Zeszyty czasopisma

Tom 14 (2022): Zeszyt 3 (September 2022)
Special Zeszyt: Social Farming

Tom 14 (2022): Zeszyt 2 (June 2022)

Tom 14 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (March 2022)

Tom 13 (2021): Zeszyt 4 (December 2021)

Tom 13 (2021): Zeszyt 3 (September 2021)

Tom 13 (2021): Zeszyt 2 (June 2021)
Special Zeszyt: Sparsely populated rural areas

Tom 13 (2021): Zeszyt 1 (March 2021)

Tom 12 (2020): Zeszyt 4 (December 2020)

Tom 12 (2020): Zeszyt 3 (September 2020)
Special Zeszyt: Cultural Tourism and Rural Development

Tom 12 (2020): Zeszyt 2 (June 2020)

Tom 12 (2020): Zeszyt 1 (March 2020)

Tom 11 (2019): Zeszyt 4 (December 2019)
Special Zeszyt: Smart European Village

Tom 11 (2019): Zeszyt 3 (September 2019)

Tom 11 (2019): Zeszyt 2 (June 2019)
Special issue to the Centennial of the Mendel University in Brno

Tom 11 (2019): Zeszyt 1 (March 2019)

Tom 10 (2018): Zeszyt 4 (December 2018)

Tom 10 (2018): Zeszyt 3 (September 2018)

Tom 10 (2018): Zeszyt 2 (June 2018)

Tom 10 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (March 2018)

Tom 9 (2017): Zeszyt 4 (December 2017)

Tom 9 (2017): Zeszyt 3 (September 2017)
Special Zeszyt: Planning in the Rural Space Zeszyt Editors: Antonín Vaishar, Hana Vavrouchová

Tom 9 (2017): Zeszyt 2 (June 2017)

Tom 9 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (March 2017)
Special Zeszyt: Role of Water in the Rural Landscape. Special issue editors: Milada Šťastná, Andreas Panagopoulos, Zbyněk Kulhavý.

Tom 8 (2016): Zeszyt 4 (December 2016)
Special Zeszyt: Small towns as centres of rural areas, Editors: Annett Steinführer, Antonín Vaishar, Jana Zapletalová

Tom 8 (2016): Zeszyt 3 (September 2016)

Tom 8 (2016): Zeszyt 2 (June 2016)
Special issue title: Sustainability of Rural Areas in Practice, Special editors: doc. Ing. Dr. Milada Šťastná, doc. RNDr. Antonín Vaishar, CSc.

Tom 8 (2016): Zeszyt 1 (March 2016)

Tom 7 (2015): Zeszyt 4 (December 2015)

Tom 7 (2015): Zeszyt 3 (September 2015)

Tom 7 (2015): Zeszyt 2 (June 2015)

Tom 7 (2015): Zeszyt 1 (March 2015)

Tom 6 (2014): Zeszyt 4 (December 2014)

Tom 6 (2014): Zeszyt 3 (September 2014)

Tom 6 (2014): Zeszyt 2 (June 2014)

Tom 6 (2014): Zeszyt 1 (March 2014)
Demographic change, Zeszyt Editors: Černič-Mali Barbara, Koch Andreas

Tom 5 (2013): Zeszyt 4 (December 2013)
Farm Tourism across Europe, Zeszyt Editors: Irma Potočnik-Slavič, Serge Schmitz

Tom 5 (2013): Zeszyt 3 (September 2013)

Tom 5 (2013): Zeszyt 2 (June 2013)
Borders and borderlands in Central Europe, Zeszyt Editors: Šťastná Milada, Vaishar Antonín

Tom 5 (2013): Zeszyt 1 (March 2013)

Tom 4 (2012): Zeszyt 4 (October 2012)

Tom 4 (2012): Zeszyt 3 (September 2012)

Tom 4 (2012): Zeszyt 2 (June 2012)
Editors: Alexandra Kruse, Michael Roth and Anu Printsman

Tom 4 (2012): Zeszyt 1 (March 2012)
Editors: John McDonagh and Michael Woods

Tom 3 (2011): Zeszyt 4 (December 2011)

Tom 3 (2011): Zeszyt 3 (September 2011)
Editors: John McDonagh and Michael Woods

Tom 3 (2011): Zeszyt 2 (June 2011)

Tom 3 (2011): Zeszyt 1 (March 2011)

Tom 2 (2010): Zeszyt 4 (December 2010)

Tom 2 (2010): Zeszyt 3 (September 2010)

Tom 2 (2010): Zeszyt 2 (June 2010)

Tom 2 (2010): Zeszyt 1 (March 2010)

Tom 1 (2009): Zeszyt 4 (December 2009)

Tom 1 (2009): Zeszyt 3 (September 2009)

Tom 1 (2009): Zeszyt 2 (June 2009)

Tom 1 (2009): Zeszyt 1 (March 2009)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1803-8417
Pierwsze wydanie
24 Feb 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 9 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (March 2017)
Special Zeszyt: Role of Water in the Rural Landscape. Special issue editors: Milada Šťastná, Andreas Panagopoulos, Zbyněk Kulhavý.

