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Special Issue: Underground Infrastructure of Urban Areas

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-831X
First Published
09 Nov 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 38 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-831X
First Published
09 Nov 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Inclinometer monitoring system for stability analysis: the western slope of the Bełchatów field case study

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 3 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

The geological structure of the Bełchatów area is very complicated as a result of tectonic and sedimentation processes. The long-term exploitation of the Bełchatów field influenced the development of horizontal displacements. The variety of factors that have impact on the Bełchatów western slope stability conditions, forced the necessity of complex geotechnical monitoring. The geotechnical monitoring of the western slope was carried out with the use of slope inclinometers. From 2005 to 2013 fourteen slope inclinometers were installed, however, currently seven of them are in operation. The present analysis depicts inclinometers situated in the north part of the western slope, for which the largest deformations were registered. The results revealed that the horizontal displacements and formation of slip surfaces are related to complicated geological structure and intensive tectonic deformations in the area. Therefore, the influence of exploitation marked by changes in slope geometry was also noticeable.

Keywords

  • slope inclinometer
  • geotechnical monitoring
  • horizontal displacement analysis
  • the exploitation influence
  • Bełchatów open pit mine
Open Access

Modeling and simulation of longwall scraper conveyor considering operational faults

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 15 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

The paper provides a description of analytical model of a longwall scraper conveyor, including its electrical, mechanical, measurement and control actuating systems, as well as presentation of its implementation in the form of computer simulator in the Matlab®/Simulink® environment. Using this simulator eight scenarios typical of usual operational conditions of an underground scraper conveyor can be generated. Moreover, the simulator provides a possibility of modeling various operational faults and taking into consideration a measurement noise generated by transducers. The analysis of various combinations of scenarios of operation and faults with description is presented. The simulator developed may find potential application in benchmarking of diagnostic systems, testing of algorithms of operational control or can be used for supporting the modeling of real processes occurring in similar systems.

Keywords

  • mining machinery
  • diagnostics and control
  • scraper conveyor
  • fault simulation and diagnosis
Open Access

Tectonophysics map of discontinuous deformation of Rybnik region

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 29 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, a Tectonophysics map of Rybnik region is presented which is based on the method of determining the direction of the trajectory of the principal stresses in the rock mass and axis orientation of these stresses. This method is used in tectonophysics and is based on the character and parameters of faults. The whole map of Rybnik region encompasses an area of active mines: Rydułtowy-Anna, Marcel, Chwałowice, Jankowice as well as closed ones: Rymer and 1 May of Marcel mine. The paper presents only some fragments of the maps made for the four fault systems and a collective map of tectonophysic, i.e., showing chart areas of compaction for all the systems. The tectonophysics map was made to a scale of 1:20 000. Before the proper work which was the reconstruction of the compaction zone, preparatory work was done. This consisted of updates in 2013 of the tectonics of this area. As a result, tectonic maps were obtained where faults were projected on one level to get their proper azimuth and their inclination. So, a map was made which was used to separate four fault systems arising in similar conditions of stress. Next followed the reconstruction of the main stress fields, which was the cause of faults. On the map there are plotted trajectories showing minimum stress (σ3) and areas of compaction. The maps thus constructed will be used for further studies on the stress spreading and the impact of these areas for geomechanical properties.

Keywords

  • compaction areas
  • tectonophysic
  • minimum stress trajectories
  • normal faults
Open Access

Application of artificial neural networks to predict the deflections of reinforced concrete beams

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 37 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

Nonlinear structural mechanics should be taken into account in the practical design of reinforced concrete structures. Cracking is one of the major sources of nonlinearity. Description of deflection of reinforced concrete elements is a computational problem, mainly because of the difficulties in modelling the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of concrete and steel. In design practise, in accordance with technical rules (e.g., Eurocode 2), a simplified approach for reinforced concrete is used, but the results of simplified calculations differ from the results of experimental studies.

Artificial neural network is a versatile modelling tool capable of making predictions of values that are difficult to obtain in numerical analysis. This paper describes the creation and operation of a neural network for making predictions of deflections of reinforced concrete beams at different load levels. In order to obtain a database of results, that is necessary for training and testing the neural network, a research on measurement of deflections in reinforced concrete beams was conducted by the authors in the Certified Research Laboratory of the Building Engineering Institute at Wrocław University of Science and Technology. The use of artificial neural networks is an innovation and an alternative to traditional methods of solving the problem of calculating the deflections of reinforced concrete elements. The results show the effectiveness of using artificial neural network for predicting the deflection of reinforced concrete beams, compared with the results of calculations conducted in accordance with Eurocode 2. The neural network model presented in this paper can acquire new data and be used for further analysis, with availability of more research results.

