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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-5319
Pierwsze wydanie
22 Jan 2014
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 8 (2014): Zeszyt 2 (June 2014)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-5319
Pierwsze wydanie
22 Jan 2014
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 65 - 69

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

Key Words

  • PID Control
  • Parrot
  • Quadro-Rotor
  • Modeling
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of the Atmosphere on the Performances of Aviation Turbine Engines

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 70 - 73

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents how the parameters defining the state of the atmosphere: pressure, temperature, humidity, are affecting performance of the aircraft turbine engines and their durability. Also negative impact of dust pollution level is considered as an important source of engine deterioration. Article highlights limitation of the aircraft takeoff weight (TOW) and requirements for length of the runways depending on weather condition changes. These problems stem from the growing “demand” of gas turbine engines for an air. The highest thrust engines have air mass flow more than 1000 kg/s. Engine inlet ice formation is presented as a result of weather conditions and inlet duct design features.

Key Words

  • Power Plant
  • Aircraft Engine
  • Turbine Engine
  • Inlet Icing
  • Standard Atmosphere
Otwarty dostęp

Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of the Strain Gauge Based Stabilographic Platform

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 74 - 78

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present article describes constructing a stabilographic platform which records a standing patient’s deflection from their point of balance. The constructed device is composed of a toughen glass slab propped with 4 force sensors. Power transducers are connected to the measurement system based on a 24-bit ADC transducer which acquires slight body movements of a patient. The data is then transferred to the computer in real time and data analysis is conducted. The article explains the principle of operation as well as the algorithm of measurement uncertainty for the COP (Centre of Pressure) surface (x, y).

Key Words

  • Posturograph
  • Stabilography Center of Pressure
  • Measurement Uncertainty
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Non-Uniform Distribution of the Equivalent Stress by Selected Multiaxial Fatigue Criteria in Butt-Welded Joint

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 79 - 82

Abstrakt

Abstract

Welded joints are areas of increased stresses in construction. The reason for this phenomenon is associated with the nonhomo-geneous mechanical, structural and geometrical properties of the weld seams. Generally, in the majority of the calculation it is assumed that the shape of the weld is uniform over the entire length and it is not deviating from the theoretical one. This article shows the distribution of stress in the butt-weld made of S355J2+N steel specimens. The shape of a joint was transferred to the finite element analysis by application of 3D scanning. Selected multiaxial fatigue criteria and probability mass function were used for a description of the results. Theoretical model prepared for comparison to the scanned joints was consistent with recommendations of International Institute of Welding for the effective notch method.

Key Words

  • FEM Analysis
  • Weld
  • Stress Concentration
  • 3D Scanning
Otwarty dostęp

Stress Distribution in a Composite Coating by Local Loading of the Free Surface

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 83 - 87

Abstrakt

Abstract

A three-dimensional problem of the theory of elasticity for halfspace with multilayered coating with periodical structure is considered. The fundamental layer consists of two layers with different thicknesses and different mechanical properties. The coating is described by the homogenized model with microlocal parameters. The solution is derived by using integral Fourier transform. Calculations were conducted with the assumption of elliptical distribution of normal and tangential tractions applied to the surface of the layered system in a cir-cular area. Analysis of the stresses was restricted to the first principal stress distribution.

Key Words

  • Gradient Coating
  • Three-Dimensional Problem of Elasticity
  • Normal Loading
  • Shear Loading
Otwarty dostęp

Kalman Filter Realization for Orientation and Position Estimation on Dedicated Processor

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 88 - 94

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents Kalman filter design which has been programmed and evaluated in dedicated STM32 platform. The main aim of the work performed was to achieve proper estimation of attitude and position signals which could be further used in unmanned aeri-al vehicle autopilots. Inertial measurement unit and GPS receiver have been used as measurement devices in order to achieve needed raw sensor data. Results of Kalman filter estimation were recorded for signals measurements and compared with raw data. Position actualization frequency was increased from 1 Hz which is characteristic to GPS receivers, to values close to 50 Hz. Furthermore it is shown how Kalman filter deals with GPS accuracy decreases and magnetometer measurement noise.

Key Words

  • INS
  • GPS
  • Kalman Filter
Otwarty dostęp

The Influence of Changes in the Geometry of the Tooth Surface of the Pinion Bevel Gear on the Kinematic Accuracy of Pair Mesh

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 95 - 98

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper describes the possibilities of bevel gears kinematics design on the basis of the motion graph and improving modifications to cut the pinion teeth flanks. The result is the ability to increase the accuracy of the kinematic transmission. The issue of changing the geometry of the pinion gear is considered in respect of a gear intended for the use in aviation, which requires the cooperation of high quality meshing. The basic geometric features that have been modified include the profile angle, the angle of tooth line, crowning trans-verse and longitudinal and lateral surface twist angle of the tooth. The modification of each of the selected geometrical parameters has had a different effect on the chart of transmission. It has been shown that the effect of the intended changes in the geometry of the pinion may reduce the deviation of motion delays gear and an improve the gear transmission chart.