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1803-8417
Pierwsze wydanie
24 Feb 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

13 Artykułów

Research articles

Otwarty dostęp

A minimum indicator set for assessing fontanili (lowland springs) of the Lombardy Region in Italy

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper reports on the issue of fontanili assessment. A fontanile is a lowland spring, excavated by humans for the use of underground water for irrigation. From the XII century on, fontanili have been dug to extend water availability throughout the year and increase agricultural land use in the lowlands of Northern Italy. Because water of the fontanile stays at temperature without great changes throughout the year (between 8 and 15°C), this environment is host to a vast variety of flora and fauna and has ecological and landscaping value. Because these springs are typical and unique landscape features of Northern Italy, there is not an international background on assessing methods of fontanili functions inside the countryside. The first goal has been to define a set of simple and consolidated indicators to evaluate watering, ecological and recreational function of 1160 fontanili of the Lombardy Region. The second one has been to identify homogenous areas with groups of fontanili in close proximity and with similar indicator values using interpolation tools. This classification can be used by Regional Administration to assign money to recover and maintain fontanili. The most important areas will be protected by regional and local planning instruments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Fontanile
  • lowland spring
  • functional assessment
  • Lombardy
Otwarty dostęp

Integration of soil and water conservation measures in an intensively cultivated watershed – a case study of Jihlava river basin (Czech Republic)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 17 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus inputs into surface waters from nonpoint agricultural sources requires targeted application of differentiated measures. In the study focused on soil and water conservation in the Jihlava river basin upstream of the Dalešice reservoir, we identified areas at potential risk of soil erosion, elevated infiltration and nutrient leaching, tile-drained areas and vulnerable riparian zones of water bodies. We then designed a system of complex protective measures for this river basin in more variants, and their effectiveness was estimated using simple empirical model calculations and research findings. Application of the measures defined by optimal variant 3 in the studied watershed could lead to reduction of the soil erosion effects on the surface water quality by 26.5 %, with simultaneous reduction of the amount of washed out total nitrogen by 22.8 %. The results of our study constitute a partial component of the Qualitative Model of the Jihlava River Basin and they were provided for use to the Vysočina Region authorities and the State Land Office.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dalešice reservoir
  • non-point agricultural pollution
  • nitrogen
  • phosphorus
  • soil erosion
  • nutrient leaching
  • protective measures
  • Jihlava River

Klíčová slova:

  • vodní nádrž Dalešice
  • plošné zemědělské znečištění
  • dusík
  • fosfor
  • vodní eroze
  • vyplavování živin
  • ochranná opatření
  • řeka Jihlava
Otwarty dostęp

Homokhátság - a special rural area affected by aridification in the Carpathian basin, Hungary

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 29 - 50

Abstrakt

Abstract

In Hungary, the aridification primarily affects the Great Hungarian Plain, most specifically the “Homokhátság” area which is part of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve. On the basis of our experience gained in the past 15 years, we would like to give an insight into the complex problems of this rural region. Our starting point is the aridification process and water scarcity which are characteristic features of this area for the last century. We investigate the related problems in land use management such as unfavourable land use and vegetation changes and the challenges in the local economy and social sustainability. In this respect we introduce the emerging issues in agriculture, forestry and nature conservation which may be relevant in European context too. We have discovered specific factors related to the devaluation of the rural environment and found that significant part of the unfavourable phenomena can be explained by the combined effect of climatic changes, improper land use and inappropriate environmental management. Based on our findings we outline a possible regional pathway for a sustainable rural development.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Danube-Tisza interfluve
  • land use change
  • climate change
  • unpredictable water balance
  • complex rural problems
  • rural development
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of erosion rates in cadastral area Rovečné (Moravia) using GIS tools

