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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1338-4376
Pubblicato per la prima volta
06 Jun 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 65 (2019): Edizione 3 (October 2019)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1338-4376
Pubblicato per la prima volta
06 Jun 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Change in the Parameters of Soils Contaminated by Oil and Oil Products

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 88 - 98

Astratto

Abstract

The oil well drilling and oil processing industries are globally the main contaminants of environmental condition caused by human economic activities. Oil spills have a negative impact on the environment, economy, and society. In this research, the effects of oil with different chemical contents on soil types formed in two soil-climatic conditions have been studied. The purpose of this research is to study the change of soil properties by oil pollution. The experiments have been conducted in irrigated and non-irrigated soils of the desert region of the Kashkadarya and Surkhandarya (Uzbekistan). The results have shown that aggregates (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 5; 7; 10 mm) which are the important of soil fertility have changed by oil and oil production, and the changes have proven to be temporary. The effect of the 5% and 15% concentrations of oil, engine oil, petrol, kerosene has been studied. The aggregates 0.25 mm and 0.5 mm have the biggest change among aggregates, in fact, aggregates of 0.25 mm at the level of 5% of oil decreased by 27.02%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 99.8%, at the level of 5% of kerosene decreased by 2%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 98.1%. Aggregates of 0.5 mm at the level of 5% of oil decreased by 6.44%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 67.14%, at the level of 5% of kerosene decreased by 12.75%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 92.8%. Engine oil and Petrol at levels 5 and 15 have relatively rare changed. Also, as a result of oil and oil pollution, the total carbon dioxide in the soil has grown briefly, which is an anthropogenic carbon and insignificant for soil fertility and humus. As a result, an anthropogenic carbon increased in gray-brown soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) at 0 – 35 cm layer by 0.22%, irrigated meadow-alluvial soil (Fluvisols, WRB) by 0.31%, irrigated gray-brown soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) by 0.44%, irrigated Takyr-meadow soil (Calsisols, WRB) by 0.25%, Takyr soil (Calsisols, WRB) by 0.32%, sandy Desert soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) by 0.21%.

Parole chiave

  • soil
  • oil
  • pollution
  • aggregate
  • humus
  • organic carbon
  • bioremediation
Accesso libero

Growth of Potato Shoot Cultures on Media with Antibiotics for Elimination of Bacterial Contamination

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 99 - 106

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of our work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics on the growth of potato shoot cultures in the Gene Bank of the Slovak Republic collection and to determine the type and dose that may be used to treat potato cultures endangered by endophytic bacteria. Antibiotics Chloramphenicol at doses 20, 50 and 100 mg/L, Gentamycin and Rifampicin in doses 20, 50, 100, 200 mg/L and the combination of Gentamycin and Rifampicin with 100 mg/L of each were used. Growth parameters – the shoot length and the number of nodal segments per shoot and rooting of ten cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. of different origin were evaluated. Chloramphenicol already at the lowest dose had the strong inhibitory effect on regeneration, growth, and rooting of shoots. Gentamycin inhibited the growth of shoots gradually with increasing dose of it, rooting of shoots was negatively affected using the dose 50 mg/L or higher. Rifampicin up to 100 mg/L had the minimal effect on the shoots growth, rooting of shoots was not affected, but shoots were characterised by smaller or stunted leaves. Although the growth of shoots was affected, all ten genotypes used in the experiments were able to regenerate and grow at the highest dose of Rifampicin and Gentamycin. According to the results, it is highly probable that these antibiotics up to 100 mg/L or their combination would be suitable for culture preservation of the most genotypes in the gene-bank collection. On the other hand, Chloramphenicol cannot be recommended due to its strong detrimental effect on potato shoot cultures.

