of the betweenpopulation phenotypic variance across sites, (2) three climatic white spruce regions exist in Alberta within which variation in growth potential is strongly clinal, (3) the annual moisture index (AMI) expressed as a ratio of degree days above 5°C (GDD) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) was the major determinant of survival and growth at the test sites, (4) we found that at the level of AMI predicted for the 2030-2039 period, survival and growth would decline substantially in the continental part (northern and central) of Alberta where drought already exists. However, during the same period, survival and growth would increase substantially in the foothills and Rocky Mountains region where growth is currently limited by low GDD due to a short growing season.

Słowa kluczowe

  • climate change
  • moisture index
  • Picea glauca
  • provenance trial
  • response function
Otwarty dostęp

Gene Flow Between Introduced and Native Eucalyptus Species: Morphological Analysis of Tri-Species and Backcross Hybrids Involving E. nitens

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 127 - 133

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • genetic pollution
  • genetic contamination
  • introgression
  • exotic species
  • pollen dispersal
  • Eucalyptus
  • plantation forestry.
Otwarty dostęp

Variation in Clone Fertility and its Effect on the Gene Diversity of Seeds From a Seed Orchard of Chamaecyparis obtusa in Korea

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 134 - 137

Abstrakt

Abstract

Male and female strobilus production was assessed annually over a four-year period for a clonal seed orchard of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) in Korea. Clonal fertility and fertility variation, expressed by both sibling coefficient and coefficient of variation in strobilus production among 50 orchard clones, were reported. Fertility varied among clones and among years producing four-year averages per ramet of 510.2 and 1050.6 for female and male strobili, respectively. The correlation between female and male strobilus production was positive in each of the four years studied and, with the exception of one year, statistically significant. The clonal status number (Ns), a measure of gene diversity, was calculated based on the observed clonal fertility variation and varied from 28.0 (N = 50) in the poorest flowering year (2002) to 46.7 in the best year (2005). On average (pooled), the relative status number was 95% of the census number (N). Variation in female fertility was generally higher than that for male fertility, and this variation was reflected in the status numbers of female and male parents. The pooled Ns estimated from all four years was higher than that for any single year, implying that gene diversity would increase when seeds collected from different years are pooled. Sexual asymmetry calculations showed that clonal contributions would be balanced between genders.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fertility variation
  • sibling coefficient
  • status number
  • effective number
  • sexual asymmetry
  • Chamaecyparis obtusa
Otwarty dostęp

Characterization of a Suite of 40 EST-derived Microsatellite Markers For Use in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr)

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 138 - 141

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes 40 novel, data-mined, polymorphic microsatellite loci for use in a QTL association study in Sitka spruce. Publicly available EST sequences of Picea in Genbank were searched in silico for simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs, principally dinucleotide microsatellites, and PCR primers were designed to flank these regions. PCR amplification was carried out in the progeny of a full-sib family to test simple Mendelian inheritance. For further characterization, the amplification products of Sitka spruce material from unrelated trees were assessed to determine the potential of these loci for population genetic studies. These polymorphic markers therefore represent a valuable tool-kit both for establishing a molecular map of this species and for Picea genetic population studies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Picea sitchensis
  • microsatellites
  • genetic map
  • marker aided selection
Otwarty dostęp

Growth, Stem Quality and age-age Correlations in a Teak Provenance Trial in Tanzania

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 142 - 148

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study examines the growth and stem straightness variation between teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) provenances in a 30-year-old field trial in the coastal lowland of Tanzania. The results are compared with earlier results. The findings demonstrate that it is possible to find large height and yield differences between teak provenances. The best performing provenance grows some 10% (height) to 40% (volume) better than the average. The provenance Topslip, India, consistently proved to be outstanding in terms of growth and stem quality confirming earlier evaluations at age 5 and 17 years. Tanzanian land races also proved to be superior, especially as regards stem straightness.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tectona grandis
  • land races
  • provenance variation
Otwarty dostęp

Swiss Stone Pine Provenance Experiment in Romania: II Variation in Growth and Branching Traits to Age 14

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 148 - 158

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pinus cembra
  • Swiss stone pine
  • provenance trial
  • genetic variation
  • growth traits
  • branching
  • age-age correlation
  • early selection
  • indirect selection
Otwarty dostęp

Comparative Analysis of Karyotypes from the Strezelecki Ranges Race of the Complex Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus (Myrtaceae) and a Population in Central-Southern Chile

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 158 - 162

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Eucalyptus globulus
  • Myrtaceae
  • karyotype
  • chromosomes
  • land race
  • Chile
  • Australia
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of Resistance to the Beech Scale Insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) and Propagation of American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) by Grafting

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 163 - 169

Abstrakt

Abstract

Scions collected from diseased trees and from those without symptoms of beech bark disease (BBD) were cleft-grafted in 2003 and 2004 onto rootstock of unknown resistance to BBD. Grafting success varied among genotypes and year (30% in 2003 and 12% in 2004), and improved with increasing rootstock diameter. Successful grafts were used to test resistance to the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga (the initiating agent of BBD) by introducing eggs onto the bark of scions and allowing time for the emergence of all developmental stages of the insects. Significantly fewer insects colonized scions collected from putatively resistant trees than those collected from diseased trees. In some cases, where egg placement overlapped a portion of the rootstock, insect colonies developed on the rootstock but not on the scion collected from resistant trees. Occasionally, scions from putatively resistant trees were colonized, whereas some of those from diseased trees were not. When scions from putatively resistant trees were heavily colonized, only adult insects were present and no eggs or other life stages of the insect were found. The findings indicate that the extent of resistance to the scale insect (hence to BBD) ranges from partial to total resistance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Beech bark disease
  • disease resistance
  • inoculation
  • rootstock diameter
  • scion
Otwarty dostęp

Multivariate Analysis of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Germplasm in Nigeria

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 170 - 179

Abstrakt

Abstract

Multivariate analyses were carried out on fifty-nine germplasm accessions of cashew derived from both local and exotic populations established at the research plots of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, to assess the extent of variability and pattern of genetic diversity among these cashew populations. Data collected on 36 quantitative and 33 qualitative plant characters were subjected to taximetric tools of Euclidean distance of complete linkage (furthest neighbour) and principal component analysis (PCA). The multivariate analyses tentatively grouped the selections into four distinct morphogenetically diverse clusters. The groupings appear to be a function of origin, eco-geographical distribution, genetic and/or agronomic affinity of the selections. Brazilian populations distinctly clustered together in two major groups while local clones and Indian selections dominated the other two major clusters with each group having its unique fruiting and tree growth habits. The clustering pattern at sub-cluster levels clearly reflects affinity of each genetic population. The principal component analysis and the potency indices showed that fruit characters are the most discriminating parameters for delineating cashew at the varietal level.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Accessions
  • Anacardium occidentale
  • genetic variability
Otwarty dostęp

Positioning of Sex-Correlated Markers for Populus in a AFLP- and SSR-Marker Based Genetic Map of Populus tremula x tremuloides

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 180 - 184

Abstrakt

Abstract

A preliminary consensus map of Populus tremula x tremuloides has been constructed from an interspecific hybrid population of 66 seedlings of the cross Brauna 11 (P. tremula) x Turresson 141 (P. tremuloides). The map was constructed based on 205 AFLP- and 29 SSR-markers covering 1875cM on 19 linkage groups. A single locus correlating to sex in Populus was mapped close to two AFLP-markers. The map will be used as a starting point for the identification of sex-related genes or molecular markers and their fine mapping based on a BAC-library screening.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Populus
  • sex-related marker
  • Linkage map
  • AFLP
  • SCAR
Otwarty dostęp

Studies on Cytogenetical Variation in Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce – A Key Stone Tree Species of Indian Desert

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 184 - 189

Abstrakt

Abstract

Prosopis cineraria (Mimosaceae) is an important tree of agro-forestry and ethano- botanical importance with multipurpose utility as wood yielding, fodder, food and medicinal uses. Some remarkable features are observed in the form of phenotypic variation in various populations inhabiting different regions of the Indian desert. To asses these variations male meiotic studies were conducted in ten different accessions collected from four proviences of Rajasthan, India. Analysis of data on chromosome associations, chiasma frequency and their distributions pattern concluded that the somatic chromosome number of P. cineraria is 2n = 2x = 28. The complete absence of accessory chromosomes (B) and percentage of pollen stainability indicates an over all genomic stability in P. cineraria. Numerical changes like aneuploidy might have played an important role in origin and adoptation of P. cineraria against all the odds of the climatic condition of the Indian desert.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Aneuploidy
  • Chromosome associations
  • Chiasma frequency
  • Genetic variation
  • Meiosis
  • Pollen stainability
  • Prosopis cineraria
Otwarty dostęp