Keywords

  • reinforced concrete beams
  • research
  • deflection
  • artificial neural network
Open Access

Shape optimization of road tunnel cross-section by simulated annealing

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 47 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

The paper concerns shape optimization of a tunnel excavation cross-section. The study incorporates optimization procedure of the simulated annealing (SA). The form of a cost function derives from the energetic optimality condition, formulated in the authors’ previous papers. The utilized algorithm takes advantage of the optimization procedure already published by the authors. Unlike other approaches presented in literature, the one introduced in this paper takes into consideration a practical requirement of preserving fixed clearance gauge. Itasca Flac software is utilized in numerical examples. The optimal excavation shapes are determined for five different in situ stress ratios. This factor significantly affects the optimal topology of excavation. The resulting shapes are elongated in the direction of a principal stress greater value. Moreover, the obtained optimal shapes have smooth contours circumscribing the gauge.

Keywords

  • simulated annealing
  • underground excavation
  • shape optimization
  • linear elasticity
  • energy of volumetric strain
Open Access

Numerical model of heat transfer in three phases of the poroelastic medium

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 53 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, the results of numerical analysis of the thermal consolidation of a two phase medium, under the assumption of independent heat transfer in fluid and the solid phase of the medium, are presented. Three cases of pore fluid were considered: liquid, represented by water, and gas, represented by air and carbon dioxide. The mathematical model was derived from irreversible thermodynamics, with the assumption of a constant heat transfer between the phases. In the case of the accepted geometry of the classical dimensions of the soil sample and boundary conditions, the process leads to equalization of temperatures of the skeleton on the pore fluid. Heat transfer is associated with the fluid flow in the pores of the medium. In the case of gas as the pore fluid, a non-linear mathematical model of gas filtration through the pores of the medium was accepted. For the computing process, relationships between viscosity or density and temperature proposed by other authors were taken into account. Despite accepting mechanical constants of the solid phase that do not depend on temperature, the obtained model is nonlinear and develops the classical Biot–Darcy model.

Keywords

  • poroelasticity
  • Biot model
  • thermal consolidation
  • GAS
Open Access

Study of displacements of a bridge abutment using FEM

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 61 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

Steel sheet piles are often used to support excavations for bridge foundations. When they are left in place in the permanent works, they have the potential to increase foundation bearing capacity and reduce displacements; but their presence is not usually taken into account in foundation design. In this article, the results of finite element analysis of a typical abutment foundation, with and without cover of sheet piles, are presented to demonstrate these effects. The structure described is located over the Więceminka river in the town of Kołobrzeg, Poland. It is a single-span road bridge with reinforced concrete slab.

Keywords

  • bridge abutment
  • sheet piling
  • shallow foundation
  • displacements of the bridge abutment
  • deformation of the subsoil
  • finite element method
7 Articles
Open Access

Inclinometer monitoring system for stability analysis: the western slope of the Bełchatów field case study

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 3 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

The geological structure of the Bełchatów area is very complicated as a result of tectonic and sedimentation processes. The long-term exploitation of the Bełchatów field influenced the development of horizontal displacements. The variety of factors that have impact on the Bełchatów western slope stability conditions, forced the necessity of complex geotechnical monitoring. The geotechnical monitoring of the western slope was carried out with the use of slope inclinometers. From 2005 to 2013 fourteen slope inclinometers were installed, however, currently seven of them are in operation. The present analysis depicts inclinometers situated in the north part of the western slope, for which the largest deformations were registered. The results revealed that the horizontal displacements and formation of slip surfaces are related to complicated geological structure and intensive tectonic deformations in the area. Therefore, the influence of exploitation marked by changes in slope geometry was also noticeable.

Keywords

  • slope inclinometer
  • geotechnical monitoring
  • horizontal displacement analysis
  • the exploitation influence
  • Bełchatów open pit mine
Open Access

Modeling and simulation of longwall scraper conveyor considering operational faults

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 15 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

The paper provides a description of analytical model of a longwall scraper conveyor, including its electrical, mechanical, measurement and control actuating systems, as well as presentation of its implementation in the form of computer simulator in the Matlab®/Simulink® environment. Using this simulator eight scenarios typical of usual operational conditions of an underground scraper conveyor can be generated. Moreover, the simulator provides a possibility of modeling various operational faults and taking into consideration a measurement noise generated by transducers. The analysis of various combinations of scenarios of operation and faults with description is presented. The simulator developed may find potential application in benchmarking of diagnostic systems, testing of algorithms of operational control or can be used for supporting the modeling of real processes occurring in similar systems.