Parole chiave

  • potato germplasm
  • conservation
  • nodal explants
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Gentamycin
  • Rifampicin
Accesso libero

Responses of Two Barley Subspecies to In vitro-Induced Heavy Metal Stress: Seeds Germination, Seedlings Growth and Cytotoxicity Assay

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 107 - 118

Astratto

Abstract

In this work three heavy metals: cadmium (as CdSO4), cobalt (as CoCl2) and zinc (as ZnSO4), were used to determine and compare their toxicity towards two subspecies of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare L. and Hordeum vulgare subsp. distichum L.), focusing on seeds germination, seedlings growth, and cytological parameters. The results indicate that the effect of these heavy metals depends on the metal kind, the metal concentrations and the plant subspecies. Generally, in the case of H. vulgare, the heavy metal salts understudy did not influence significantly seed germination and seedling growth parameters. However, these metal salts influence significantly these parameters for H. distichum. The cytological test showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mitotic index among the increase of the heavy metal concentrations when evaluated with the control for H. vulgare and H. distichum. Consequently, H. vulgare seemed to be more tolerant of the increase of the three heavy metals concentrations than H. distichum.

Parole chiave

  • subsp. L.
  • subsp. L.
  • mitotic index
  • heavy metals
Accesso libero

Effect of Planting Methods on the Quality of Three Egyptian Rice Varieties

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 119 - 127

Astratto

Abstract

In Egypt, the traditional transplanting method of rice planting is substituted by broadcasting and dibbling recently. This paper studies the effects and the changes occur in different rice varieties due to different methods on grain quality and amino acids of rice. Three Egyptian rice cultivars belonging to japonica, japonica/indica and indica subspecies were investigated for grain quality, protein and amino acid composition under three planting methods, i.e., broadcasting, seedling transplanting and dibbling. A strip plot design with three replications was used; the investigated three rice cultivars occupied the horizontal main plot, while three planting methods were devoted to the vertical main plot. The method of planting did not affect significantly the grain dimension, but it affected significantly the milling characters and the 1,000-grain weight. The highest milling characters and 1,000-grain weight came from transplanting, while the lowest one from the dibbling method. There was no significant difference between transplanting and broadcasting in milling characters and 1,000-grain weight. The chemical and cooking characters of grains showed no significant differences in moisture content and gelatinization temperature characters, while the differences in protein content and elongation were significant among the varieties and planting methods. The interaction between the planting method and rice had significant effect on the protein content. The most important essential amino acids according to the FAO/WHO pattern were not affected significantly by the different methods of planting. This means that the biological value of rice grains is not affected by different methods of planting.

Parole chiave

  • planting methods
  • rice quality
  • milling
  • amino acids
  • proteins
Accesso libero

Assessment of the Contamination Level of a Podzolized Chernozem with Nuclides in a Long-term Land Use

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 128 - 135

Astratto

Abstract

Prolonged systematic application of mineral fertilisers contributes to increasing the yielding capacity of agricultural crops. However, it can lead to significant changes in the composition, properties and formation of agricultural soil regimes. The findings of the research have shown that the application of mineral fertilisers leads to the change of radioactive nuclides content in the soil. The research was conducted under conditions of a long-term stationary field experiment (Uman, Ukraine), using different rates of mineral fertilisers N45P45K45, N90P90K90 and N135P135K135. Soil samples (podzolized chernozem) were selected from the depths of 0 – 20, 20 – 40 and 40 – 60 cm. Specific activity of radionuclides was determined by the spectrometric analysis. Using experimental results we have demonstrated that under a long-term application (50 years) different rates of mineral fertilisers effect the specific activity of radioactive isotopes in the soil (226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr). The specific activity of radionuclides in a podzolized chernozem and in winter wheat grain was established. Winter wheat plants accumulated 232Th at the highest levels, but the use of fertilisers reduced it in a larger mass of the crop. The absorption of radioactive nuclides by winter wheat grain grown after peas and silage corn depending on fertilisation changed similar to growing it after clover as a previous crop. According to the data of specific activity of radioactive nuclides in the soil and winter wheat grain, the coefficient of their biological absorption was calculated.