Problems in the Analysis of Genetic Differentiation Among Populations – a Case Study in Quercus robur

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 190 - 199

Abstrakt

Abstract

The conclusions drawn from studies of genetic differentiation among populations largely determine our understanding of ecological and population genetic processes. These conclusions basically depend on the applied type of genetic marker and the method of measuring and estimating genetic differentation. However, concerns have been raised about the conceptual appropriateness of common methods of measuring genetic differentiation. The present paper contributes to the clarification of the problems involved by recalling the conceptual characteristics of FST (= GST), by specifying basic tests of the major causal factors of genetic differentiation with the help of permutation analysis, by comparing FST and Hedrick’s new normalization F’ST with the basic index δ of differentiation for data on allozymes and microsatellites obtained from 6 oak stands. All three descriptors display small values, among which δ is largest and closely followed by F’ST, while FST is distinctly smaller than both across all loci. Degrees of covariation of δ with FST and F’ST differ distinctly between allozymes and microsatellites as a probable consequence of confounding aspects of differentiation with aspects of fixation in the FST descriptors. Permutation analysis reveals that the boundary conditions provided by the number of populations and their (sample) sizes as well as the overall genetic variation across population samples determine the order of magnitude of differentiation. This mathematical artefact undermines the widely held opinion that small degrees of differentiation at many loci are the result of extensive gene flow or recent joint history. Differentation patterns vary considerably among allozyme loci (indicating the action of homogenizing and diversifying selection). In contrast, microsatellite loci consistently display significant differentiation as can be explained by mechanisms of non-recurrent mutation. These observations apply to all three descriptors for the relatively high within population polymorphism observed in the studied stands. At least for low within population polymorphism close to fixation, however, it is shown theoretically that the predictions may diverge distinctly among the three descriptors.

Słowa kluczowe

  • population differentiation
  • homogenizing forces
  • diversifying forces
  • permutation analysis
  • analysis of covariation
  • oak
  • microsatellites
  • allozymes
Otwarty dostęp

Genotype-Site Interactions in Growth, Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Clones of Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 201 - 206

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dalbergia sissoo
  • clone
  • variability
  • heritability
  • genetic gain
Otwarty dostęp

Factors Influencing Male Reproductive Success in a Cryptomeria japonica Seed Orchard Revealed by Microsatellite Marker Analysis

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 207 - 214

Abstrakt

Abstract

We investigated the influence of male flower production, floral synchrony and inter-tree distances on male reproductive success in a miniature seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica. We used six microsatellite markers to determine the paternity of each seed. In the seed orchard, the average pollen contamination and clonal self-fertilization rates were 38.7% and 1.7%, respectively. The level of male reproductive success of constituent clones varied from 0.0 to 15.7%. Five clones showing the highest male reproductive success contributed ca. 30% of all analyzed seeds as a pollen donor after excluding contamination by external sources of pollen. The statistical analyses showed that male reproductive success was strongly influenced by male flower production of each clone and, possibly, by their distance to the mother trees. The linear regression which included male flower production and floral synchrony as independent variables, however, accounted for only 14.7% of variation of male reproductive success, suggesting that other factors such as pollen competition might also influence male reproductive success. Since we found no significant correlation between male reproductive and female reproductive successes, it may be better to equalize male and female reproductive successes independently

Słowa kluczowe

  • conifer
  • floral phenology
  • paternal contribution
  • SSR
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Relationships among Schizolobium parahybum (Vell.) Blake (Leguminosae) Ecotypes from Ecuador and other Countries

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 214 - 221

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fifteen ecotypes of Schizolobium parahybum (Vell.) Blake collected in Ecuador (9), Brazil (3), Bolivia (1) Costa Rica (1), and Peru (1) were analyzed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) and microsatellites (SSRs) in order to determine their genetic relationships and diversity patterns among ecotypes and to identify the origin of cultivated germplasm in Ecuador. Although AFLP markers were the most informative technique based on amplified products, SSRs clearly differentiated the ecotypes of Ecuador based on their geographical origin or genetic status into two groups: commercial ecotypes growing at western Ecuador very similar to the ecotype from Costa Rica, and native germplasm from eastern Ecuador and ecotypes from Brazil, Peru and Bolivia.

Słowa kluczowe

  • AFLP
  • genetic relationships
  • DNA-fingerprinting
  • RAPD
  • Schizolobium parahybum (Vell.) Blake
  • SSR
Otwarty dostęp

High Levels of Outcrossing in a Family Trial of Western Australian Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum)

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 222 - 230

Abstrakt

Abstract

The mating system of Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) was investigated in seed collections from a family trial. The mean outcrossing rate was high (95.2%) although there was variation among families and one family showed particularly low outcrossing, high bi-parental inbreeding and high correlated paternity. Variation in flowering time between this family and others in the trial was the most likely cause of the high inbreeding and low number of fathers contributing to the seed crop in trees from this family. The high level of outcrossing in the rest of the families indicated that S. spicatum has a preferentially outcrossed mating system, but that it is capable of selfing when conditions are unsuitable for outcrossing. The seedling progeny showed no influence of inbreeding on seedling height at 4 months. Analysis of genetic diversity revealed high levels of genetic diversity have been captured in the seed crop from the trial, and this diversity is comparable to that identified in a previous study of natural populations from throughout the range of the species. These results indicated that production of seed through seed orchards will be a successful means of deployment of breeding gains in the species, however it is essential to ensure overlap in flowering times among different families planted in a seed orchard.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Sandalwood
  • mating system
  • outcrossing
  • pollen dispersal
Otwarty dostęp

Realized Genetic Gains of Rust Resistant Selections of Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) Planted in High Rust Hazard Sites

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 231 - 242

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tree improvement
  • forest genetics
  • block plots
  • mean annual increment
  • tree volume
Otwarty dostęp

Age-related Trends in Genetic Parameters for Jack Pine and Their Implications for Early Selection

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 242 - 252

Abstrakt

Abstract

Trends in genetic parameters for height growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were examined over three series of family tests throughout New Brunswick. Data were analyzed for each site and across sites within each series. Although individual narrow sense heritability estimates from single-site analyses varied substantially from site to site and showed no consistent age-related pattern, the estimates from across-site analyses showed an increasing trend to age 20. Similar as individual narrow sense heritability, the coefficient of additive genetic variance estimated from single site showed more variation than those estimated from across site analyses. Age-age (type-a) genetic correlations for height were high and could be well predicted by a LAR2 model, where LAR is the natural logarithm of the ratio between two ages at assessment. Type-b genetic correlations were high and of similar magnitude at different ages. Genetic correlations between height at different ages and volume at one-half rotation age were generally high. Taking the volume at one-half rotation age as the target trait, the selection for target trait from early selection at ages 5~7 could be more efficient per year than direct selection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • early selection
  • heritability
  • coefficient of additive genetic variance
  • genetic correlations
  • Pinus banksiana
  • selection efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Fertility Variation and its Implications on Relatedness in Seed Crops in Seedling Seed Orchards of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 253 - 259

Abstrakt

Abstract

Seedling seed orchards of Eucalyptus tereticornis (N =192 & 505) and E. camaldulensis (N =182 & 525) were established at two sites (one moist and one dry) in southern India. The fertility (based on the number of flowers and fruits) was registered for each tree at age eight and nine years. E. camaldulensis on the moist location had 73% fertile trees and low fertility difference (sibling coefficient, Ψ, was 2.27) at eight years. whereas Only 23% trees were fertile in the E. tereticornis orchard at the same site and the fertility variation was high (Ψ =11.71). In the dry location, fertility was almost the same in both species at nine years, with 45 & 51% fertile trees in E. camaldulensis (Ψ =5.4) and E. tereticornis (Ψ = 5.2) respectively. Though the fertility trends were the same in both years, the number of fertile trees was comparatively higher at nine years (except in the low flowering E. tereticornis orchard at the moist site) in both the sites. Gene diversity values of the seed crop estimated for two consecutive years are fairly high except for the E. tereticornis (GD = 0.9650 and 0.9690) orchard located in the moist site. The implications of fertility variation on diversity of progeny have been discussed in the light of domestication strategies and tree breeding programs implemented for eucalypts.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  • E. tereticornis
  • effective population size
  • seed orchard
  • gene diversity
  • drift
  • coancestry
Otwarty dostęp

