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Volume 6 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 5 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 4 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 3 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 2 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 1 (2016): Issue 1 (July 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2657-3008
First Published
15 Dec 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 4 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2657-3008
First Published
15 Dec 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

The Nativeness of Breton Speakers and Their Erasure

Published Online: 13 Dec 2019
Page range: 1 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

I discuss the nativeness of heritage speakers of Breton in the twentieth century. I present a syntactic test designed for Breton that sets apart its native speakers from its late learners, for whom Breton is a second language. Nativeness is revealed by a better tolerance to syntactic overload when sufficient linguistic stress is applied. Both heritage speakers of inherited Breton and early bilinguals whose linguistic input comes exclusively from school answer this test alike, which I take as a sign they are cognitively natives. The syntactic nativeness of children deprived of familial Breton input suggests there is many more young Breton natives among contemporary speakers than previously assumed. Taking stock of these results, I discuss the cultural erasure of Breton native speakers. I compare their cultural treatment with the figure of the ghost. I end by a discussion of the term new speaker.

Keywords

  • nativeness
  • new speaker
  • Breton
  • heritage language
Open Access

The Transmission of Irish Law in the Fourteenth and Sixteenth Centuries: Exploring the Social and Historical Contexts

Published Online: 13 Dec 2019
Page range: 27 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

This paper seeks to examine the contexts in which the Old Irish law tracts were transmitted in the period following the church reforms and Anglo-Norman invasion of the twelfth century, focusing primarily on the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. Within these time frames two major themes will be appraised: 1) the English attitudes towards the practice of Irish law, and 2) the roles of the medieval lawyers and/or their patrons in political life. The central aim of this paper is twofold; firstly to shed light on the historical and social contexts in which the legal materials were later transmitted, and secondly, based on this, to posit some theories as to the possible incentives behind the transmission of the law tracts in these periods.

Keywords

  • Medieval Irish Law
  • Fourteenth Century Ireland
  • Sixteenth Century Ireland
  • Medieval Irish Lawyers
  • Manuscript Contexts
Open Access

Haunting Vocabulary and Celtic Lexicography: Towards a Taxonomy of Ghost Words

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 44 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

Most Humanities scholars probably have an intuitive sense of what is meant by a “ghost word” – it is a word that, in one way or another, exists as the result of someone’s unrecognized mistake. However, upon closer examination it becomes clear that the term is liable to be employed so broadly that important distinctions can be lost. For one thing, ghost words are often regarded simply as nuisances that should be deleted whenever they are detected. But in practice they often prove to be too useful simply to discard: this article presents some examples that have made their way into active usage among the Celts. In other cases the etymology may indeed be unnatural, but turns out to be the result of more than a hint of deliberate word-crafting right from the start. A taxonomy is here proposed that distinguishes true ghost words and dead words, on the one hand, from active items that may be described as poltergeist words and even Frankenstein words on the other.

Keywords

  • lexicography
  • ghost words
  • poltergeist words
  • Frankenstein words
  • Celtic languages
  • Celtic latinity
  • the concept of “disunderstanding”
Open Access

Gender-Fair Language in a Minority Setting: The Case of Breton

Published Online: 09 Apr 2020
Page range: 59 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

This paper explores the use of the Breton language (Brittany, North-West France) in contexts where speakers wish to signal their commitment to social equality through their linguistic practices. This is done with reference to examples of job advertisements which have pioneered the use of gender-fair language in Breton. Linguistic minorities are often portrayed as clinging to the past. This paper, however, sheds a different light on current minority language practices and demonstrates a progressive and egalitarian response to modernity among some current speakers of Breton, in their attempts to assume gender-fair stances.