Keywords

  • mining machinery
  • diagnostics and control
  • scraper conveyor
  • fault simulation and diagnosis
Open Access

Tectonophysics map of discontinuous deformation of Rybnik region

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 29 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, a Tectonophysics map of Rybnik region is presented which is based on the method of determining the direction of the trajectory of the principal stresses in the rock mass and axis orientation of these stresses. This method is used in tectonophysics and is based on the character and parameters of faults. The whole map of Rybnik region encompasses an area of active mines: Rydułtowy-Anna, Marcel, Chwałowice, Jankowice as well as closed ones: Rymer and 1 May of Marcel mine. The paper presents only some fragments of the maps made for the four fault systems and a collective map of tectonophysic, i.e., showing chart areas of compaction for all the systems. The tectonophysics map was made to a scale of 1:20 000. Before the proper work which was the reconstruction of the compaction zone, preparatory work was done. This consisted of updates in 2013 of the tectonics of this area. As a result, tectonic maps were obtained where faults were projected on one level to get their proper azimuth and their inclination. So, a map was made which was used to separate four fault systems arising in similar conditions of stress. Next followed the reconstruction of the main stress fields, which was the cause of faults. On the map there are plotted trajectories showing minimum stress (σ3) and areas of compaction. The maps thus constructed will be used for further studies on the stress spreading and the impact of these areas for geomechanical properties.

Keywords

  • compaction areas
  • tectonophysic
  • minimum stress trajectories
  • normal faults
Open Access

Application of artificial neural networks to predict the deflections of reinforced concrete beams

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 37 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

Nonlinear structural mechanics should be taken into account in the practical design of reinforced concrete structures. Cracking is one of the major sources of nonlinearity. Description of deflection of reinforced concrete elements is a computational problem, mainly because of the difficulties in modelling the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of concrete and steel. In design practise, in accordance with technical rules (e.g., Eurocode 2), a simplified approach for reinforced concrete is used, but the results of simplified calculations differ from the results of experimental studies.

Artificial neural network is a versatile modelling tool capable of making predictions of values that are difficult to obtain in numerical analysis. This paper describes the creation and operation of a neural network for making predictions of deflections of reinforced concrete beams at different load levels. In order to obtain a database of results, that is necessary for training and testing the neural network, a research on measurement of deflections in reinforced concrete beams was conducted by the authors in the Certified Research Laboratory of the Building Engineering Institute at Wrocław University of Science and Technology. The use of artificial neural networks is an innovation and an alternative to traditional methods of solving the problem of calculating the deflections of reinforced concrete elements. The results show the effectiveness of using artificial neural network for predicting the deflection of reinforced concrete beams, compared with the results of calculations conducted in accordance with Eurocode 2. The neural network model presented in this paper can acquire new data and be used for further analysis, with availability of more research results.

Keywords

  • reinforced concrete beams
  • research
  • deflection
  • artificial neural network
Open Access

Shape optimization of road tunnel cross-section by simulated annealing

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 47 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

The paper concerns shape optimization of a tunnel excavation cross-section. The study incorporates optimization procedure of the simulated annealing (SA). The form of a cost function derives from the energetic optimality condition, formulated in the authors’ previous papers. The utilized algorithm takes advantage of the optimization procedure already published by the authors. Unlike other approaches presented in literature, the one introduced in this paper takes into consideration a practical requirement of preserving fixed clearance gauge. Itasca Flac software is utilized in numerical examples. The optimal excavation shapes are determined for five different in situ stress ratios. This factor significantly affects the optimal topology of excavation. The resulting shapes are elongated in the direction of a principal stress greater value. Moreover, the obtained optimal shapes have smooth contours circumscribing the gauge.

Keywords

  • simulated annealing
  • underground excavation
  • shape optimization
  • linear elasticity
  • energy of volumetric strain
Open Access

Numerical model of heat transfer in three phases of the poroelastic medium

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 53 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, the results of numerical analysis of the thermal consolidation of a two phase medium, under the assumption of independent heat transfer in fluid and the solid phase of the medium, are presented. Three cases of pore fluid were considered: liquid, represented by water, and gas, represented by air and carbon dioxide. The mathematical model was derived from irreversible thermodynamics, with the assumption of a constant heat transfer between the phases. In the case of the accepted geometry of the classical dimensions of the soil sample and boundary conditions, the process leads to equalization of temperatures of the skeleton on the pore fluid. Heat transfer is associated with the fluid flow in the pores of the medium. In the case of gas as the pore fluid, a non-linear mathematical model of gas filtration through the pores of the medium was accepted. For the computing process, relationships between viscosity or density and temperature proposed by other authors were taken into account. Despite accepting mechanical constants of the solid phase that do not depend on temperature, the obtained model is nonlinear and develops the classical Biot–Darcy model.

Keywords

  • poroelasticity
  • Biot model
  • thermal consolidation
  • GAS
Open Access

Study of displacements of a bridge abutment using FEM

Published Online: 15 Jul 2016
Page range: 61 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

Steel sheet piles are often used to support excavations for bridge foundations. When they are left in place in the permanent works, they have the potential to increase foundation bearing capacity and reduce displacements; but their presence is not usually taken into account in foundation design. In this article, the results of finite element analysis of a typical abutment foundation, with and without cover of sheet piles, are presented to demonstrate these effects. The structure described is located over the Więceminka river in the town of Kołobrzeg, Poland. It is a single-span road bridge with reinforced concrete slab.

Keywords

  • bridge abutment
  • sheet piling
  • shallow foundation
  • displacements of the bridge abutment
  • deformation of the subsoil
  • finite element method

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