Deterministic Simulation of Gains for Seedling and Cloned Main and Elite Breeding Populations of Pinus radiata and Implications for Strategy

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 259 - 270

Abstrakt

Abstract

Genetic gains in breast-height diameter were estimated using deterministic simulation. Simulations of gain from one generation of selection were undertaken in large Main and small Elite breeding populations for a range of heritabilities, with varying numbers of parents, families, seedlings/family, clones/family and ramets/ clone to aid revision of the New Zealand Pinus radiata breeding strategy. Cloned versus seedling populations of equal numbers of plants were simulated, derived from open pollination, polycrossing, and pair crossing. Balanced within-family selection was used for 200, 400 and 800-parent Main breeding populations and among- and within-family selection for 25-parent Elite populations of 25 up to 100 full-sib families. Predicted gains from within-family selection in the Main population were highest from cloned polycross families at all heritabilities and lowest for seedling fullsib families. Gains from cloned populations were higher than seedling equivalents at heritabilities ≤0.5, and their advantage in gain was greatest at lower heritabilities. Elite populations of 25 parents showed similar trends but intensive among- and within-family selection resulted in much higher gains than from the Main, highest from the cloned options. The increase in gain with increased number of families diminished with more than 2-3 times as many families as parents. A new strategy was proposed for P. radiata, based on the simulation results, involving an expanded Main breeding population of open-pollinated (OP) seedling families, together with pair-cross family seedlots already available, supported by parentage reconstruction using DNA markers. Forwards selection in small cloned Elite populations was proposed as the main source of seed orchard clones.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breeding populations
  • deterministic simulation
  • genetic gain
  • cloning
  • open-pollination
  • controlled pollination
  • backwards selection
  • forwards selection
  • seed orchard
  • Pinus radiata
Otwarty dostęp

Morphological Differentiation and Hybridization between Quercus alnifolia Poech and Quercus coccifera L. (Fagaceae) in Cyprus

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 271 - 277

Abstrakt

Abstract

Analysis of morphological traits was carried out in order to provide insights regarding differentiation and hybridization between two evergreen oak species, the golden oak (Quercus alnifolia Poech) and the holly oak (Quercus coccifera L.) in Cyprus. The holly oak shows a higher degree of morphological diversity, in comparison to the endemic golden oak, which is confined to the ultrabasic rock formations of the Troodos Massif. The parental species can be clearly distinguished. Each species forms both pure and sympatric populations; no significant differences were observed at the within species level. Analysis of mixed stands indicates active but limited genetic introgression and hybridization between the two oaks. Designated hybrids form a distinct group in multivariate space being morphologically closer to the golden oak. Backcrossing events have been implicated from multivariate analysis, while hybrids appear to be more similar to Q. alnifolia.

Słowa kluczowe

  • golden oak
  • holly oak
  • differentiation
  • hybridization
  • genetic introgression
  • morphological traits
  • discriminant analysis
  • PCA
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Gain and Diversity under Different Selection Methods in a Breeding Seed Orchard of Quercus serrata

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 277 - 281

Abstrakt

Abstract

Genetic gain and diversity were estimated in a 13- year old Quercus serrata breeding seed orchard under three selection (rouging) methods. The selections were based on individual selection, family selection, and family plus within family selection. Genetic gain was for stem volume and gene diversity was estimated by status number concept. Both estimated genetic gain and gene diversity were compared to those before selection and among selection scenarios. Estimated genetic gain for tree volume ranged from 4.0% to 9.1% for three selection methods under 50% selection intensity. Individual selection was better than family selection for retaining higher genetic gain and status number. Family plus within family selection was the best selection method, while individual selection was more efficient at the strong selection intensity. An optimal point, which maximized gain and diversity, was occurred at 50% selection intensity that would be applied for genetic thinning in the breeding seed orchard of Quercus serrata. The effect of genetic relatedness among families and possible pollen contamination on both genetic gain and gene diversity, although were not studied but their impact, are discussed. The selection method and intensity level applied should be chosen after careful consideration of the impacts on both genetic gain and diversity for seeds produced from the seed orchard.

Słowa kluczowe

  • seedling seed orchards
  • coancestry
  • thinning
  • selection intensity
  • rouging
Otwarty dostęp

Cross-Species Amplification of Coconut Microsatellite Markers in Rattans

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 282 - 286

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cocos nucifera
  • Cross-amplification
  • Genetic differentiation
  • Microsatellite markers
  • Rattans
Otwarty dostęp

Main and Interaction Effects of Factors on Softwood Cutting of White Poplar (Populus alba L.).

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 287 - 294

Abstrakt

Abstract

White poplar is an important species for reforesting riparian sites in Algeria, but efficient techniques are still to be perfected. The study investigates the feasibility of softwood cutting as a method of propagation of the species. Results showed that sand or gravel, used as substrate, do not determine significant differences in rooting percent, but exert an influence on the quality and vigour of roots of cuttings. The findings, also, suggest that softwood cutting of the species would be most efficient if root suckers and/or sticklings were the sources of cuttings. Moreover, summer is the best period for achieving good results, while IBA treatments would have little effect on the rooting response of cuttings. Significant stand and individual within stand variation in rooting response of cuttings was found. However, the low or moderate broad sense heritabilities suggest that microsite effects at the individual scale could influence significantly the results. Overall, the results of the investigations suggest that selection of stands and, individuals within stands with good rooting ability, together with taking care with respect to factors such as the period of cuttings collection and the sources of cuttings, could achieve real progress in vegetative propagation of white poplar in Algeria.

Słowa kluczowe

  • white poplar
  • softwood cutting
  • rooting ability
Otwarty dostęp

Variability of Cortex Terpene Composition in Cupressus sempervirens L. provenances grown in Crete, Greece

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 294 - 299

Abstrakt

Abstract

The terpene composition of twigs in 106 trees from 6 provenances of Cupressus sempervirens L. grown in the island Crete of Greece was determined by GLC-MS analysis. The aim was to investigate the utility of cortex terpene composition to study the genetic variation between cypress provenances. Twenty nine compounds were detected in cortex resin of all trees, twenty one of which identified. The major constituents were cedrol, α-pinene, 3-δ-carene and α-terpinyl acetate. A cluster analysis based on the amounts of the four evaluated compounds classified all the trees in five chemotypes. The chemotype pattern for every provenance was determined. Based on distribution of chemotypes two main groups of provenances can be suggested.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cupressus sempervirens L.
  • Cupressaceae
  • cortex terpene composition
  • provenance variability
  • GLC-MS
  • Crete
  • Greece
42 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Maintenance of Genetic Structure in Progenies of Marginal Mountainous and Steppe Populations of Three Species of Pinaceae Lindl. Family in Ukraine

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

Comparative investigations of the genetic variation have been conducted at 8 to 10 polymorphic allozyme loci in samples of embryos and maternal plants from marginal populations of Abies alba Mill., Pinus pallasiana D. Don and Pinus sylvestris var cretacea Kalenicz. ex Kom. in Ukraine. It was found that the allele frequencies of the loci analysed were maintained in progenies of maternal plants of these populations. However, the population genotype structure of embryos was shifted towards an excess of homozygous genotypes. The highly variable loci of the maternal plants make the greatest contribution to the homozygotation of progenies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pinaceae Lindl.
  • marginal populations
  • embryos
  • allozyme variation
  • genetic structure
Otwarty dostęp

Resistance of Castanea Clones to Phytophthora Cinnamomi: Testing and Genetic Control

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 11 - 21

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Chestnut
  • ink disease resistance
  • heritability
  • phenotypic and genotypic correlations
  • root collar rot
  • correlation stem tes
Otwarty dostęp

I-SSR Markers Revealed Inconsistent Phylogeographic Patterns among Populations of Japanese Red Pines in Korea

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 22 - 26

Abstrakt

Abstract

To monitor the level and distribution pattern of genetic diversity in countrywide populations of Japanese red pines in Korea, 80 I-SSR variants were analyzed from 192 individuals in 11 populations. The previously reported data, obtained from the 8 populations of this species, were incorporated into the estimation of the population genetic statistics. Relatively higher level of genetic diversity was observed in 19 populations of Japanese red pines (mean of 0.453) than those in other tree species. From the results of AMOVA, majority of genetic diversity (92%) was allocated within populations, which brought about the moderate degree of population differentiation (ϕST= 0.08). Two genetic groups were observed from the dendrogram reconstructed by UPGMA. Overall correlation between genetic relationships and geographic affinity was inconsistent among the 19 populations. Some probable genetic disturbances, induced by either human interference or the natural process of regeneration for the species after devastation, might be responsible for the discrepancy between genetic relationships and geographical distribution of the populations. These results suggested that simple geographic or ecological grouping might not represent the genetic zone of the Korean populations of Japanese red pines, and that more careful approach should be made for designating in situ gene conservation of this species in Korea.