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 51 - 76

Abstrakt

Abstract

Evaluation of the vulnerability of agricultural land by water erosion, including the erosion control measures design, was done using the geographic information systems (GIS) on example of the cadastral area Rovečné, the Czech Republic. Analytical operations that lead to evaluation of the basic runoff and especially erosion rates according to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) were made in ArcGIS 10 Desktop, the software product ArcInfo using a set of integrated software applications ArcMap, ArcCatalog and user interface ArcToolbox, and also using programs LS-converter and USLE2D. The potential loss of soil by water erosion was determined before and after erosion control measures design. The proposed measures should improve the current situation and contribute to preservation of agricultural activity in this area in a form close to the current situation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cadastral area Rovečné
  • water erosion
  • USLE
  • ArcGIS
  • LS-converter
  • USLE2D

Klíčová slova

  • katastrální území Rovečné
  • vodní eroze
  • USLE
  • ArcGIS
  • LS-converter
  • USLE2D
Otwarty dostęp

Development of drainage system in the Czech landscape – identification and functionality assessment by means of remote sensing

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 77 - 98

Abstrakt

Abstract

Subsurface drainage systems are very important type of meliorative measures in the Czech Republic. Nevertheless, their functions are perceived differently in the Czech society. We can distinguish point of view of landowner, farmer, water manager or environmentalist. With regard to the climatic changes or new praxis of agricultural, there must be assessed changed conditions in relation to existing drainage systems. It has connection with the next strategy of their funding and management. Therein, in the Czech Republic, farmer has dominating position, instead of the state or landowner that would be probably more correct.

The paper presents results of user demands survey, conditions of drainage systems, their services and defects. New technologies, mainly remote sensing, and their use for identification and survey of drainage systems are presented too. Land drainage measures changed the whole landscape in the Czech Republic (agricultural intensification, loss of natural habitats and natural water flows etc.). In context of hydrological extremes′ rising and drainage systems′ ageing, existence of drainage systems must be solved. It means their maintainance for purpose of agricultural production, or, on the contrary, their elimination with the view of nature habitats′ recovery. Both solutions must differ in accordance with the different landscape characteristics of the Czech Republic.

Słowa kluczowe

  • amelioration
  • survey flight
  • phytoindication

Klíčová slova

  • odvodnění
  • snímkování
  • fytoindikace
Otwarty dostęp

A review of water quality policies in relation to public good benefits and community engagement in rural Ireland

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 99 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper examines current recreational water use in the rural landscape in Ireland and reviews current EU policies and national regulations aimed at protecting water quality and the wider environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public awareness and participation. In Ireland, there is limited experience in public participation in water quality protection and restoration and we highlight how this can be addressed by focussing on the specific contribution of water quality in rural areas in relation to the provision of recreational ecosystem services. These services provide the infrastructure for much of Ireland’s rural tourism sector. In this context, emerging participatory approaches to policy implementation are also assessed as national and local government prioritise community engagement for the second cycle under the EU Water Framework Directive.

Słowa kluczowe

  • agriculture
  • nutrients
  • water quality
  • participation
  • benefits
  • Ireland
Otwarty dostęp

Land use changes in the last half century and their impact on water retention in the Šumava mountains and foothills (Czech Republic)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 116 - 131

Abstrakt

Abstract

Changes in land use and runoff characteristics in Otava river basin and its two subcatchment (Volšovka and Vydra) were examined. The goal was to find out how water retention have responded to changes in landscape management in Šumava mountains and foothills since the year 1970. There were two basic levels of changing land use - (a) conversion of arable land with varying intensity at different management of intensive and extensive grassland, (b) deforestation of large areas of indigenous mostly spruce monocultures and their transfer to the shrub and herbaceous vegetation covering the surface with a discontinuous vegetation. Water retention in Šumava mountains is locally reduced due to vulnerability of monoculture spruce forests by natural disasters (windstorms), diseases and pests. A positive effect of current agricultural management in the Šumava foothills on the reduction of direct runoff during intense rainfall was confirmed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • land use
  • water retention
  • direct runoff
  • runoff CN
  • Šumava Mts

Klíčová slova

  • využití země
  • vodní retence
  • přímý odtok
  • metoda CN křivek
  • Šumava
Otwarty dostęp

Long term changes in water areas and wetlands in an intensively farmed landscape: A case study from the Czech Republic

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 132 - 144

Abstrakt

Abstract

The landscape of the Czech Republic currently faces droughts that are caused by several factors. One of the reasons for drought is landscape development and land cover changes. Changes in water and wetland areas and streams were studied by comparing old military maps and the present state. Water and wetland areas in fertile lowlands significantly decreased over time; the landscape was continuously dried out with the aim of increasing agricultural and woody production. While water and wetland areas occupied nearly one-third of the study area (Nové Dvory and Žehušice micro-regions in Central Bohemia) at the end of the 18th century, the present share of these areas is only 3.5%. There was a decrease of approximately 10% in each period, and nearly all of these areas disappeared by the end of the 19th century. Water and wetland areas were changed primarily to arable land. The length of streams decreased by the end of the 19th century. Drainage and irrigation channels were built during the 20th century, and although they are only periodic or episodic streams, these channels increased the total length of streams.

