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Special Zeszyt: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Pierwsze wydanie
31 Dec 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 60 (2013): Zeszyt 1 (December 2013)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Pierwsze wydanie
31 Dec 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

7 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Situational Theory of Advantages in Sport

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 5 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic explanation of the concept of advantage in the context of sport competitions. Advantage is a common concept in sports, but it also holds ambiguities that need clarification. Let’s say, for example, that the national soccer team of Brazil is playing the national team of Finland and is ahead 5 to 0. Finland receives a penalty kick due to a refereeing error. At this point, which of the teams has the advantage? In this paper, I answer this question through a systematic explanation of the concept of advantage. My theory is based on Sigmund Loland’s view that advantage can be distributed both formally and informally in sport competitions. I will develop Loland’s notion of formal advantage by introducing what I call an absolute sense of advantage - a relation of superiority that is based on the performances of two competitors. I replace informal advantage with what I refer to as an expectancy sense of advantage, which is related to expectations regarding the absolute advantage. These two senses of advantage have different functions, and I conclude that advantage is a phenomenon that plays a vital role in all sport competitions through these two senses - absolute and expectancy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • athletic performance
  • competition
  • Oscar Pistorius,unfair advantage
access type Otwarty dostęp

Ars Vitae and Sport

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 14 - 21

Abstrakt

Abstract

Our study aims to contribute to the approach of leading an optimal life and especially to the role of sport and physical activities in this life.

First, we have tried to find the optimal personal qualities which may be proper for the ars vitae (the art of life). Five of them (creativity, calculation, cooperation, concentration, and credibility) were chosen (on the empirical bases of long-time ethical seminars with students studying physical education) and annotated. This was done taking into account the practical applicability in sport.

Further, we have focused on proper biodromal projects, which are based on some traditional models. We judge sport can significantly contribute to the study three of these; at the same time, they are very useful in the sphere of sport. Thus the opposites of the Dionysian and Apollonian tendency of life, and the authentic and inauthentic one, were chosen for closer analysis. The third proper model (hedonism versus asceticism) was examined in an earlier study. More attention has been paid to antagonistic and integrative models of authenticity, and our conclusion was that we ought to consider them in mixed form when periods of antagonistic authenticity are replaced with periods of integrative authenticity in real life. Concrete examples have been taken from the field of sport. Kretchmar’s structural model of the good life is connected with this field more firmly and has been critically examined in the last chapter.

In conclusion, we name four conditions for the creation of optimal biodromal projects and for forming the real ars vitae.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ars vitae
  • authenticity
  • biodromal projects,personal qualities
access type Otwarty dostęp

Sport and Ethics of Weak Thought: A New Manifesto for Sport Education

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 22 - 29

Abstrakt

Abstract

The so-called “weak thought”, theorized by the Italian postmodernist philosopher Gianni Vattimo (born in 1936), considered one of the most important Italian philosophers, has dismantled the main concepts on which Western philosophy was based (that is, the notion of Truth, God, Reason, an absolute foundation to thought, etc.). This philosophy, which is inspired by Nietzsche’s nihilism, by Heidegger, and by the philosophy of hermeneutics and deconstruction, offers a critical starting point not only to rethink, in a less rigid way, our Western culture, its philosophy, and its problems, but also the ethical principles and educational values that guide human life.

Sport - as a human phenomenon and philosophical problem characterized by the presence of values, norms, behaviors, and rules that involves the action of human beings who interact and communicate “in” and “by” the game - can also be read in the light of this emerging philosophical theory. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that weak thought and its fundamental categories can be used and applied from a theoretical point of view in order to interpret and understand sport, deconstructing its meanings and its sociocultural and educational values.

Using the critical contribution of weak thought, in this study we will reflect on and rethink in a new way some of the main concepts considered absolute and fundamental to sport’s logical and philosophical structure, such as “winning” and “losing”, “referee” (which embodies the principle of “authority”), “opponent”, “freedom” in the game, “rules”, and respect when one plays.

The purpose of this study is to undertake a critical reflection on the limits of the concept of sport proposed by the Western tradition and to lay the foundations for a new model of ethics and education for the sports of the future.