Słowa kluczowe

  • gene conservation
  • genetic diversity
  • genetic relationships
  • I-SSR variants
  • AMOVA
  • population differentiation
Otwarty dostęp

Identification of AFLP Markers Associated with Embryonic Root Development in Populus tomentosa Carr

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 27 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Embryonic root (radicle) development in the mature embryo following germination is essential for the formation of the root organ in plants. In this study a phenotype described by a lack of proper radicle development was identified in an intraspecific hybrid of Populus tomentosa Carr.. Association of this trait with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) markers was investigated in a segregating F1 population generated by intraspecific-controlled crossing between a highly fertile female P. tomentosa clone “5082” and a male P. tomentosa clone “JY”. A total of 3193 seeds were obtained, and the rate of germination found to be 48.74% at 15 to 20 days. 376 (24%) of seedlings were shown to lack a root organ following visual assessment of the developing radicle. Genetic regulation of this trait appeared to be via a single dominant gene or a set of tightly linked genes, based on the 3:1 ratio of the rooting versus nonrooting seed embryos. A Bulked Segregant Analysis approach using 5600 AFLP markers was applied to this population and revealed 2 AFLP markers, EcoRI + GAG/ Mse I + AAT-492 and EcoRI + GAG/Mse I + CCA-502, that were associated with the radicle development-controlling locus in P. tomentosa. The AFLP markers identified have potential for application in hybrid breeding via marker assisted selection, and provide a starting point for map based cloning of the radical development-controlling gene.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Bulked Segregation Analysis
  • Populus tomentosa Carr.
  • Qualitative Trait
  • Dominant Gene
Otwarty dostęp

Growth Performance and Variability in Different Clones of Gmelina arborea (ROXB.)

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 32 - 36

Abstrakt

Abstract

A clonal trial of Gmelina arborea consisting of seventy clones selected from ten geographical locations in four states of northeast India was evaluated for and 0.37 with a genetic gain of 18.1, 24.6 and 30.1%, respectively. Diameter at breast height (DBH) was determined to be an important trait with maximum genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation of 18.6 and 30.4%, respectively. Clones selected from the geographical location of Lanka (Assam) were better performers over other locations. Clone 106 attained the greatest height (517 cm) and DGL (119 mm), whereas Clone 108 performed poorly for all the traits studied. Clone 106 maintained its superiority from an early age of 12 months. Clones 009, 017 and 079 showed an increasing trend for height, and markedly changed rankings from 13th, 15th and 20th positions at the age of 12 months to 2nd, 4th and 15th positions at 24 months of age. The interim assessment of different clones indicated large genetic improvement possibilities in G. arborea. and 0.37 with a genetic gain of 18.1, 24.6 and 30.1%, respectively. Diameter at breast height (DBH) was determined to be an important trait with maximum genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation of 18.6 and 30.4%, respectively. Clones selected from the geographical location of Lanka (Assam) were better performers over other locations. Clone 106 attained the greatest height (517 cm) and DGL (119 mm), whereas Clone 108 performed poorly for all the traits studied. Clone 106 maintained its superiority from an early age of 12 months. Clones 009, 017 and 079 showed an increasing trend for height, and markedly changed rankings from 13th, 15th and 20th positions at the age of 12 months to 2nd, 4th and 15th positions at 24 months of age. The interim assessment of different clones indicated large genetic improvement possibilities in G. arborea.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Gmelina arborea
  • clones
  • heritability
  • genetic advance
  • genetic gain
Otwarty dostęp

A Study of Population Variation and Inheritance in Sitka Spruce

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 36 - 44

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Picea sitchensis
  • genetic variation
  • heritability
  • grafted-ramets
  • parental population
  • progeny testing
  • correlated response
  • selection intensity
Otwarty dostęp

Comparing Morphological With Genetic Distances Between Populations: A New Method and its Application to the Prosopis chilensis – P. flexuosa complex

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 45 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

The biological units that are the object of management, preservation and improvement for the development of sustainable productive systems in natural areas, need to be differentiated and analyzed. Attending to this need, a new morphological distance is presented in this work. This distance is based on qualitative criteria and is applied to numerical taxonomy studies. The characteristics of this trait allow its comparison with the genetic distance of GREGORIUS (1974). Both parameters are essential tools in basic studies of native species populations. The morphological distance is applied to reveal genetically differentiated units in a swarm of hybrids between closely related species, and this result is compared with the results obtained from the application of traditional methods of numerical taxonomy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • genetic distance
  • morphological distance
  • taxonomic distance
  • Prosopis species
Otwarty dostęp

The Genetic Structure of Sorocea bonplandii in Southern Brazilian Forest Fragments: AFLP Diversity

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 51 - 58

Abstrakt

Abstract

To analyse possible genetic erosion due to fragmentation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest ecosystem, we investigated the genetic diversity within and among one large and six small populations of one of the key species of this ecosystem, Sorocea bonplandii, using AFLP analyses of 468 plants. Eight primer pairs yielded 299 polymorphic fragments for analysis. S. bonplandii was characterized by an unusually high genetic diversity within the species and also within individual populations, around 94% of the total genetic diversity occurred within populations. Genetic distances between populations were low in spite of extensive fragmentation. Genetic distance was significantly correlated with geographical distances between fragments, but these differences may have existed before fragmentation. Our results have direct implications for sustainable management of S. bonplandii, indicating that conservation strategies might be based on a random sample of trees taken throughout the Atlantic forest. However, the minimum population size required for maintaining the huge genetic diversity of this species is unknown. In order to establish a sustainable management plan for the species, further ecological studies are needed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dioecious plant
  • forest fragmentation
  • genetic diversity
  • Moraceae
  • Subtropical Atlantic Forest
Otwarty dostęp

Allelic Diversity Revealed Through SSR Polymorphisms at the Locus Encoding HMG-CoA Reductase in Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 58 - 65

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was carried out to define the extent of allelic variation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene (HMGR) in wild Hevea accessions, based on SSR polymorphisms existing at their 3’-untranslated regions (UTRs). Existence of two microsatellite alleles and their repeat compositions was demonstrated earlier in cultivated rubber clones. Both alleles contained perfect poly (AG)n repeats interrupted by a short sequence of 12 nucleotides and allelic variation at this microsatellite locus was the result of repeat length polymorphisms. In wild populations of rubber, nine microsatellite alleles (‘A’ to ‘I’) were identified at the HMGR locus revealing a wide allelic diversity compared to cultivated clones. Out of nine, four alleles (‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’ and ‘G’) were present in higher frequencies than the others. In total, 15 allelic combinations were noticed for HMGR among wild accessions and four of them were unique. Twenty-five out of 60 wild accessions were found to be homozygous for the above four alleles (‘BB’, ‘CC’, ‘DD’ and ‘GG’) and the rest were heterozygous, characterized by 11 different allelic combinations. Repeat-length polymorphisms were noticed in these four alleles prevailing among wild Hevea accessions. Genetic relatedness of Mato Grosso accessions with cultivated Hevea clones, as revealed through this study, is in agreement with earlier reports on phylogenetic studies using molecular markers. This work is a significant step towards understanding the functional variability of HMGR for latex production in Hevea brasiliensis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • allelic diversity
  • Hevea brasiliensis
  • HMG-CoA reductase
  • simple sequence repeats (SSRs)
Otwarty dostęp