Słowa kluczowe

  • streams
  • still waters
  • wetlands
  • land use changes
  • drought
  • central Europe

Klíčová slova

  • vodní toky
  • vodní plochy
  • mokřadní plochy
  • změny využití krajiny
  • sucho
  • střední Evropa
Otwarty dostęp

New type of ponds? Changing of quantity and function of water bodies in rural built-up areas (Pilsen Region, Czechia)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 145 - 162

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study is focused on the changing of areas of water bodies in selected villages of the Pilsen Region (Czechia). We researched several different types of rural settlements and three time horizons with the help of old maps, orthophoto maps and GIS tools. To capture the influence of their location within the urban system, we chose 15 places from four categories (inner suburban area, outside suburban area, rural area, periphery rural area) depending on their distance to the core of the Pilsen agglomeration. There is no significant change in the amount of water bodies between the first reference period (1838-1839) and the second period (1957-1963) in the selected settlements. However, the third period (2013-2015) is characterized by the emergence of a large number of small water bodies - swimming pools and garden ponds. Based on the results of our research we identified the declining importance of public water bodies in some of the settlements. However, we have identified a notable prevalence of garden ponds which have a more positive ecological impact than pools. The proportion of private water bodies (covered and uncovered pools and garden ponds) in the total area of water bodies in the rural settlements in most cases is less than 20%, in the suburban settlements up to 100%. Peripheral settlements have a below-average share of these water bodies. The difference between the number of pools in different settlements is related to the proportion of newly built houses there. Although there are relatively fewer pools in rural settlements, the difference compared to the situation in suburban settlements is not pronounced due to the change in lifestyle in rural areas and the change in functions of some villages to recreational areas. Influence of pools on water consumption is dependent on the individual exchange technology of water in swimming pools. Filling of the pool before the season can overload the capacity of the local water supply.

Słowa kluczowe

  • swimming pools
  • garden ponds
  • rural settlements
  • water consumption
  • suburbanization
  • Pilsen Region

Klíčová slova

  • bazény
  • zahradní jezírka
  • venkovská sídla
  • spotřeba vody
  • suburbanizace
  • Plzeňský kraj
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of socio-economic impact of drought events: the case of Po river basin

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 163 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper focuses on the socioeconomic impacts of drought events. Its objective is in particular to explore and study the distributive effects of drought events in the agricultural sector, taking the Po river basin, the most important agricultural area in Italy, as case study area. Its theoretical and methodological approach makes basis on the consumer surplus theory. One of the most remarkable outcomes of this analysis is that the effects of the drought events change considerably according to the social group. As far as agriculture is concerned, it shows that farmers and consumers are affected differently. Farmers can even earn from drought, because of the “price effect” caused by the scarcity of agricultural products; consumers always loses, because of the “quantity effect” and the “price effect”. Very different impacts, in terms of sign and magnitude, were also observed among the farmers themselves, in particular when they are distinguished by crop category, and by geographical area.

Słowa kluczowe

  • drought event
  • socioeconomic impacts
  • distributive effects
  • Po river basin

Parole chiave

  • eventi siccitosi
  • impatti socioeconomici
  • effetti distributivi
  • bacino del Po
Otwarty dostęp

The changing role of local water resources over time (The case of Slovenian rural region Bela krajina)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 177 - 193

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article examines issues of local water resources using Bela Krajina as an example - a rural, karst landscape in south-eastern Slovenia. In the field, we made an inventory of 261 different water resources, analysing their past and current use along with their role in the life of the local population and assessing their hydrogeological sensitivity and hydroecological threat they face. With the introduction of distributed water systems, water resources lost their traditional importance in terms of water supply, with local population’s reliance on and knowledge about them fading. Nevertheless, certain local communities have recently recognized their natural and cultural value, as well as their importance to ecosystems, which is reflected in initiatives for the preservation, protection and restoration of individual water resources. Most of Bela Krajina’s water resources are very sensitive to pollution due to the karst surface, however the actual hydroecological threat they face from human activities in their catchments is relatively low.