Słowa kluczowe

  • education
  • hermeneutics
  • pedagogy
  • sport
  • Weak Thought
access type Otwarty dostęp

Sports and Recreational Activities of the Disabled From Eastern Regions of Poland

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 30 - 39

Abstrakt

Abstract

The primary objective of the study was recognition of the forms of sports and recreational activities of the disabled living in the regions of Rzeszów, Lublin and Białystok, and determination of the benefits drawn by them from participation in these activities. A total number of 750 were examined. The representative group was selected by the stratified random sampling method. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey. Research material was collected by means of mutually supplementary research techniques: questionnaire, interview, observation, and analysis of documentation.

A detailed analysis of the results obtained allowed the presumption that more than half of the people with disabilities from the eastern regions of Poland participate in sports-recreational activities, with the largest number of respondents with a mild degree of disability.

The majority of respondents approach their participation in sports-recreational activities not simply as a form of therapeutic rehabilitation. Respondents most frequently participated in walks, marches, and rehabilitation gymnastics. The largest percentage of respondents had never participated in hydrobics, horseback riding, hippotherapy, and swimming.

A considerable number of the respondents would like to participate in - apart from walks, marches, and rehabilitation gymnastics - team games and swimming. According to the respondents’ opinions, forms of sports-recreational activities that are most recommended with respect to the degree and type of disability are: rehabilitation gymnastics, walks, marches, and swimming.

Due to the participation in sports-recreational and tourism activities, those with disabilities have a good general well being, their state of health improves, they make new acquaintances and social contacts, make new friends, and elevate their physical efficacy and endurance. The respondents also indicated a change from sedentary lifestyle as well as satisfaction from overcoming both imperfections of own body and anxiety resulting from disability.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sports recreational activity
  • the disabled
  • eastern regions of Poland
access type Otwarty dostęp

What Values do Leisure Sports Create and What is Their Relationship to Competitiveness?

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 40 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

Sports play an increasingly important role in the economy and in society. Yet when it comes to the study of sports economics, most literature focuses on professional athletics; the topic of leisure sports receives scant attention on both the theoretical and the practical level, as Downward and his co-authors pointed out in 2009. This article will focus on leisure sports. Its goal is to highlight the values that leisure sports instill in individuals, companies, society and the economy, and to explore how leisure sports can make them more competitive. I will begin with a short conceptual definition of leisure sports and competitiveness, followed by a review of relevant academic literature. Finally, this paper will analyze the results of 31 qualitative in-depth interviews with business professionals, government officials, and representatives of civil society and university experts who specialize in sports business or sport sociology.

Słowa kluczowe

  • leisure sports
  • value creation
  • competitiveness
access type Otwarty dostęp

Comparative Study on Physical Activity and Back Pain of Young Mothers in Some Eastern European Countries

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 52 - 63

Abstrakt

Abstract

Young mothers frequently complain of backaches. The aim of this paper is to reveal if there is any relationship between physical activity in their early years (aged 6-18 years) and in adulthood, and between current physical activity and back pain. The paper is based on empirical research carried out by the survey method. With the help of structured sampling, 336 young mothers, all within 1-3 years after giving birth and all of whom were from the V4 countries and Romania, were included in the study. Their early and present physical activities, as well as their back pain in the upper and lower part of the back, was examined. Data were collected by questionnaire. To process the data, SPSS.17 was used. The results show that young mothers who were the most physically active in their early years remained the most active as adults. The correlation between the young mothers’ sporting activity in the early years (aged 6-18 years) and adulthood is strong. Due to their activity, the most physically active young mothers have less upper and lower back pain. The connection between current sporting activity and back pain were also significant both by the upper and the lower part of the back. It is concluded that regular physical activity in childhood is often continued and make up part of a young women’s life. As a result, they bear the early period of motherhood fitter and with fewer backaches.