Interspecific Differences in Postharvest Quality on Mexican Christmas Trees

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 65 - 73

Abstrakt

Abstract

There are no comparative studies in postharvest quality of Mexican Christmas trees. The objective of this study was to identify the best postharvest performing Mexican cultivated species. The experiment was done in the 2004-2005 season with six replications (trees) of Abies religiosa, Cupressus lindleyi, Pinus ayacahuite, and Pseudotsuga menziesii; from two provenances (Tlaxcala and Veracruz) for the last two species. Cultural management was similar. Each tree was placed under dry conditions according to a completely randomized design. Secondary branches, twig diameter and density, initial and final weight, biomass allocation, areas and volumes, total and twig moisture content, foliage density, color, chlorophyll a/b ratio, CO2 and ethylene production were evaluated. Analyses of variance, comparisons of means, correlation, and simple regression were performed. The four studied species displayed undesirable characteristics. Genetic improvement is required. P. menziesii showed values nearer ideotype breeding in more variables. The best provenance was Tlaxcala. Several correlations between variables showed tradeoffs in selecting the best species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Species testing
  • postharvest quality
  • Christmas tree
  • Abies religiosa
  • Pinus ayacahuite
  • Cupressus lindleyi
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii
  • Mexico
Otwarty dostęp

Differential Growth and Rooting of Upland and Peatland Black Spruce, Picea mariana, in Drained and Flooded Soils

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 73 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

A reciprocal experiment was analyzed to determine whether 30 open-pollinated families of peatland and upland populations of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] sampled from a single area in north-central Alberta, Canada, performed consistently when grown in either flooded or well-drained soils (i.e., if there is a family x soil interaction or generally called genotype x environment interaction (GEI)). The data for the analysis consisted of five traits (height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root/shoot dry weight ratio and number of braches) describing growth and rooting performance of tree seedlings in flooded and drained soils (root environments) in a greenhouse for 16 weeks. A mixed-model analysis was used to characterize GEI. The analysis revealed an interesting contrast of GEI patterns between the peatland vs. upland populations: GEI was absent (as indicated by a perfect correlation between flooded and drained soils) in peatland population but present in the upland population. Our results from the characterization of GEI are also consistent with the well-known theory about selection in different environments that correlated responses due to indirect selection are in general less than direct responses. The contrasting patterns of GEI in peatland vs. upland populations may be reflective of different strategies of adaptation to the contrasting environmental conditions, with the peatland trees growing slowly but steadily and with the upland populations growing fast and very responsive to environmental changes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Black spruce
  • genetic correlations
  • genotype-environment interaction
  • reciprocal experiment
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Performance and Maximizing Genetic Gain Through Direct and Indirect Selection in Cherrybark Oak

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 80 - 87

Abstrakt

Abstract

In 1987, an open-pollinated test of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagodae Raf.) was established on a loess site in Carlisle County, Kentucky. The test contained 37 half-sib families representing eight provenances from Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Virginia. Height measurements were taken at ages one, three, five, ten, and fifteen, and diameter at ages five, ten, and fifteen. Significant differences existed among provenances and among families within provenances. Seed sources from the west-central Mississippi area performed better for both diameter and height, yet no overall geographic trend was apparent. The top three families were all from the Warren Co., Mississippi source while two of the top three diameter families were from Washington Co., MS and the third was from Warren Co., Mississippi. Survival among the eight provenances was constant from age one to ten. A drop in survival was shown between ages 10 and 15, probably a result of inter-tree competition. Height and diameter growth between ages five and 10 was nearly double that prior to age five and between ages 10 and 15. Family heritabilities for height and diameter were calculated for each measurement year. Family heritabilities for diameter ranged from 0.55 to 0.70 while height ranged from 0.50 to 0.70. Strong age-age correlations for height, diameter, and volume were found indicating good trait predictability from early measurements. Genetic gain equations were used to identify the optimum selection age and trait for maximizing age 15 volume. Early selection of families within provenances should yield gains in height, diameter, and volume.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cherrybark oak
  • provenance
  • genetics
  • selection
  • genetic gain
Otwarty dostęp

Short Note: Seed Source Variation in Seedling and Nodulation Characters in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 88 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

Study was conducted involving 20 seed sources of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., collected from the greater part of its distributional range to understand the variation, particularly in nodulation pattern associated with seed sources. Seedling height, number of nodules per seedling and seedling biomass exhibited strong seed source dependent variation. While collar diameter and nodule diameter showed statistically non-significant differences among seed sources. Significant positive correlations were observed between growth characters (seedling height, collar diameter and root length). Highly significant positive correlation was observed between total number of nodules/seedling with root length and seedling dry matter indicating the influence of root length on nodulation and in turn the effect of nodulation on seedling biomass production. The selection therefore, should be aimed at seed source with highest level of susceptibility to root nodulation with rhizobia which could perform well in the initial stages of plantation establishment on poor sites.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dalbergia sissoo
  • Seed source
  • Nodulation
  • Variability
  • Selection
Otwarty dostęp

John (Jack) W. Duffield

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 91 - 92

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Selection of Superior Clones by Stability Analysis of Growth Performance in Populus davidiana Dode at Age 12

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 93 - 101

Abstrakt

Abstract

Stability parameters and clone x site interactions for 12-year volume were investigated in seven Populus davidiana (Korean aspen) clonal trials in South Korea. Either 24 or 38 clones were tested in each of the seven sites. All sources of variables such as clone, site, and clone x site interaction were statistically significant (p < 0.01) in the analysis of variance. The average volume of 3,199 trees was 0.043 m3. The different types of stability were shown from selected clones against the test means for volume. Clone Palkong 2 represents a relatively unstable clone that is sensitive to site changes and had greater adaptability to favorable sites. Five clones, Odae 19, Taehyun 9, Sunyeo 4, Sokwang 31, and Taehyun 3, were selected as superior clones based on stability parameters and mean volume. The selected clones have average stability and performed in a predictable manner over different planting sites. A positive relationship between stability parameters and the clone mean performance for volume was noted in this study.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Stability parameters
  • clone x site interactions
  • Populus davidiana
  • adaptability
  • superior clones
Otwarty dostęp

Genotype-Species Interactions in Neighbourhoods of Forest Tree Communities

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 101 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

Studies on plant communities of various annual species suggest that there are particular biotic interactions among individuals from different species which could be the basis for long-term species coexistence. In the course of a large survey on species-genetic diversity relationships in several forest tree communities, it was found that statistically significant differences exist among isozyme genotype frequencies of conspecific tree groups, which differ only by species identity of their neighbours. Based on a specific measure, the association of the neighbouring species with the genotypes of the target species or that of the genotypes with the neighbouring species was quantified. Since only AAT and HEK of the five analysed enzyme systems differed in their genotype frequencies among several tree groups of the same target species, a potential involvement of their enzymatic function in the observed differences was discussed. The results of this study demonstrate a fine-scale genetic differentiation within single tree species of forest communities, which may be the result of biotic interactions between the genetic structure of a species and the species composition of its community. This observation also suggests the importance of intraspecific genetic variation for interspecific adaptation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Association
  • tree species
  • neighbourhood
  • isozymes
  • species-genotype interaction
Otwarty dostęp

Results of an International Provenance Trial of Cordia alliodora in São Paulo, Brazil at Five and 23 Years of Age

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 110 - 117

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken (Boraginaceae) is a tropical timber tree of great economic value that occurs in Latin America and through most of the Caribbean. Genetic variation in growth, form and survival of eight Central America provenances - five from a dry zone and three from a wet zone - were studied five and 23 years after establishment in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Significant differences between dry and wet zone provenances were detected for diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), stem form and survival and between provenances within these zones for height, d.b.h., volume and survival. Provenances from the dry zone had higher growth rates than those from the wet zone. Genetic correlations among ages for these traits were positive but not significant, while ranking of provenances based on growth and survival changed significantly from five to 23 years of age, indicating that measuring traits at five years of age may not be a good predictor of the same traits at 23 years of age. Genetic correlations on growth traits measured at the same age were large and significant, suggesting substantial gains could be made through indirect trait selection. At 23 years of age the La Fortuna provenance performed best for all traits, while Nueva Guinea performed worst for growth traits and survival and Tres Piedras for stem form. The species’ poor growth compared to that of other tropical tree species at the same experimental site suggests that C. alliodora is not the best silvicultural option for the Luiz Antonio region.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tropical tree species
  • genetic structure
  • genetic correlations
  • tree improvement
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Variation and Climatic Impacts on Survival and Growth of White Spruce in Alberta, Canada