Słowa kluczowe

  • water resources
  • hydrogeological sensitivity
  • hydroecological threat
  • vulnerability of water resources
  • local knowledge
  • Dinaric karst
  • Slovenia
  • Bela Krajina

Ključne besede

  • vodni viri
  • hidrogeološka občutljivost
  • hidroekološka ogroženost
  • ranljivost vodnih virov
  • lokalno znanje
  • Dinarski kras
  • Slovenija
  • Bela krajina

Short communications

Otwarty dostęp

Water constructions in countryside – case study of land use on the river Svratka in the village Ujčov (Moravia)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 194 - 210

Abstrakt

Abstract

Buildings and facilities on waterways have significant landscaping, water management and ecological importance. They affect the landscape and create conditions for the emergence of new habitats. Small dams, mills, saws, small hydropower plants, dams and other water objects and structures, which more or less affect the flow of the surrounding countryside, are built and are building in the countryside. Within design and construction of these objects environmental relationships must be respected and in line with the sustainable exploitation of the territory. Many objects built in the past adversely affected the flow and the landscape while make it impossible the migration of fish and amphibians. A series of objects is currently non-functional and have a negative impact on the flow and the surrounding countryside. In such cases the streams are revitalized or inoperative objects are removed, fish ladders are often built. This study evaluates the possibility of using land adjacent to the fixed weir on the Svratka river in the Ujčov village, from the viewpoint of maintaining the existing biodiversity, aesthetic and economic potential of the territory. A study with several options of land use is the result.

Słowa kluczowe

  • weir
  • small hydropower plants
  • Vír dam
  • fish ladder
  • the Czech Republic

Klíčová slova

  • jez
  • malá vodní elektrárna
  • vodní nádrž Vír
  • rybí přechod
  • Česká republika
Otwarty dostęp

Irrigation engineering in Spain and how it has changed the country’s landscape

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 211 - 229

Abstrakt

Abstract

Irrigation is a rural development technique widely extended in, and affecting the landscape of, areas of Mediterranean climate. In Spain, irrigation accounts for ⅔ of all water use. The country has over 3.5 million ha of irrigated land, some 15% of all its agricultural land. Valley bottoms and riversides are the landscapes most commonly associated with irrigation in Spain, followed by peninsular coastal and interior plains, basins, hollows and depressions. This paper describes the engineering infrastructures associated with irrigation, the structures involved in water capture, transport, storage and distribution, and water use and drainage in the irrigated lowlands of Spain. It also examines the environmental impact of such water use. Several descriptors are proposed to describe its association with the landscape.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Landscape
  • irrigation
  • water engineering
  • rural development
  • Mediterranean
  • Spain
13 Artykułów

Research articles

Otwarty dostęp

A minimum indicator set for assessing fontanili (lowland springs) of the Lombardy Region in Italy

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper reports on the issue of fontanili assessment. A fontanile is a lowland spring, excavated by humans for the use of underground water for irrigation. From the XII century on, fontanili have been dug to extend water availability throughout the year and increase agricultural land use in the lowlands of Northern Italy. Because water of the fontanile stays at temperature without great changes throughout the year (between 8 and 15°C), this environment is host to a vast variety of flora and fauna and has ecological and landscaping value. Because these springs are typical and unique landscape features of Northern Italy, there is not an international background on assessing methods of fontanili functions inside the countryside. The first goal has been to define a set of simple and consolidated indicators to evaluate watering, ecological and recreational function of 1160 fontanili of the Lombardy Region. The second one has been to identify homogenous areas with groups of fontanili in close proximity and with similar indicator values using interpolation tools. This classification can be used by Regional Administration to assign money to recover and maintain fontanili. The most important areas will be protected by regional and local planning instruments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Fontanile
  • lowland spring
  • functional assessment
  • Lombardy
Otwarty dostęp

Integration of soil and water conservation measures in an intensively cultivated watershed – a case study of Jihlava river basin (Czech Republic)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 17 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus inputs into surface waters from nonpoint agricultural sources requires targeted application of differentiated measures. In the study focused on soil and water conservation in the Jihlava river basin upstream of the Dalešice reservoir, we identified areas at potential risk of soil erosion, elevated infiltration and nutrient leaching, tile-drained areas and vulnerable riparian zones of water bodies. We then designed a system of complex protective measures for this river basin in more variants, and their effectiveness was estimated using simple empirical model calculations and research findings. Application of the measures defined by optimal variant 3 in the studied watershed could lead to reduction of the soil erosion effects on the surface water quality by 26.5 %, with simultaneous reduction of the amount of washed out total nitrogen by 22.8 %. The results of our study constitute a partial component of the Qualitative Model of the Jihlava River Basin and they were provided for use to the Vysočina Region authorities and the State Land Office.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dalešice reservoir
  • non-point agricultural pollution
  • nitrogen
  • phosphorus
  • soil erosion
  • nutrient leaching
  • protective measures
  • Jihlava River