Słowa kluczowe

  • young mothers
  • physical activity
  • childbirth
  • back pain
access type Otwarty dostęp

Social Sciences and Common Perceptions of Sport

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 64 - 74

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper provides a discussion on various aspects and features of the concept of the social sciences of sport. The concept originated recently and was formulated in 2007 during the preparations for the establishment of the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport. The Society, however, was not formed until the beginning of 2009. Among other things, the concept includes such academic disciplines and fields as sport sociology, sport philosophy, sport psychology, sport pedagogy, the history of physical fitness, sport and Olympism, sport politics and the international conditions of sport, sport economics, sport organizations and management, the social and cultural foundations of tourism and recreation, the social relations regarding training and sport tactics, as well as the humanistic theory of martial arts. The author presents a growth in interest of different social aspects and issues of sport at the beginning of the twentieth century. He indicates the significant development of sport during the second half of the last century, especially towards its end and at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The social sciences of sport was also underlined as the reason for the creation of a new, dynamically developing cognitive paradigm. According to the Author, it is mainly connected with the institutional and functional, organizational and methodological conditions of the social science of sport which specifically complemented the educational and research standards for the academic community around the globe. The Author emphasizes the social sciences of sport’s distinctive and autonomous part in sport science due to its specific and detailed merit-related issues and methodological foundations. He also stresses that not only does natural science (particularly biological science) play an important role in sport science, but also that the social science of sport has a vital and fundamental value in it. In his opinion, natural (biological) science in relation to sport refers mainly to one person’s organism, whereas social science refers, for the most part, to the axiological, cultural, symbolical, esthetic, ethical perception of physical exertion. Moreover, research conducted in this field encompasses the professional, pragmatic, utilitarian, cathartic, escapist, ludic, hedonistic, epistemological and recreational aspects of differently perceived professional sports or sport for all. The Author points out that the amount of available courses - lectures, classes, seminars - in the field of social sciences themselves, as well as in the social science of sport, is being gradually reduced, which undoubtedly lowers not only the knowledge, but also the perception, interpretation, explanation and comprehension of sport in the context of the humanistic approach. Furthermore, he indicates this trend’s influential role in the development of common-sense thinking, which makes opinion-forming and valuable comments on the subject of sport undergo cognitive deformations. He points out its negative influence on the listeners, audience and fans’ consciousness, opinion and attitude, as well as on the interpretative context of the observed events - not only ones associated with sport, but also those happening beyond it, for instance in social, family, peer, professional, political and religious life.

Słowa kluczowe

  • social sciences of sport
  • common-sense thinking
  • research methodology
  • hypothesis
  • research procedure
7 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Situational Theory of Advantages in Sport

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 5 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic explanation of the concept of advantage in the context of sport competitions. Advantage is a common concept in sports, but it also holds ambiguities that need clarification. Let’s say, for example, that the national soccer team of Brazil is playing the national team of Finland and is ahead 5 to 0. Finland receives a penalty kick due to a refereeing error. At this point, which of the teams has the advantage? In this paper, I answer this question through a systematic explanation of the concept of advantage. My theory is based on Sigmund Loland’s view that advantage can be distributed both formally and informally in sport competitions. I will develop Loland’s notion of formal advantage by introducing what I call an absolute sense of advantage - a relation of superiority that is based on the performances of two competitors. I replace informal advantage with what I refer to as an expectancy sense of advantage, which is related to expectations regarding the absolute advantage. These two senses of advantage have different functions, and I conclude that advantage is a phenomenon that plays a vital role in all sport competitions through these two senses - absolute and expectancy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • athletic performance
  • competition
  • Oscar Pistorius,unfair advantage
access type Otwarty dostęp

Ars Vitae and Sport

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 14 - 21

Abstrakt

Abstract

Our study aims to contribute to the approach of leading an optimal life and especially to the role of sport and physical activities in this life.

First, we have tried to find the optimal personal qualities which may be proper for the ars vitae (the art of life). Five of them (creativity, calculation, cooperation, concentration, and credibility) were chosen (on the empirical bases of long-time ethical seminars with students studying physical education) and annotated. This was done taking into account the practical applicability in sport.

Further, we have focused on proper biodromal projects, which are based on some traditional models. We judge sport can significantly contribute to the study three of these; at the same time, they are very useful in the sphere of sport. Thus the opposites of the Dionysian and Apollonian tendency of life, and the authentic and inauthentic one, were chosen for closer analysis. The third proper model (hedonism versus asceticism) was examined in an earlier study. More attention has been paid to antagonistic and integrative models of authenticity, and our conclusion was that we ought to consider them in mixed form when periods of antagonistic authenticity are replaced with periods of integrative authenticity in real life. Concrete examples have been taken from the field of sport. Kretchmar’s structural model of the good life is connected with this field more firmly and has been critically examined in the last chapter.