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 117 - 127

Abstrakt

Abstract

Because climate has the greatest effect in determining the genetic structure of forest tree species, climatic variables with large effects on growth and survival need to be identified. This would enable proper matching of tree populations to planting sites in the present and future climates. We analysed 24-year survival (S24), height (H24) and diameter (D24) from a series of white spruce provenance trials with 46 populations and 8 test sites in Alberta, Canada. We determined: (1) the amount and pattern of genetic variation, (2) the response of populations to climatic transfer and (3) the potential effects of climate change (2030-2039) on H24 and S24 of the species in Alberta. We found that: (1) using the intraclass correlation, the between-population genetic variance was 10.6% (H24) and 6.6% (D24) of the betweenpopulation phenotypic variance across sites, (2) three climatic white spruce regions exist in Alberta within which variation in growth potential is strongly clinal, (3) the annual moisture index (AMI) expressed as a ratio of degree days above 5°C (GDD) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) was the major determinant of survival and growth at the test sites, (4) we found that at the level of AMI predicted for the 2030-2039 period, survival and growth would decline substantially in the continental part (northern and central) of Alberta where drought already exists. However, during the same period, survival and growth would increase substantially in the foothills and Rocky Mountains region where growth is currently limited by low GDD due to a short growing season.

Słowa kluczowe

  • climate change
  • moisture index
  • Picea glauca
  • provenance trial
  • response function
Otwarty dostęp

Gene Flow Between Introduced and Native Eucalyptus Species: Morphological Analysis of Tri-Species and Backcross Hybrids Involving E. nitens

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 127 - 133

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • genetic pollution
  • genetic contamination
  • introgression
  • exotic species
  • pollen dispersal
  • Eucalyptus
  • plantation forestry.
Otwarty dostęp

Variation in Clone Fertility and its Effect on the Gene Diversity of Seeds From a Seed Orchard of Chamaecyparis obtusa in Korea

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 134 - 137

Abstrakt

Abstract

Male and female strobilus production was assessed annually over a four-year period for a clonal seed orchard of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) in Korea. Clonal fertility and fertility variation, expressed by both sibling coefficient and coefficient of variation in strobilus production among 50 orchard clones, were reported. Fertility varied among clones and among years producing four-year averages per ramet of 510.2 and 1050.6 for female and male strobili, respectively. The correlation between female and male strobilus production was positive in each of the four years studied and, with the exception of one year, statistically significant. The clonal status number (Ns), a measure of gene diversity, was calculated based on the observed clonal fertility variation and varied from 28.0 (N = 50) in the poorest flowering year (2002) to 46.7 in the best year (2005). On average (pooled), the relative status number was 95% of the census number (N). Variation in female fertility was generally higher than that for male fertility, and this variation was reflected in the status numbers of female and male parents. The pooled Ns estimated from all four years was higher than that for any single year, implying that gene diversity would increase when seeds collected from different years are pooled. Sexual asymmetry calculations showed that clonal contributions would be balanced between genders.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fertility variation
  • sibling coefficient
  • status number
  • effective number
  • sexual asymmetry
  • Chamaecyparis obtusa
Otwarty dostęp

Characterization of a Suite of 40 EST-derived Microsatellite Markers For Use in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr)

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 138 - 141

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes 40 novel, data-mined, polymorphic microsatellite loci for use in a QTL association study in Sitka spruce. Publicly available EST sequences of Picea in Genbank were searched in silico for simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs, principally dinucleotide microsatellites, and PCR primers were designed to flank these regions. PCR amplification was carried out in the progeny of a full-sib family to test simple Mendelian inheritance. For further characterization, the amplification products of Sitka spruce material from unrelated trees were assessed to determine the potential of these loci for population genetic studies. These polymorphic markers therefore represent a valuable tool-kit both for establishing a molecular map of this species and for Picea genetic population studies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Picea sitchensis
  • microsatellites
  • genetic map
  • marker aided selection
Otwarty dostęp

Growth, Stem Quality and age-age Correlations in a Teak Provenance Trial in Tanzania

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 142 - 148

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study examines the growth and stem straightness variation between teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) provenances in a 30-year-old field trial in the coastal lowland of Tanzania. The results are compared with earlier results. The findings demonstrate that it is possible to find large height and yield differences between teak provenances. The best performing provenance grows some 10% (height) to 40% (volume) better than the average. The provenance Topslip, India, consistently proved to be outstanding in terms of growth and stem quality confirming earlier evaluations at age 5 and 17 years. Tanzanian land races also proved to be superior, especially as regards stem straightness.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tectona grandis
  • land races
  • provenance variation
Otwarty dostęp

Swiss Stone Pine Provenance Experiment in Romania: II Variation in Growth and Branching Traits to Age 14

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 148 - 158

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pinus cembra
  • Swiss stone pine
  • provenance trial
  • genetic variation
  • growth traits
  • branching
  • age-age correlation
  • early selection
  • indirect selection
Otwarty dostęp

Comparative Analysis of Karyotypes from the Strezelecki Ranges Race of the Complex Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus (Myrtaceae) and a Population in Central-Southern Chile

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 158 - 162

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Eucalyptus globulus
  • Myrtaceae
  • karyotype
  • chromosomes
  • land race
  • Chile
  • Australia
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of Resistance to the Beech Scale Insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) and Propagation of American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) by Grafting

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 163 - 169

Abstrakt

Abstract

Scions collected from diseased trees and from those without symptoms of beech bark disease (BBD) were cleft-grafted in 2003 and 2004 onto rootstock of unknown resistance to BBD. Grafting success varied among genotypes and year (30% in 2003 and 12% in 2004), and improved with increasing rootstock diameter. Successful grafts were used to test resistance to the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga (the initiating agent of BBD) by introducing eggs onto the bark of scions and allowing time for the emergence of all developmental stages of the insects. Significantly fewer insects colonized scions collected from putatively resistant trees than those collected from diseased trees. In some cases, where egg placement overlapped a portion of the rootstock, insect colonies developed on the rootstock but not on the scion collected from resistant trees. Occasionally, scions from putatively resistant trees were colonized, whereas some of those from diseased trees were not. When scions from putatively resistant trees were heavily colonized, only adult insects were present and no eggs or other life stages of the insect were found. The findings indicate that the extent of resistance to the scale insect (hence to BBD) ranges from partial to total resistance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Beech bark disease
  • disease resistance
  • inoculation
  • rootstock diameter
  • scion
Otwarty dostęp

Multivariate Analysis of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Germplasm in Nigeria

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 170 - 179

Abstrakt

Abstract

Multivariate analyses were carried out on fifty-nine germplasm accessions of cashew derived from both local and exotic populations established at the research plots of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, to assess the extent of variability and pattern of genetic diversity among these cashew populations. Data collected on 36 quantitative and 33 qualitative plant characters were subjected to taximetric tools of Euclidean distance of complete linkage (furthest neighbour) and principal component analysis (PCA). The multivariate analyses tentatively grouped the selections into four distinct morphogenetically diverse clusters. The groupings appear to be a function of origin, eco-geographical distribution, genetic and/or agronomic affinity of the selections. Brazilian populations distinctly clustered together in two major groups while local clones and Indian selections dominated the other two major clusters with each group having its unique fruiting and tree growth habits. The clustering pattern at sub-cluster levels clearly reflects affinity of each genetic population. The principal component analysis and the potency indices showed that fruit characters are the most discriminating parameters for delineating cashew at the varietal level.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Accessions
  • Anacardium occidentale
  • genetic variability
Otwarty dostęp

Positioning of Sex-Correlated Markers for Populus in a AFLP- and SSR-Marker Based Genetic Map of Populus tremula x tremuloides

