Today, the increase of the world’s population and climate change has resulted in the reduction of fresh water resources and the increase of arid and semi-arid areas, and thus, it is necessary to find a new solution to increase the production of food resources. Aquaculture is one of the sources of food production, which can play a key role in fighting poverty and hunger. Sustainable aquaculture is strongly dependent on water quantity and quality, and also, optimal fish production can be determined by the physical, chemical and biological quality of water. Due to the current restrictions and the global increase in demand for aquatic products, unconventional waters (UWs) have been used in aquaculture. UWs include: recycled water, sewage, saline water, agricultural drains and water resulting from the process of sweetening and desalination of salty water. Today, these water resources have been used to grow all kinds of aquatic animals to provide food and protein. Considering the limited water resources in the world, the use of UWs is very effective and efficient in managing drought, and is considered as one of the ways to develop food production for humans. Due to its importance in areas facing water scarcity, the use of unconventional water resources (UWRs) to supplement or replace the use of conventional fresh water sources has been considered. In this review study, the importance of UWs and their sources, aquaculture products and aquatics that can be cultivated with the help of UWs are discussed.