Key Words

  • Bevel Gears
  • Gleason
  • Kinematic Accuracy
Otwarty dostęp

Some Differential Equations of Elasticity and their Lie Point Symmetry Generators

Data publikacji: 10 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 99 - 102

Abstrakt

Abstract

The formal models of physical systems are typically written in terms of differential equations. A transformation of the variables in a differential equation forms a symmetry group if it leaves the differential equation invariant. Symmetries of differential equations are very important for understanding of their properties. It can be said that the theory of Lie group symmetries of differential equations is general systematic method for finding solutions of differential equations. Despite of this fact, the Lie group theory is relatively unknown in engineering community. The paper is devoted to some important questions concerning this theory and for several equations resulting from the theory of elasticity their Lie group infinitesimal generators are given.

Key Words

  • Lie Groups
  • Symmetry
  • Differential Equations
  • Elasticity
  • Group Generator
Otwarty dostęp

Stress Concentration Resulting from Irregular Shape of Explosively Cladded Materials Connections - Fem Simulation

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 103 - 106

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper contains a numerical analysis of interface zone steel-titanium bimetal obtained by explosive cladding method. Due to the waviness of the zone, and various properties of the constituent material of the materials type contain structural notch. Therefore it is important inter alia in terms of presentation of the results of fatigue are the maximum stresses that occur just in the area of the zone. In the paper the stress concentration factor and the proposed method of modelling the joint zone of a sinusoidal profile, characterized by the same coefficient of stress concentration at the actual profile.

Key Words

  • FEM
  • Explosive Cladding
  • Interference Zone
Otwarty dostęp

Friction Effect in a Plane Problem of Punch Acting on A Half-Space Weakened by Cracks

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 107 - 114

Abstrakt

Abstract

This work makes use of singular integral equations method to solve plane contact problem for a half-space containing cracks. This method is based on complex variables. Relationships are presented which help find the contact pressure under the punch and the value of stress intensity factors at the crack tips. A detailed solution is presented for the problem of a punch pressed to the surface of a half-space weakened by a single straight crack. It includes both a situation where the punch has a flat and parabolic base. The influence of friction and the position of the crack on the distribution of the values of stress intensity factors i in the functions of crack length and distance from the contact zone was analyzed in detail.

Key Words

  • Contact Problem
  • Elastic Half-Space
  • Crack
  • Stress Intensity Factor
  • Friction
10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 65 - 69

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

Key Words

  • PID Control
  • Parrot
  • Quadro-Rotor
  • Modeling
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of the Atmosphere on the Performances of Aviation Turbine Engines

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 70 - 73

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents how the parameters defining the state of the atmosphere: pressure, temperature, humidity, are affecting performance of the aircraft turbine engines and their durability. Also negative impact of dust pollution level is considered as an important source of engine deterioration. Article highlights limitation of the aircraft takeoff weight (TOW) and requirements for length of the runways depending on weather condition changes. These problems stem from the growing “demand” of gas turbine engines for an air. The highest thrust engines have air mass flow more than 1000 kg/s. Engine inlet ice formation is presented as a result of weather conditions and inlet duct design features.

Key Words

  • Power Plant
  • Aircraft Engine
  • Turbine Engine
  • Inlet Icing
  • Standard Atmosphere
Otwarty dostęp

Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of the Strain Gauge Based Stabilographic Platform

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 74 - 78

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present article describes constructing a stabilographic platform which records a standing patient’s deflection from their point of balance. The constructed device is composed of a toughen glass slab propped with 4 force sensors. Power transducers are connected to the measurement system based on a 24-bit ADC transducer which acquires slight body movements of a patient. The data is then transferred to the computer in real time and data analysis is conducted. The article explains the principle of operation as well as the algorithm of measurement uncertainty for the COP (Centre of Pressure) surface (x, y).

Key Words

  • Posturograph
  • Stabilography Center of Pressure
  • Measurement Uncertainty
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Non-Uniform Distribution of the Equivalent Stress by Selected Multiaxial Fatigue Criteria in Butt-Welded Joint

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 79 - 82

Abstrakt

Abstract

Welded joints are areas of increased stresses in construction. The reason for this phenomenon is associated with the nonhomo-geneous mechanical, structural and geometrical properties of the weld seams. Generally, in the majority of the calculation it is assumed that the shape of the weld is uniform over the entire length and it is not deviating from the theoretical one. This article shows the distribution of stress in the butt-weld made of S355J2+N steel specimens. The shape of a joint was transferred to the finite element analysis by application of 3D scanning. Selected multiaxial fatigue criteria and probability mass function were used for a description of the results. Theoretical model prepared for comparison to the scanned joints was consistent with recommendations of International Institute of Welding for the effective notch method.

