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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1335-8871
Pierwsze wydanie
07 Mar 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
6 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 16 (2016): Zeszyt 6 (December 2016)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1335-8871
Pierwsze wydanie
07 Mar 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
6 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

6 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of the Migration of Ice Frontal Surface in Freezing Soil

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 280 - 286

Abstrakt

Abstract

The tracking of the migration of ice frontal surface is crucial for the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in freezing soil. Owing to the distinct advantages, including non-invasive sensing, high safety, low cost and high data acquisition speed, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is considered to be a promising visualization measurement method. In this paper, the ECT method is used to visualize the migration of ice frontal surface in freezing soil. With the main motivation of the improvement of imaging quality, a loss function with multiple regularizers that incorporate the prior formation related to the imaging objects is proposed to cast the ECT image reconstruction task into an optimization problem. An iteration scheme that integrates the superiority of the split Bregman iteration (SBI) method is developed for searching for the optimal solution of the proposed loss function. An unclosed electrodes sensor is designed for satisfying the requirements of practical measurements. An experimental system of one dimensional freezing in frozen soil is constructed, and the ice frontal surface migration in the freezing process of the wet soil sample containing five percent of moisture is measured. The visualization measurement results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ECT visualization method

Słowa kluczowe

  • Freezing soil
  • ice frontal surface migration
  • electrical capacitance tomography
  • visualization measurement
  • image reconstruction method
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Omni-directivity Error of Electromagnetic Field Probe using Isotropic Antenna

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 287 - 293

Abstrakt

Abstract

This manuscript analyzes the omni-directivity error of an electromagnetic field (EM) probe and its dependence on frequency. The global directional characteristic of a whole EM probe consists of three independent directional characteristics of EM sensors - one for each coordinate. The shape of particular directional characteristics is frequency dependent and so is the shape of the whole EM probe’s global directional characteristic. This results in systematic error induced in the measurement of EM fields. This manuscript also contains quantitative formulation of such errors caused by the shape change of directional characteristics for different types of sensors depending on frequency and their mutual arrangement.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Electromagnetics
  • field sensor
  • error of measurement
  • Cartesian coordinates
  • spherical coordinates
  • coordinates transformation
Otwarty dostęp

Numerical Analysis of a Flexible Dual Loop Coil and its Experimental Validation for pre-Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rodents at 7 T

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 294 - 299

Abstrakt

Abstract

A surface radio frequency coil was developed for small animal image acquisition in a pre-clinical magnetic resonance imaging system at 7 T. A flexible coil composed of two circular loops was developed to closely cover the object to be imaged. Electromagnetic numerical simulations were performed to evaluate its performance before the coil construction. An analytical expression of the mutual inductance for the two circular loops as a function of the separation between them was derived and used to validate the simulations. The RF coil is composed of two circular loops with a 5 cm external diameter and was tuned to 300 MHz and 50 Ohms matched. The angle between the loops was varied and the Q factor was obtained from the S11 simulations for each angle. B1 homogeneity was also evaluated using the electromagnetic simulations. The coil prototype was designed and built considering the numerical simulation results. To show the feasibility of the coil and its performance, saline-solution phantom images were acquired. A correlation of the simulations and imaging experimental results was conducted showing a concordance of 0.88 for the B1 field. The best coil performance was obtained at the 90° aperture angle. A more realistic phantom was also built using a formaldehyde-fixed rat phantom for ex vivo imaging experiments. All images showed a good image quality revealing clearly defined anatomical details of an ex vivo rat.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Flexible coil
  • mutual inductance
  • rat imaging
  • magnetic resonance imaging
Otwarty dostęp

Measurement of Transient Permeability of Sp2/0 Myeloma Cells: Flow Cytometric Study

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 300 - 304

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electroporation is an electric field induced phenomenon occurring when the permeability of the cell membrane is increased due to the excess of critical transmembrane potential. Fluorescent dye assays are frequently used for evaluation of the permeabilization rate, however, the protocols vary, which negatively affects the repeatability of the results. In this work we have designed experiments to investigate the protocols and threshold concentrations of the Propidium Iodide (PI) and YO-PRO-1 (YP) fluorescent dyes for evaluation of mammalian cell permeabilization induced by electroporation. The Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cells were used and the bursts of 100 μs × 8 electrical pulses of 0.8-2 kV/cm were applied. It has been shown that the dye concentration has an influence on the detectable permeabilization, and the concentrations below 30 μM for PI and 1 μM for YP should be avoided for measurement of electropermeabilization efficacy due to unreliable fluorescence signals. Further, based on the experimental data, the permeabilization curve for the Sp2/0 myeloma cells in the 0.8-2 kV/cm range has been presented.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Electroporation
  • BD FACS Calibur
  • Amnis FlowSight
  • Sp2/0 myeloma cells
Otwarty dostęp