Klíčová slova:

  • vodní nádrž Dalešice
  • plošné zemědělské znečištění
  • dusík
  • fosfor
  • vodní eroze
  • vyplavování živin
  • ochranná opatření
  • řeka Jihlava
Otwarty dostęp

Homokhátság - a special rural area affected by aridification in the Carpathian basin, Hungary

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 29 - 50

Abstrakt

Abstract

In Hungary, the aridification primarily affects the Great Hungarian Plain, most specifically the “Homokhátság” area which is part of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve. On the basis of our experience gained in the past 15 years, we would like to give an insight into the complex problems of this rural region. Our starting point is the aridification process and water scarcity which are characteristic features of this area for the last century. We investigate the related problems in land use management such as unfavourable land use and vegetation changes and the challenges in the local economy and social sustainability. In this respect we introduce the emerging issues in agriculture, forestry and nature conservation which may be relevant in European context too. We have discovered specific factors related to the devaluation of the rural environment and found that significant part of the unfavourable phenomena can be explained by the combined effect of climatic changes, improper land use and inappropriate environmental management. Based on our findings we outline a possible regional pathway for a sustainable rural development.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Danube-Tisza interfluve
  • land use change
  • climate change
  • unpredictable water balance
  • complex rural problems
  • rural development
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of erosion rates in cadastral area Rovečné (Moravia) using GIS tools

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 51 - 76

Abstrakt

Abstract

Evaluation of the vulnerability of agricultural land by water erosion, including the erosion control measures design, was done using the geographic information systems (GIS) on example of the cadastral area Rovečné, the Czech Republic. Analytical operations that lead to evaluation of the basic runoff and especially erosion rates according to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) were made in ArcGIS 10 Desktop, the software product ArcInfo using a set of integrated software applications ArcMap, ArcCatalog and user interface ArcToolbox, and also using programs LS-converter and USLE2D. The potential loss of soil by water erosion was determined before and after erosion control measures design. The proposed measures should improve the current situation and contribute to preservation of agricultural activity in this area in a form close to the current situation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cadastral area Rovečné
  • water erosion
  • USLE
  • ArcGIS
  • LS-converter
  • USLE2D

Klíčová slova

  • katastrální území Rovečné
  • vodní eroze
  • USLE
  • ArcGIS
  • LS-converter
  • USLE2D
Otwarty dostęp

Development of drainage system in the Czech landscape – identification and functionality assessment by means of remote sensing

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 77 - 98

Abstrakt

Abstract

Subsurface drainage systems are very important type of meliorative measures in the Czech Republic. Nevertheless, their functions are perceived differently in the Czech society. We can distinguish point of view of landowner, farmer, water manager or environmentalist. With regard to the climatic changes or new praxis of agricultural, there must be assessed changed conditions in relation to existing drainage systems. It has connection with the next strategy of their funding and management. Therein, in the Czech Republic, farmer has dominating position, instead of the state or landowner that would be probably more correct.

The paper presents results of user demands survey, conditions of drainage systems, their services and defects. New technologies, mainly remote sensing, and their use for identification and survey of drainage systems are presented too. Land drainage measures changed the whole landscape in the Czech Republic (agricultural intensification, loss of natural habitats and natural water flows etc.). In context of hydrological extremes′ rising and drainage systems′ ageing, existence of drainage systems must be solved. It means their maintainance for purpose of agricultural production, or, on the contrary, their elimination with the view of nature habitats′ recovery. Both solutions must differ in accordance with the different landscape characteristics of the Czech Republic.

Słowa kluczowe

  • amelioration
  • survey flight
  • phytoindication

Klíčová slova

  • odvodnění
  • snímkování
  • fytoindikace
Otwarty dostęp

A review of water quality policies in relation to public good benefits and community engagement in rural Ireland

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 99 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper examines current recreational water use in the rural landscape in Ireland and reviews current EU policies and national regulations aimed at protecting water quality and the wider environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public awareness and participation. In Ireland, there is limited experience in public participation in water quality protection and restoration and we highlight how this can be addressed by focussing on the specific contribution of water quality in rural areas in relation to the provision of recreational ecosystem services. These services provide the infrastructure for much of Ireland’s rural tourism sector. In this context, emerging participatory approaches to policy implementation are also assessed as national and local government prioritise community engagement for the second cycle under the EU Water Framework Directive.