In conclusion, we name four conditions for the creation of optimal biodromal projects and for forming the real ars vitae.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ars vitae
  • authenticity
  • biodromal projects,personal qualities
access type Otwarty dostęp

Sport and Ethics of Weak Thought: A New Manifesto for Sport Education

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 22 - 29

Abstrakt

Abstract

The so-called “weak thought”, theorized by the Italian postmodernist philosopher Gianni Vattimo (born in 1936), considered one of the most important Italian philosophers, has dismantled the main concepts on which Western philosophy was based (that is, the notion of Truth, God, Reason, an absolute foundation to thought, etc.). This philosophy, which is inspired by Nietzsche’s nihilism, by Heidegger, and by the philosophy of hermeneutics and deconstruction, offers a critical starting point not only to rethink, in a less rigid way, our Western culture, its philosophy, and its problems, but also the ethical principles and educational values that guide human life.

Sport - as a human phenomenon and philosophical problem characterized by the presence of values, norms, behaviors, and rules that involves the action of human beings who interact and communicate “in” and “by” the game - can also be read in the light of this emerging philosophical theory. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that weak thought and its fundamental categories can be used and applied from a theoretical point of view in order to interpret and understand sport, deconstructing its meanings and its sociocultural and educational values.

Using the critical contribution of weak thought, in this study we will reflect on and rethink in a new way some of the main concepts considered absolute and fundamental to sport’s logical and philosophical structure, such as “winning” and “losing”, “referee” (which embodies the principle of “authority”), “opponent”, “freedom” in the game, “rules”, and respect when one plays.

The purpose of this study is to undertake a critical reflection on the limits of the concept of sport proposed by the Western tradition and to lay the foundations for a new model of ethics and education for the sports of the future.

Słowa kluczowe

  • education
  • hermeneutics
  • pedagogy
  • sport
  • Weak Thought
access type Otwarty dostęp

Sports and Recreational Activities of the Disabled From Eastern Regions of Poland

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 30 - 39

Abstrakt

Abstract

The primary objective of the study was recognition of the forms of sports and recreational activities of the disabled living in the regions of Rzeszów, Lublin and Białystok, and determination of the benefits drawn by them from participation in these activities. A total number of 750 were examined. The representative group was selected by the stratified random sampling method. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey. Research material was collected by means of mutually supplementary research techniques: questionnaire, interview, observation, and analysis of documentation.

A detailed analysis of the results obtained allowed the presumption that more than half of the people with disabilities from the eastern regions of Poland participate in sports-recreational activities, with the largest number of respondents with a mild degree of disability.

The majority of respondents approach their participation in sports-recreational activities not simply as a form of therapeutic rehabilitation. Respondents most frequently participated in walks, marches, and rehabilitation gymnastics. The largest percentage of respondents had never participated in hydrobics, horseback riding, hippotherapy, and swimming.

A considerable number of the respondents would like to participate in - apart from walks, marches, and rehabilitation gymnastics - team games and swimming. According to the respondents’ opinions, forms of sports-recreational activities that are most recommended with respect to the degree and type of disability are: rehabilitation gymnastics, walks, marches, and swimming.

Due to the participation in sports-recreational and tourism activities, those with disabilities have a good general well being, their state of health improves, they make new acquaintances and social contacts, make new friends, and elevate their physical efficacy and endurance. The respondents also indicated a change from sedentary lifestyle as well as satisfaction from overcoming both imperfections of own body and anxiety resulting from disability.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sports recreational activity
  • the disabled
  • eastern regions of Poland
access type Otwarty dostęp

What Values do Leisure Sports Create and What is Their Relationship to Competitiveness?

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 40 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

Sports play an increasingly important role in the economy and in society. Yet when it comes to the study of sports economics, most literature focuses on professional athletics; the topic of leisure sports receives scant attention on both the theoretical and the practical level, as Downward and his co-authors pointed out in 2009. This article will focus on leisure sports. Its goal is to highlight the values that leisure sports instill in individuals, companies, society and the economy, and to explore how leisure sports can make them more competitive. I will begin with a short conceptual definition of leisure sports and competitiveness, followed by a review of relevant academic literature. Finally, this paper will analyze the results of 31 qualitative in-depth interviews with business professionals, government officials, and representatives of civil society and university experts who specialize in sports business or sport sociology.