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 180 - 184

Abstrakt

Abstract

A preliminary consensus map of Populus tremula x tremuloides has been constructed from an interspecific hybrid population of 66 seedlings of the cross Brauna 11 (P. tremula) x Turresson 141 (P. tremuloides). The map was constructed based on 205 AFLP- and 29 SSR-markers covering 1875cM on 19 linkage groups. A single locus correlating to sex in Populus was mapped close to two AFLP-markers. The map will be used as a starting point for the identification of sex-related genes or molecular markers and their fine mapping based on a BAC-library screening.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Populus
  • sex-related marker
  • Linkage map
  • AFLP
  • SCAR
Otwarty dostęp

Studies on Cytogenetical Variation in Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce – A Key Stone Tree Species of Indian Desert

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 184 - 189

Abstrakt

Abstract

Prosopis cineraria (Mimosaceae) is an important tree of agro-forestry and ethano- botanical importance with multipurpose utility as wood yielding, fodder, food and medicinal uses. Some remarkable features are observed in the form of phenotypic variation in various populations inhabiting different regions of the Indian desert. To asses these variations male meiotic studies were conducted in ten different accessions collected from four proviences of Rajasthan, India. Analysis of data on chromosome associations, chiasma frequency and their distributions pattern concluded that the somatic chromosome number of P. cineraria is 2n = 2x = 28. The complete absence of accessory chromosomes (B) and percentage of pollen stainability indicates an over all genomic stability in P. cineraria. Numerical changes like aneuploidy might have played an important role in origin and adoptation of P. cineraria against all the odds of the climatic condition of the Indian desert.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Aneuploidy
  • Chromosome associations
  • Chiasma frequency
  • Genetic variation
  • Meiosis
  • Pollen stainability
  • Prosopis cineraria
Otwarty dostęp

Problems in the Analysis of Genetic Differentiation Among Populations – a Case Study in Quercus robur

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 190 - 199

Abstrakt

Abstract

The conclusions drawn from studies of genetic differentiation among populations largely determine our understanding of ecological and population genetic processes. These conclusions basically depend on the applied type of genetic marker and the method of measuring and estimating genetic differentation. However, concerns have been raised about the conceptual appropriateness of common methods of measuring genetic differentiation. The present paper contributes to the clarification of the problems involved by recalling the conceptual characteristics of FST (= GST), by specifying basic tests of the major causal factors of genetic differentiation with the help of permutation analysis, by comparing FST and Hedrick’s new normalization F’ST with the basic index δ of differentiation for data on allozymes and microsatellites obtained from 6 oak stands. All three descriptors display small values, among which δ is largest and closely followed by F’ST, while FST is distinctly smaller than both across all loci. Degrees of covariation of δ with FST and F’ST differ distinctly between allozymes and microsatellites as a probable consequence of confounding aspects of differentiation with aspects of fixation in the FST descriptors. Permutation analysis reveals that the boundary conditions provided by the number of populations and their (sample) sizes as well as the overall genetic variation across population samples determine the order of magnitude of differentiation. This mathematical artefact undermines the widely held opinion that small degrees of differentiation at many loci are the result of extensive gene flow or recent joint history. Differentation patterns vary considerably among allozyme loci (indicating the action of homogenizing and diversifying selection). In contrast, microsatellite loci consistently display significant differentiation as can be explained by mechanisms of non-recurrent mutation. These observations apply to all three descriptors for the relatively high within population polymorphism observed in the studied stands. At least for low within population polymorphism close to fixation, however, it is shown theoretically that the predictions may diverge distinctly among the three descriptors.

Słowa kluczowe

  • population differentiation
  • homogenizing forces
  • diversifying forces
  • permutation analysis
  • analysis of covariation
  • oak
  • microsatellites
  • allozymes
Otwarty dostęp

Genotype-Site Interactions in Growth, Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Clones of Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 201 - 206

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dalbergia sissoo
  • clone
  • variability
  • heritability
  • genetic gain
Otwarty dostęp

Factors Influencing Male Reproductive Success in a Cryptomeria japonica Seed Orchard Revealed by Microsatellite Marker Analysis

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 207 - 214

Abstrakt

Abstract

We investigated the influence of male flower production, floral synchrony and inter-tree distances on male reproductive success in a miniature seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica. We used six microsatellite markers to determine the paternity of each seed. In the seed orchard, the average pollen contamination and clonal self-fertilization rates were 38.7% and 1.7%, respectively. The level of male reproductive success of constituent clones varied from 0.0 to 15.7%. Five clones showing the highest male reproductive success contributed ca. 30% of all analyzed seeds as a pollen donor after excluding contamination by external sources of pollen. The statistical analyses showed that male reproductive success was strongly influenced by male flower production of each clone and, possibly, by their distance to the mother trees. The linear regression which included male flower production and floral synchrony as independent variables, however, accounted for only 14.7% of variation of male reproductive success, suggesting that other factors such as pollen competition might also influence male reproductive success. Since we found no significant correlation between male reproductive and female reproductive successes, it may be better to equalize male and female reproductive successes independently

Słowa kluczowe

  • conifer
  • floral phenology
  • paternal contribution
  • SSR
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Relationships among Schizolobium parahybum (Vell.) Blake (Leguminosae) Ecotypes from Ecuador and other Countries

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 214 - 221

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fifteen ecotypes of Schizolobium parahybum (Vell.) Blake collected in Ecuador (9), Brazil (3), Bolivia (1) Costa Rica (1), and Peru (1) were analyzed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) and microsatellites (SSRs) in order to determine their genetic relationships and diversity patterns among ecotypes and to identify the origin of cultivated germplasm in Ecuador. Although AFLP markers were the most informative technique based on amplified products, SSRs clearly differentiated the ecotypes of Ecuador based on their geographical origin or genetic status into two groups: commercial ecotypes growing at western Ecuador very similar to the ecotype from Costa Rica, and native germplasm from eastern Ecuador and ecotypes from Brazil, Peru and Bolivia.

Słowa kluczowe

  • AFLP
  • genetic relationships
  • DNA-fingerprinting
  • RAPD
  • Schizolobium parahybum (Vell.) Blake
  • SSR
Otwarty dostęp

High Levels of Outcrossing in a Family Trial of Western Australian Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum)

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 222 - 230

Abstrakt

Abstract

The mating system of Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) was investigated in seed collections from a family trial. The mean outcrossing rate was high (95.2%) although there was variation among families and one family showed particularly low outcrossing, high bi-parental inbreeding and high correlated paternity. Variation in flowering time between this family and others in the trial was the most likely cause of the high inbreeding and low number of fathers contributing to the seed crop in trees from this family. The high level of outcrossing in the rest of the families indicated that S. spicatum has a preferentially outcrossed mating system, but that it is capable of selfing when conditions are unsuitable for outcrossing. The seedling progeny showed no influence of inbreeding on seedling height at 4 months. Analysis of genetic diversity revealed high levels of genetic diversity have been captured in the seed crop from the trial, and this diversity is comparable to that identified in a previous study of natural populations from throughout the range of the species. These results indicated that production of seed through seed orchards will be a successful means of deployment of breeding gains in the species, however it is essential to ensure overlap in flowering times among different families planted in a seed orchard.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Sandalwood
  • mating system
  • outcrossing
  • pollen dispersal
Otwarty dostęp

Realized Genetic Gains of Rust Resistant Selections of Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) Planted in High Rust Hazard Sites

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 231 - 242

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tree improvement
  • forest genetics
  • block plots
  • mean annual increment
  • tree volume
Otwarty dostęp

Age-related Trends in Genetic Parameters for Jack Pine and Their Implications for Early Selection

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 242 - 252

Abstrakt

Abstract

Trends in genetic parameters for height growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were examined over three series of family tests throughout New Brunswick. Data were analyzed for each site and across sites within each series. Although individual narrow sense heritability estimates from single-site analyses varied substantially from site to site and showed no consistent age-related pattern, the estimates from across-site analyses showed an increasing trend to age 20. Similar as individual narrow sense heritability, the coefficient of additive genetic variance estimated from single site showed more variation than those estimated from across site analyses. Age-age (type-a) genetic correlations for height were high and could be well predicted by a LAR2 model, where LAR is the natural logarithm of the ratio between two ages at assessment. Type-b genetic correlations were high and of similar magnitude at different ages. Genetic correlations between height at different ages and volume at one-half rotation age were generally high. Taking the volume at one-half rotation age as the target trait, the selection for target trait from early selection at ages 5~7 could be more efficient per year than direct selection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • early selection
  • heritability
  • coefficient of additive genetic variance
  • genetic correlations
  • Pinus banksiana
  • selection efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Fertility Variation and its Implications on Relatedness in Seed Crops in Seedling Seed Orchards of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 253 - 259