Parole chiave

  • radioactive isotopes
  • radium
  • thorium
  • potassium
  • cesium
  • strontium
  • specific activity of radioactive nuclides
5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Change in the Parameters of Soils Contaminated by Oil and Oil Products

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 88 - 98

Astratto

Abstract

The oil well drilling and oil processing industries are globally the main contaminants of environmental condition caused by human economic activities. Oil spills have a negative impact on the environment, economy, and society. In this research, the effects of oil with different chemical contents on soil types formed in two soil-climatic conditions have been studied. The purpose of this research is to study the change of soil properties by oil pollution. The experiments have been conducted in irrigated and non-irrigated soils of the desert region of the Kashkadarya and Surkhandarya (Uzbekistan). The results have shown that aggregates (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 5; 7; 10 mm) which are the important of soil fertility have changed by oil and oil production, and the changes have proven to be temporary. The effect of the 5% and 15% concentrations of oil, engine oil, petrol, kerosene has been studied. The aggregates 0.25 mm and 0.5 mm have the biggest change among aggregates, in fact, aggregates of 0.25 mm at the level of 5% of oil decreased by 27.02%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 99.8%, at the level of 5% of kerosene decreased by 2%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 98.1%. Aggregates of 0.5 mm at the level of 5% of oil decreased by 6.44%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 67.14%, at the level of 5% of kerosene decreased by 12.75%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 92.8%. Engine oil and Petrol at levels 5 and 15 have relatively rare changed. Also, as a result of oil and oil pollution, the total carbon dioxide in the soil has grown briefly, which is an anthropogenic carbon and insignificant for soil fertility and humus. As a result, an anthropogenic carbon increased in gray-brown soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) at 0 – 35 cm layer by 0.22%, irrigated meadow-alluvial soil (Fluvisols, WRB) by 0.31%, irrigated gray-brown soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) by 0.44%, irrigated Takyr-meadow soil (Calsisols, WRB) by 0.25%, Takyr soil (Calsisols, WRB) by 0.32%, sandy Desert soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) by 0.21%.

Parole chiave

  • soil
  • oil
  • pollution
  • aggregate
  • humus
  • organic carbon
  • bioremediation
Accesso libero

Growth of Potato Shoot Cultures on Media with Antibiotics for Elimination of Bacterial Contamination

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 99 - 106

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of our work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics on the growth of potato shoot cultures in the Gene Bank of the Slovak Republic collection and to determine the type and dose that may be used to treat potato cultures endangered by endophytic bacteria. Antibiotics Chloramphenicol at doses 20, 50 and 100 mg/L, Gentamycin and Rifampicin in doses 20, 50, 100, 200 mg/L and the combination of Gentamycin and Rifampicin with 100 mg/L of each were used. Growth parameters – the shoot length and the number of nodal segments per shoot and rooting of ten cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. of different origin were evaluated. Chloramphenicol already at the lowest dose had the strong inhibitory effect on regeneration, growth, and rooting of shoots. Gentamycin inhibited the growth of shoots gradually with increasing dose of it, rooting of shoots was negatively affected using the dose 50 mg/L or higher. Rifampicin up to 100 mg/L had the minimal effect on the shoots growth, rooting of shoots was not affected, but shoots were characterised by smaller or stunted leaves. Although the growth of shoots was affected, all ten genotypes used in the experiments were able to regenerate and grow at the highest dose of Rifampicin and Gentamycin. According to the results, it is highly probable that these antibiotics up to 100 mg/L or their combination would be suitable for culture preservation of the most genotypes in the gene-bank collection. On the other hand, Chloramphenicol cannot be recommended due to its strong detrimental effect on potato shoot cultures.