RFID Tag as a Sensor - A Review on the Innovative Designs and Applications

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 305 - 315

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has gained interests in both academia and industry since its invention. In addition to the applications in access control and supply chain, RFID is also a cost-efficient solution for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and pervasive monitoring. The battery free RFID tags are used as independent electromagnetic sensors or energy harvesting and data transmission interface of sensor modules for different measurement purposes. This review paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the innovative designs and applications of RFID sensor technology with new insights, identify the technical challenges, and outline the future perspectives. With a brief introduction to the fundamentals of RFID measurement, the enabling technologies and recent technical progress are illustrated, followed by an extensive discussion of the novel designs and applications. Then, based on an in-depth analysis, the potential constraints are identified and the envisaged future directions are suggested, including printable/wearable RFID, System-on-Chip (SoC), ultra-low power, etc. The comprehensive discussion of RFID sensor technology will be inspirational and useful for academic and industrial communities in investigating, developing, and applying RFID for various measurement applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • RFID sensor
  • NDT
  • pervasive monitoring
  • energy harvesting
  • SoC
Otwarty dostęp

A Regression-Based Family of Measures for Full-Reference Image Quality Assessment

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 316 - 325

Abstrakt

Abstract

The advances in the development of imaging devices resulted in the need of an automatic quality evaluation of displayed visual content in a way that is consistent with human visual perception. In this paper, an approach to full-reference image quality assessment (IQA) is proposed, in which several IQA measures, representing different approaches to modelling human visual perception, are efficiently combined in order to produce objective quality evaluation of examined images, which is highly correlated with evaluation provided by human subjects. In the paper, an optimisation problem of selection of several IQA measures for creating a regression-based IQA hybrid measure, or a multimeasure, is defined and solved using a genetic algorithm. Experimental evaluation on four largest IQA benchmarks reveals that the multimeasures obtained using the proposed approach outperform state-of-the-art full-reference IQA techniques, including other recently developed fusion approaches.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Image quality assessment
  • quality measurement
  • feature selection
  • multiple linear regression
  • genetic algorithm
6 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of the Migration of Ice Frontal Surface in Freezing Soil

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 280 - 286

Abstrakt

Abstract

The tracking of the migration of ice frontal surface is crucial for the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in freezing soil. Owing to the distinct advantages, including non-invasive sensing, high safety, low cost and high data acquisition speed, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is considered to be a promising visualization measurement method. In this paper, the ECT method is used to visualize the migration of ice frontal surface in freezing soil. With the main motivation of the improvement of imaging quality, a loss function with multiple regularizers that incorporate the prior formation related to the imaging objects is proposed to cast the ECT image reconstruction task into an optimization problem. An iteration scheme that integrates the superiority of the split Bregman iteration (SBI) method is developed for searching for the optimal solution of the proposed loss function. An unclosed electrodes sensor is designed for satisfying the requirements of practical measurements. An experimental system of one dimensional freezing in frozen soil is constructed, and the ice frontal surface migration in the freezing process of the wet soil sample containing five percent of moisture is measured. The visualization measurement results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ECT visualization method

Słowa kluczowe

  • Freezing soil
  • ice frontal surface migration
  • electrical capacitance tomography
  • visualization measurement
  • image reconstruction method
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Omni-directivity Error of Electromagnetic Field Probe using Isotropic Antenna

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 287 - 293

Abstrakt

Abstract

This manuscript analyzes the omni-directivity error of an electromagnetic field (EM) probe and its dependence on frequency. The global directional characteristic of a whole EM probe consists of three independent directional characteristics of EM sensors - one for each coordinate. The shape of particular directional characteristics is frequency dependent and so is the shape of the whole EM probe’s global directional characteristic. This results in systematic error induced in the measurement of EM fields. This manuscript also contains quantitative formulation of such errors caused by the shape change of directional characteristics for different types of sensors depending on frequency and their mutual arrangement.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Electromagnetics
  • field sensor
  • error of measurement
  • Cartesian coordinates
  • spherical coordinates
  • coordinates transformation
Otwarty dostęp

Numerical Analysis of a Flexible Dual Loop Coil and its Experimental Validation for pre-Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rodents at 7 T