Abstrakt

Abstract

Seedling seed orchards of Eucalyptus tereticornis (N =192 & 505) and E. camaldulensis (N =182 & 525) were established at two sites (one moist and one dry) in southern India. The fertility (based on the number of flowers and fruits) was registered for each tree at age eight and nine years. E. camaldulensis on the moist location had 73% fertile trees and low fertility difference (sibling coefficient, Ψ, was 2.27) at eight years. whereas Only 23% trees were fertile in the E. tereticornis orchard at the same site and the fertility variation was high (Ψ =11.71). In the dry location, fertility was almost the same in both species at nine years, with 45 & 51% fertile trees in E. camaldulensis (Ψ =5.4) and E. tereticornis (Ψ = 5.2) respectively. Though the fertility trends were the same in both years, the number of fertile trees was comparatively higher at nine years (except in the low flowering E. tereticornis orchard at the moist site) in both the sites. Gene diversity values of the seed crop estimated for two consecutive years are fairly high except for the E. tereticornis (GD = 0.9650 and 0.9690) orchard located in the moist site. The implications of fertility variation on diversity of progeny have been discussed in the light of domestication strategies and tree breeding programs implemented for eucalypts.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  • E. tereticornis
  • effective population size
  • seed orchard
  • gene diversity
  • drift
  • coancestry
Otwarty dostęp

Deterministic Simulation of Gains for Seedling and Cloned Main and Elite Breeding Populations of Pinus radiata and Implications for Strategy

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 259 - 270

Abstrakt

Abstract

Genetic gains in breast-height diameter were estimated using deterministic simulation. Simulations of gain from one generation of selection were undertaken in large Main and small Elite breeding populations for a range of heritabilities, with varying numbers of parents, families, seedlings/family, clones/family and ramets/ clone to aid revision of the New Zealand Pinus radiata breeding strategy. Cloned versus seedling populations of equal numbers of plants were simulated, derived from open pollination, polycrossing, and pair crossing. Balanced within-family selection was used for 200, 400 and 800-parent Main breeding populations and among- and within-family selection for 25-parent Elite populations of 25 up to 100 full-sib families. Predicted gains from within-family selection in the Main population were highest from cloned polycross families at all heritabilities and lowest for seedling fullsib families. Gains from cloned populations were higher than seedling equivalents at heritabilities ≤0.5, and their advantage in gain was greatest at lower heritabilities. Elite populations of 25 parents showed similar trends but intensive among- and within-family selection resulted in much higher gains than from the Main, highest from the cloned options. The increase in gain with increased number of families diminished with more than 2-3 times as many families as parents. A new strategy was proposed for P. radiata, based on the simulation results, involving an expanded Main breeding population of open-pollinated (OP) seedling families, together with pair-cross family seedlots already available, supported by parentage reconstruction using DNA markers. Forwards selection in small cloned Elite populations was proposed as the main source of seed orchard clones.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breeding populations
  • deterministic simulation
  • genetic gain
  • cloning
  • open-pollination
  • controlled pollination
  • backwards selection
  • forwards selection
  • seed orchard
  • Pinus radiata
Otwarty dostęp

Morphological Differentiation and Hybridization between Quercus alnifolia Poech and Quercus coccifera L. (Fagaceae) in Cyprus

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 271 - 277

Abstrakt

Abstract

Analysis of morphological traits was carried out in order to provide insights regarding differentiation and hybridization between two evergreen oak species, the golden oak (Quercus alnifolia Poech) and the holly oak (Quercus coccifera L.) in Cyprus. The holly oak shows a higher degree of morphological diversity, in comparison to the endemic golden oak, which is confined to the ultrabasic rock formations of the Troodos Massif. The parental species can be clearly distinguished. Each species forms both pure and sympatric populations; no significant differences were observed at the within species level. Analysis of mixed stands indicates active but limited genetic introgression and hybridization between the two oaks. Designated hybrids form a distinct group in multivariate space being morphologically closer to the golden oak. Backcrossing events have been implicated from multivariate analysis, while hybrids appear to be more similar to Q. alnifolia.

Słowa kluczowe

  • golden oak
  • holly oak
  • differentiation
  • hybridization
  • genetic introgression
  • morphological traits
  • discriminant analysis
  • PCA
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Gain and Diversity under Different Selection Methods in a Breeding Seed Orchard of Quercus serrata

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 277 - 281

Abstrakt

Abstract

Genetic gain and diversity were estimated in a 13- year old Quercus serrata breeding seed orchard under three selection (rouging) methods. The selections were based on individual selection, family selection, and family plus within family selection. Genetic gain was for stem volume and gene diversity was estimated by status number concept. Both estimated genetic gain and gene diversity were compared to those before selection and among selection scenarios. Estimated genetic gain for tree volume ranged from 4.0% to 9.1% for three selection methods under 50% selection intensity. Individual selection was better than family selection for retaining higher genetic gain and status number. Family plus within family selection was the best selection method, while individual selection was more efficient at the strong selection intensity. An optimal point, which maximized gain and diversity, was occurred at 50% selection intensity that would be applied for genetic thinning in the breeding seed orchard of Quercus serrata. The effect of genetic relatedness among families and possible pollen contamination on both genetic gain and gene diversity, although were not studied but their impact, are discussed. The selection method and intensity level applied should be chosen after careful consideration of the impacts on both genetic gain and diversity for seeds produced from the seed orchard.

Słowa kluczowe

  • seedling seed orchards
  • coancestry
  • thinning
  • selection intensity
  • rouging
Otwarty dostęp

Cross-Species Amplification of Coconut Microsatellite Markers in Rattans

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 282 - 286

Abstrakt

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cocos nucifera
  • Cross-amplification
  • Genetic differentiation
  • Microsatellite markers
  • Rattans
Otwarty dostęp

Main and Interaction Effects of Factors on Softwood Cutting of White Poplar (Populus alba L.).

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 287 - 294

Abstrakt

Abstract

White poplar is an important species for reforesting riparian sites in Algeria, but efficient techniques are still to be perfected. The study investigates the feasibility of softwood cutting as a method of propagation of the species. Results showed that sand or gravel, used as substrate, do not determine significant differences in rooting percent, but exert an influence on the quality and vigour of roots of cuttings. The findings, also, suggest that softwood cutting of the species would be most efficient if root suckers and/or sticklings were the sources of cuttings. Moreover, summer is the best period for achieving good results, while IBA treatments would have little effect on the rooting response of cuttings. Significant stand and individual within stand variation in rooting response of cuttings was found. However, the low or moderate broad sense heritabilities suggest that microsite effects at the individual scale could influence significantly the results. Overall, the results of the investigations suggest that selection of stands and, individuals within stands with good rooting ability, together with taking care with respect to factors such as the period of cuttings collection and the sources of cuttings, could achieve real progress in vegetative propagation of white poplar in Algeria.

Słowa kluczowe

  • white poplar
  • softwood cutting
  • rooting ability
Otwarty dostęp

Variability of Cortex Terpene Composition in Cupressus sempervirens L. provenances grown in Crete, Greece

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2017
Zakres stron: 294 - 299

Abstrakt

Abstract

The terpene composition of twigs in 106 trees from 6 provenances of Cupressus sempervirens L. grown in the island Crete of Greece was determined by GLC-MS analysis. The aim was to investigate the utility of cortex terpene composition to study the genetic variation between cypress provenances. Twenty nine compounds were detected in cortex resin of all trees, twenty one of which identified. The major constituents were cedrol, α-pinene, 3-δ-carene and α-terpinyl acetate. A cluster analysis based on the amounts of the four evaluated compounds classified all the trees in five chemotypes. The chemotype pattern for every provenance was determined. Based on distribution of chemotypes two main groups of provenances can be suggested.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cupressus sempervirens L.
  • Cupressaceae
  • cortex terpene composition
  • provenance variability
  • GLC-MS
  • Crete
  • Greece

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