Parole chiave

  • potato germplasm
  • conservation
  • nodal explants
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Gentamycin
  • Rifampicin
Accesso libero

Responses of Two Barley Subspecies to In vitro-Induced Heavy Metal Stress: Seeds Germination, Seedlings Growth and Cytotoxicity Assay

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 107 - 118

Astratto

Abstract

In this work three heavy metals: cadmium (as CdSO4), cobalt (as CoCl2) and zinc (as ZnSO4), were used to determine and compare their toxicity towards two subspecies of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare L. and Hordeum vulgare subsp. distichum L.), focusing on seeds germination, seedlings growth, and cytological parameters. The results indicate that the effect of these heavy metals depends on the metal kind, the metal concentrations and the plant subspecies. Generally, in the case of H. vulgare, the heavy metal salts understudy did not influence significantly seed germination and seedling growth parameters. However, these metal salts influence significantly these parameters for H. distichum. The cytological test showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mitotic index among the increase of the heavy metal concentrations when evaluated with the control for H. vulgare and H. distichum. Consequently, H. vulgare seemed to be more tolerant of the increase of the three heavy metals concentrations than H. distichum.

Parole chiave

  • subsp. L.
  • subsp. L.
  • mitotic index
  • heavy metals
Accesso libero

Effect of Planting Methods on the Quality of Three Egyptian Rice Varieties

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 119 - 127

Astratto

Abstract

In Egypt, the traditional transplanting method of rice planting is substituted by broadcasting and dibbling recently. This paper studies the effects and the changes occur in different rice varieties due to different methods on grain quality and amino acids of rice. Three Egyptian rice cultivars belonging to japonica, japonica/indica and indica subspecies were investigated for grain quality, protein and amino acid composition under three planting methods, i.e., broadcasting, seedling transplanting and dibbling. A strip plot design with three replications was used; the investigated three rice cultivars occupied the horizontal main plot, while three planting methods were devoted to the vertical main plot. The method of planting did not affect significantly the grain dimension, but it affected significantly the milling characters and the 1,000-grain weight. The highest milling characters and 1,000-grain weight came from transplanting, while the lowest one from the dibbling method. There was no significant difference between transplanting and broadcasting in milling characters and 1,000-grain weight. The chemical and cooking characters of grains showed no significant differences in moisture content and gelatinization temperature characters, while the differences in protein content and elongation were significant among the varieties and planting methods. The interaction between the planting method and rice had significant effect on the protein content. The most important essential amino acids according to the FAO/WHO pattern were not affected significantly by the different methods of planting. This means that the biological value of rice grains is not affected by different methods of planting.

Parole chiave

  • planting methods
  • rice quality
  • milling
  • amino acids
  • proteins
Accesso libero

Assessment of the Contamination Level of a Podzolized Chernozem with Nuclides in a Long-term Land Use

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2019
Pagine: 128 - 135

Astratto

Abstract

Prolonged systematic application of mineral fertilisers contributes to increasing the yielding capacity of agricultural crops. However, it can lead to significant changes in the composition, properties and formation of agricultural soil regimes. The findings of the research have shown that the application of mineral fertilisers leads to the change of radioactive nuclides content in the soil. The research was conducted under conditions of a long-term stationary field experiment (Uman, Ukraine), using different rates of mineral fertilisers N45P45K45, N90P90K90 and N135P135K135. Soil samples (podzolized chernozem) were selected from the depths of 0 – 20, 20 – 40 and 40 – 60 cm. Specific activity of radionuclides was determined by the spectrometric analysis. Using experimental results we have demonstrated that under a long-term application (50 years) different rates of mineral fertilisers effect the specific activity of radioactive isotopes in the soil (226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr). The specific activity of radionuclides in a podzolized chernozem and in winter wheat grain was established. Winter wheat plants accumulated 232Th at the highest levels, but the use of fertilisers reduced it in a larger mass of the crop. The absorption of radioactive nuclides by winter wheat grain grown after peas and silage corn depending on fertilisation changed similar to growing it after clover as a previous crop. According to the data of specific activity of radioactive nuclides in the soil and winter wheat grain, the coefficient of their biological absorption was calculated.

Parole chiave

  • radioactive isotopes
  • radium
  • thorium
  • potassium
  • cesium
  • strontium
  • specific activity of radioactive nuclides

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