Słowa kluczowe

  • agriculture
  • nutrients
  • water quality
  • participation
  • benefits
  • Ireland
Otwarty dostęp

Land use changes in the last half century and their impact on water retention in the Šumava mountains and foothills (Czech Republic)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 116 - 131

Abstrakt

Abstract

Changes in land use and runoff characteristics in Otava river basin and its two subcatchment (Volšovka and Vydra) were examined. The goal was to find out how water retention have responded to changes in landscape management in Šumava mountains and foothills since the year 1970. There were two basic levels of changing land use - (a) conversion of arable land with varying intensity at different management of intensive and extensive grassland, (b) deforestation of large areas of indigenous mostly spruce monocultures and their transfer to the shrub and herbaceous vegetation covering the surface with a discontinuous vegetation. Water retention in Šumava mountains is locally reduced due to vulnerability of monoculture spruce forests by natural disasters (windstorms), diseases and pests. A positive effect of current agricultural management in the Šumava foothills on the reduction of direct runoff during intense rainfall was confirmed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • land use
  • water retention
  • direct runoff
  • runoff CN
  • Šumava Mts

Klíčová slova

  • využití země
  • vodní retence
  • přímý odtok
  • metoda CN křivek
  • Šumava
Otwarty dostęp

Long term changes in water areas and wetlands in an intensively farmed landscape: A case study from the Czech Republic

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 132 - 144

Abstrakt

Abstract

The landscape of the Czech Republic currently faces droughts that are caused by several factors. One of the reasons for drought is landscape development and land cover changes. Changes in water and wetland areas and streams were studied by comparing old military maps and the present state. Water and wetland areas in fertile lowlands significantly decreased over time; the landscape was continuously dried out with the aim of increasing agricultural and woody production. While water and wetland areas occupied nearly one-third of the study area (Nové Dvory and Žehušice micro-regions in Central Bohemia) at the end of the 18th century, the present share of these areas is only 3.5%. There was a decrease of approximately 10% in each period, and nearly all of these areas disappeared by the end of the 19th century. Water and wetland areas were changed primarily to arable land. The length of streams decreased by the end of the 19th century. Drainage and irrigation channels were built during the 20th century, and although they are only periodic or episodic streams, these channels increased the total length of streams.

Słowa kluczowe

  • streams
  • still waters
  • wetlands
  • land use changes
  • drought
  • central Europe

Klíčová slova

  • vodní toky
  • vodní plochy
  • mokřadní plochy
  • změny využití krajiny
  • sucho
  • střední Evropa
Otwarty dostęp

New type of ponds? Changing of quantity and function of water bodies in rural built-up areas (Pilsen Region, Czechia)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 145 - 162

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study is focused on the changing of areas of water bodies in selected villages of the Pilsen Region (Czechia). We researched several different types of rural settlements and three time horizons with the help of old maps, orthophoto maps and GIS tools. To capture the influence of their location within the urban system, we chose 15 places from four categories (inner suburban area, outside suburban area, rural area, periphery rural area) depending on their distance to the core of the Pilsen agglomeration. There is no significant change in the amount of water bodies between the first reference period (1838-1839) and the second period (1957-1963) in the selected settlements. However, the third period (2013-2015) is characterized by the emergence of a large number of small water bodies - swimming pools and garden ponds. Based on the results of our research we identified the declining importance of public water bodies in some of the settlements. However, we have identified a notable prevalence of garden ponds which have a more positive ecological impact than pools. The proportion of private water bodies (covered and uncovered pools and garden ponds) in the total area of water bodies in the rural settlements in most cases is less than 20%, in the suburban settlements up to 100%. Peripheral settlements have a below-average share of these water bodies. The difference between the number of pools in different settlements is related to the proportion of newly built houses there. Although there are relatively fewer pools in rural settlements, the difference compared to the situation in suburban settlements is not pronounced due to the change in lifestyle in rural areas and the change in functions of some villages to recreational areas. Influence of pools on water consumption is dependent on the individual exchange technology of water in swimming pools. Filling of the pool before the season can overload the capacity of the local water supply.