Słowa kluczowe

  • leisure sports
  • value creation
  • competitiveness
access type Otwarty dostęp

Comparative Study on Physical Activity and Back Pain of Young Mothers in Some Eastern European Countries

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 52 - 63

Abstrakt

Abstract

Young mothers frequently complain of backaches. The aim of this paper is to reveal if there is any relationship between physical activity in their early years (aged 6-18 years) and in adulthood, and between current physical activity and back pain. The paper is based on empirical research carried out by the survey method. With the help of structured sampling, 336 young mothers, all within 1-3 years after giving birth and all of whom were from the V4 countries and Romania, were included in the study. Their early and present physical activities, as well as their back pain in the upper and lower part of the back, was examined. Data were collected by questionnaire. To process the data, SPSS.17 was used. The results show that young mothers who were the most physically active in their early years remained the most active as adults. The correlation between the young mothers’ sporting activity in the early years (aged 6-18 years) and adulthood is strong. Due to their activity, the most physically active young mothers have less upper and lower back pain. The connection between current sporting activity and back pain were also significant both by the upper and the lower part of the back. It is concluded that regular physical activity in childhood is often continued and make up part of a young women’s life. As a result, they bear the early period of motherhood fitter and with fewer backaches.

Słowa kluczowe

  • young mothers
  • physical activity
  • childbirth
  • back pain
access type Otwarty dostęp

Social Sciences and Common Perceptions of Sport

Data publikacji: 10 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 64 - 74

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper provides a discussion on various aspects and features of the concept of the social sciences of sport. The concept originated recently and was formulated in 2007 during the preparations for the establishment of the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport. The Society, however, was not formed until the beginning of 2009. Among other things, the concept includes such academic disciplines and fields as sport sociology, sport philosophy, sport psychology, sport pedagogy, the history of physical fitness, sport and Olympism, sport politics and the international conditions of sport, sport economics, sport organizations and management, the social and cultural foundations of tourism and recreation, the social relations regarding training and sport tactics, as well as the humanistic theory of martial arts. The author presents a growth in interest of different social aspects and issues of sport at the beginning of the twentieth century. He indicates the significant development of sport during the second half of the last century, especially towards its end and at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The social sciences of sport was also underlined as the reason for the creation of a new, dynamically developing cognitive paradigm. According to the Author, it is mainly connected with the institutional and functional, organizational and methodological conditions of the social science of sport which specifically complemented the educational and research standards for the academic community around the globe. The Author emphasizes the social sciences of sport’s distinctive and autonomous part in sport science due to its specific and detailed merit-related issues and methodological foundations. He also stresses that not only does natural science (particularly biological science) play an important role in sport science, but also that the social science of sport has a vital and fundamental value in it. In his opinion, natural (biological) science in relation to sport refers mainly to one person’s organism, whereas social science refers, for the most part, to the axiological, cultural, symbolical, esthetic, ethical perception of physical exertion. Moreover, research conducted in this field encompasses the professional, pragmatic, utilitarian, cathartic, escapist, ludic, hedonistic, epistemological and recreational aspects of differently perceived professional sports or sport for all. The Author points out that the amount of available courses - lectures, classes, seminars - in the field of social sciences themselves, as well as in the social science of sport, is being gradually reduced, which undoubtedly lowers not only the knowledge, but also the perception, interpretation, explanation and comprehension of sport in the context of the humanistic approach. Furthermore, he indicates this trend’s influential role in the development of common-sense thinking, which makes opinion-forming and valuable comments on the subject of sport undergo cognitive deformations. He points out its negative influence on the listeners, audience and fans’ consciousness, opinion and attitude, as well as on the interpretative context of the observed events - not only ones associated with sport, but also those happening beyond it, for instance in social, family, peer, professional, political and religious life.

Słowa kluczowe

  • social sciences of sport
  • common-sense thinking
  • research methodology
  • hypothesis
  • research procedure

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