Key Words

  • FEM Analysis
  • Weld
  • Stress Concentration
  • 3D Scanning
Otwarty dostęp

Stress Distribution in a Composite Coating by Local Loading of the Free Surface

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 83 - 87

Abstrakt

Abstract

A three-dimensional problem of the theory of elasticity for halfspace with multilayered coating with periodical structure is considered. The fundamental layer consists of two layers with different thicknesses and different mechanical properties. The coating is described by the homogenized model with microlocal parameters. The solution is derived by using integral Fourier transform. Calculations were conducted with the assumption of elliptical distribution of normal and tangential tractions applied to the surface of the layered system in a cir-cular area. Analysis of the stresses was restricted to the first principal stress distribution.

Key Words

  • Gradient Coating
  • Three-Dimensional Problem of Elasticity
  • Normal Loading
  • Shear Loading
Otwarty dostęp

Kalman Filter Realization for Orientation and Position Estimation on Dedicated Processor

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 88 - 94

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents Kalman filter design which has been programmed and evaluated in dedicated STM32 platform. The main aim of the work performed was to achieve proper estimation of attitude and position signals which could be further used in unmanned aeri-al vehicle autopilots. Inertial measurement unit and GPS receiver have been used as measurement devices in order to achieve needed raw sensor data. Results of Kalman filter estimation were recorded for signals measurements and compared with raw data. Position actualization frequency was increased from 1 Hz which is characteristic to GPS receivers, to values close to 50 Hz. Furthermore it is shown how Kalman filter deals with GPS accuracy decreases and magnetometer measurement noise.

Key Words

  • INS
  • GPS
  • Kalman Filter
Otwarty dostęp

The Influence of Changes in the Geometry of the Tooth Surface of the Pinion Bevel Gear on the Kinematic Accuracy of Pair Mesh

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 95 - 98

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper describes the possibilities of bevel gears kinematics design on the basis of the motion graph and improving modifications to cut the pinion teeth flanks. The result is the ability to increase the accuracy of the kinematic transmission. The issue of changing the geometry of the pinion gear is considered in respect of a gear intended for the use in aviation, which requires the cooperation of high quality meshing. The basic geometric features that have been modified include the profile angle, the angle of tooth line, crowning trans-verse and longitudinal and lateral surface twist angle of the tooth. The modification of each of the selected geometrical parameters has had a different effect on the chart of transmission. It has been shown that the effect of the intended changes in the geometry of the pinion may reduce the deviation of motion delays gear and an improve the gear transmission chart.

Key Words

  • Bevel Gears
  • Gleason
  • Kinematic Accuracy
Otwarty dostęp

Some Differential Equations of Elasticity and their Lie Point Symmetry Generators

Data publikacji: 10 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 99 - 102

Abstrakt

Abstract

The formal models of physical systems are typically written in terms of differential equations. A transformation of the variables in a differential equation forms a symmetry group if it leaves the differential equation invariant. Symmetries of differential equations are very important for understanding of their properties. It can be said that the theory of Lie group symmetries of differential equations is general systematic method for finding solutions of differential equations. Despite of this fact, the Lie group theory is relatively unknown in engineering community. The paper is devoted to some important questions concerning this theory and for several equations resulting from the theory of elasticity their Lie group infinitesimal generators are given.

Key Words

  • Lie Groups
  • Symmetry
  • Differential Equations
  • Elasticity
  • Group Generator
Otwarty dostęp

Stress Concentration Resulting from Irregular Shape of Explosively Cladded Materials Connections - Fem Simulation

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 103 - 106

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper contains a numerical analysis of interface zone steel-titanium bimetal obtained by explosive cladding method. Due to the waviness of the zone, and various properties of the constituent material of the materials type contain structural notch. Therefore it is important inter alia in terms of presentation of the results of fatigue are the maximum stresses that occur just in the area of the zone. In the paper the stress concentration factor and the proposed method of modelling the joint zone of a sinusoidal profile, characterized by the same coefficient of stress concentration at the actual profile.

Key Words

  • FEM
  • Explosive Cladding
  • Interference Zone
Otwarty dostęp

Friction Effect in a Plane Problem of Punch Acting on A Half-Space Weakened by Cracks

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 107 - 114

Abstrakt

Abstract

This work makes use of singular integral equations method to solve plane contact problem for a half-space containing cracks. This method is based on complex variables. Relationships are presented which help find the contact pressure under the punch and the value of stress intensity factors at the crack tips. A detailed solution is presented for the problem of a punch pressed to the surface of a half-space weakened by a single straight crack. It includes both a situation where the punch has a flat and parabolic base. The influence of friction and the position of the crack on the distribution of the values of stress intensity factors i in the functions of crack length and distance from the contact zone was analyzed in detail.

Key Words

  • Contact Problem
  • Elastic Half-Space
  • Crack
  • Stress Intensity Factor
  • Friction

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