Słowa kluczowe

  • swimming pools
  • garden ponds
  • rural settlements
  • water consumption
  • suburbanization
  • Pilsen Region

Klíčová slova

  • bazény
  • zahradní jezírka
  • venkovská sídla
  • spotřeba vody
  • suburbanizace
  • Plzeňský kraj
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of socio-economic impact of drought events: the case of Po river basin

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 163 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper focuses on the socioeconomic impacts of drought events. Its objective is in particular to explore and study the distributive effects of drought events in the agricultural sector, taking the Po river basin, the most important agricultural area in Italy, as case study area. Its theoretical and methodological approach makes basis on the consumer surplus theory. One of the most remarkable outcomes of this analysis is that the effects of the drought events change considerably according to the social group. As far as agriculture is concerned, it shows that farmers and consumers are affected differently. Farmers can even earn from drought, because of the “price effect” caused by the scarcity of agricultural products; consumers always loses, because of the “quantity effect” and the “price effect”. Very different impacts, in terms of sign and magnitude, were also observed among the farmers themselves, in particular when they are distinguished by crop category, and by geographical area.

Słowa kluczowe

  • drought event
  • socioeconomic impacts
  • distributive effects
  • Po river basin

Parole chiave

  • eventi siccitosi
  • impatti socioeconomici
  • effetti distributivi
  • bacino del Po
Otwarty dostęp

The changing role of local water resources over time (The case of Slovenian rural region Bela krajina)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 177 - 193

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article examines issues of local water resources using Bela Krajina as an example - a rural, karst landscape in south-eastern Slovenia. In the field, we made an inventory of 261 different water resources, analysing their past and current use along with their role in the life of the local population and assessing their hydrogeological sensitivity and hydroecological threat they face. With the introduction of distributed water systems, water resources lost their traditional importance in terms of water supply, with local population’s reliance on and knowledge about them fading. Nevertheless, certain local communities have recently recognized their natural and cultural value, as well as their importance to ecosystems, which is reflected in initiatives for the preservation, protection and restoration of individual water resources. Most of Bela Krajina’s water resources are very sensitive to pollution due to the karst surface, however the actual hydroecological threat they face from human activities in their catchments is relatively low.

Słowa kluczowe

  • water resources
  • hydrogeological sensitivity
  • hydroecological threat
  • vulnerability of water resources
  • local knowledge
  • Dinaric karst
  • Slovenia
  • Bela Krajina

Ključne besede

  • vodni viri
  • hidrogeološka občutljivost
  • hidroekološka ogroženost
  • ranljivost vodnih virov
  • lokalno znanje
  • Dinarski kras
  • Slovenija
  • Bela krajina

Short communications

Otwarty dostęp

Water constructions in countryside – case study of land use on the river Svratka in the village Ujčov (Moravia)

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 194 - 210

Abstrakt

Abstract

Buildings and facilities on waterways have significant landscaping, water management and ecological importance. They affect the landscape and create conditions for the emergence of new habitats. Small dams, mills, saws, small hydropower plants, dams and other water objects and structures, which more or less affect the flow of the surrounding countryside, are built and are building in the countryside. Within design and construction of these objects environmental relationships must be respected and in line with the sustainable exploitation of the territory. Many objects built in the past adversely affected the flow and the landscape while make it impossible the migration of fish and amphibians. A series of objects is currently non-functional and have a negative impact on the flow and the surrounding countryside. In such cases the streams are revitalized or inoperative objects are removed, fish ladders are often built. This study evaluates the possibility of using land adjacent to the fixed weir on the Svratka river in the Ujčov village, from the viewpoint of maintaining the existing biodiversity, aesthetic and economic potential of the territory. A study with several options of land use is the result.

Słowa kluczowe

  • weir
  • small hydropower plants
  • Vír dam
  • fish ladder
  • the Czech Republic

Klíčová slova

  • jez
  • malá vodní elektrárna
  • vodní nádrž Vír
  • rybí přechod
  • Česká republika
Otwarty dostęp

Irrigation engineering in Spain and how it has changed the country’s landscape

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2017
Zakres stron: 211 - 229

Abstrakt

Abstract

Irrigation is a rural development technique widely extended in, and affecting the landscape of, areas of Mediterranean climate. In Spain, irrigation accounts for ⅔ of all water use. The country has over 3.5 million ha of irrigated land, some 15% of all its agricultural land. Valley bottoms and riversides are the landscapes most commonly associated with irrigation in Spain, followed by peninsular coastal and interior plains, basins, hollows and depressions. This paper describes the engineering infrastructures associated with irrigation, the structures involved in water capture, transport, storage and distribution, and water use and drainage in the irrigated lowlands of Spain. It also examines the environmental impact of such water use. Several descriptors are proposed to describe its association with the landscape.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Landscape
  • irrigation
  • water engineering
  • rural development
  • Mediterranean
  • Spain

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