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 294 - 299

Abstrakt

Abstract

A surface radio frequency coil was developed for small animal image acquisition in a pre-clinical magnetic resonance imaging system at 7 T. A flexible coil composed of two circular loops was developed to closely cover the object to be imaged. Electromagnetic numerical simulations were performed to evaluate its performance before the coil construction. An analytical expression of the mutual inductance for the two circular loops as a function of the separation between them was derived and used to validate the simulations. The RF coil is composed of two circular loops with a 5 cm external diameter and was tuned to 300 MHz and 50 Ohms matched. The angle between the loops was varied and the Q factor was obtained from the S11 simulations for each angle. B1 homogeneity was also evaluated using the electromagnetic simulations. The coil prototype was designed and built considering the numerical simulation results. To show the feasibility of the coil and its performance, saline-solution phantom images were acquired. A correlation of the simulations and imaging experimental results was conducted showing a concordance of 0.88 for the B1 field. The best coil performance was obtained at the 90° aperture angle. A more realistic phantom was also built using a formaldehyde-fixed rat phantom for ex vivo imaging experiments. All images showed a good image quality revealing clearly defined anatomical details of an ex vivo rat.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Flexible coil
  • mutual inductance
  • rat imaging
  • magnetic resonance imaging
Otwarty dostęp

Measurement of Transient Permeability of Sp2/0 Myeloma Cells: Flow Cytometric Study

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 300 - 304

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electroporation is an electric field induced phenomenon occurring when the permeability of the cell membrane is increased due to the excess of critical transmembrane potential. Fluorescent dye assays are frequently used for evaluation of the permeabilization rate, however, the protocols vary, which negatively affects the repeatability of the results. In this work we have designed experiments to investigate the protocols and threshold concentrations of the Propidium Iodide (PI) and YO-PRO-1 (YP) fluorescent dyes for evaluation of mammalian cell permeabilization induced by electroporation. The Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cells were used and the bursts of 100 μs × 8 electrical pulses of 0.8-2 kV/cm were applied. It has been shown that the dye concentration has an influence on the detectable permeabilization, and the concentrations below 30 μM for PI and 1 μM for YP should be avoided for measurement of electropermeabilization efficacy due to unreliable fluorescence signals. Further, based on the experimental data, the permeabilization curve for the Sp2/0 myeloma cells in the 0.8-2 kV/cm range has been presented.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Electroporation
  • BD FACS Calibur
  • Amnis FlowSight
  • Sp2/0 myeloma cells
Otwarty dostęp

RFID Tag as a Sensor - A Review on the Innovative Designs and Applications

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 305 - 315

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has gained interests in both academia and industry since its invention. In addition to the applications in access control and supply chain, RFID is also a cost-efficient solution for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and pervasive monitoring. The battery free RFID tags are used as independent electromagnetic sensors or energy harvesting and data transmission interface of sensor modules for different measurement purposes. This review paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the innovative designs and applications of RFID sensor technology with new insights, identify the technical challenges, and outline the future perspectives. With a brief introduction to the fundamentals of RFID measurement, the enabling technologies and recent technical progress are illustrated, followed by an extensive discussion of the novel designs and applications. Then, based on an in-depth analysis, the potential constraints are identified and the envisaged future directions are suggested, including printable/wearable RFID, System-on-Chip (SoC), ultra-low power, etc. The comprehensive discussion of RFID sensor technology will be inspirational and useful for academic and industrial communities in investigating, developing, and applying RFID for various measurement applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • RFID sensor
  • NDT
  • pervasive monitoring
  • energy harvesting
  • SoC
Otwarty dostęp

A Regression-Based Family of Measures for Full-Reference Image Quality Assessment

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2016
Zakres stron: 316 - 325

Abstrakt

Abstract

The advances in the development of imaging devices resulted in the need of an automatic quality evaluation of displayed visual content in a way that is consistent with human visual perception. In this paper, an approach to full-reference image quality assessment (IQA) is proposed, in which several IQA measures, representing different approaches to modelling human visual perception, are efficiently combined in order to produce objective quality evaluation of examined images, which is highly correlated with evaluation provided by human subjects. In the paper, an optimisation problem of selection of several IQA measures for creating a regression-based IQA hybrid measure, or a multimeasure, is defined and solved using a genetic algorithm. Experimental evaluation on four largest IQA benchmarks reveals that the multimeasures obtained using the proposed approach outperform state-of-the-art full-reference IQA techniques, including other recently developed fusion approaches.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Image quality assessment
  • quality measurement
  • feature selection
  • multiple linear regression
  • genetic algorithm

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