Keywords

  • Breton
  • minority language
  • gender-fair language
  • new speakers
Open Access

“Dúthaigh Na Súpanna”: An Insight Into “Souper Territory” from the Folkloric Repertoire of Seán Mac Criomhthain

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 75 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

West Kerry storyteller Seán Mac Criomhthain (1873-1955) was born almost a quarter-century after the Great Irish Famine. Nevertheless, his upbringing occurred in a context which included both overt and covert references to the kinds of sectarian divisions which initially had contributed to the famine, and which later were entrenched by it. Sectarian division in the Irish context expressed itself primarily via denominational attachment, and to a lesser extent, along linguistic lines. Such divisions were explored across the country through traditional lore and through song; and in the specific repertoire of Seán Mac Criomhthain, through the medium of a mellifluous ‘brand’ of Munster Irish for which the Corca Dhuibhne peninsula has since become renowned. This article attempts to describe attitudes to sectarian division in the evidence of Mac Criomhthain’s repertoire. With extensive reference to a composition translated for the first time to English, it will be argued that concerns of immediate social pragmatism are afforded much greater importance than those of denominational or linguistic attachments.

Keywords

  • Irish folklore
  • Irish language studies
  • code-switching
  • diglossia
  • bilingualism
  • sectarianism
  • ethnology
  • ethnography
  • oral history
  • West Kerry
  • the Great Irish Famine
  • souperism
Open Access

Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 90 - 95

Abstract

6 Articles
Open Access

The Nativeness of Breton Speakers and Their Erasure

Published Online: 13 Dec 2019
Page range: 1 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

I discuss the nativeness of heritage speakers of Breton in the twentieth century. I present a syntactic test designed for Breton that sets apart its native speakers from its late learners, for whom Breton is a second language. Nativeness is revealed by a better tolerance to syntactic overload when sufficient linguistic stress is applied. Both heritage speakers of inherited Breton and early bilinguals whose linguistic input comes exclusively from school answer this test alike, which I take as a sign they are cognitively natives. The syntactic nativeness of children deprived of familial Breton input suggests there is many more young Breton natives among contemporary speakers than previously assumed. Taking stock of these results, I discuss the cultural erasure of Breton native speakers. I compare their cultural treatment with the figure of the ghost. I end by a discussion of the term new speaker.

Keywords

  • nativeness
  • new speaker
  • Breton
  • heritage language
Open Access

The Transmission of Irish Law in the Fourteenth and Sixteenth Centuries: Exploring the Social and Historical Contexts

Published Online: 13 Dec 2019
Page range: 27 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

This paper seeks to examine the contexts in which the Old Irish law tracts were transmitted in the period following the church reforms and Anglo-Norman invasion of the twelfth century, focusing primarily on the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. Within these time frames two major themes will be appraised: 1) the English attitudes towards the practice of Irish law, and 2) the roles of the medieval lawyers and/or their patrons in political life. The central aim of this paper is twofold; firstly to shed light on the historical and social contexts in which the legal materials were later transmitted, and secondly, based on this, to posit some theories as to the possible incentives behind the transmission of the law tracts in these periods.

Keywords

  • Medieval Irish Law
  • Fourteenth Century Ireland
  • Sixteenth Century Ireland
  • Medieval Irish Lawyers
  • Manuscript Contexts
Open Access

Haunting Vocabulary and Celtic Lexicography: Towards a Taxonomy of Ghost Words

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 44 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

Most Humanities scholars probably have an intuitive sense of what is meant by a “ghost word” – it is a word that, in one way or another, exists as the result of someone’s unrecognized mistake. However, upon closer examination it becomes clear that the term is liable to be employed so broadly that important distinctions can be lost. For one thing, ghost words are often regarded simply as nuisances that should be deleted whenever they are detected. But in practice they often prove to be too useful simply to discard: this article presents some examples that have made their way into active usage among the Celts. In other cases the etymology may indeed be unnatural, but turns out to be the result of more than a hint of deliberate word-crafting right from the start. A taxonomy is here proposed that distinguishes true ghost words and dead words, on the one hand, from active items that may be described as poltergeist words and even Frankenstein words on the other.

Keywords

  • lexicography
  • ghost words
  • poltergeist words
  • Frankenstein words
  • Celtic languages
  • Celtic latinity
  • the concept of “disunderstanding”
Open Access

Gender-Fair Language in a Minority Setting: The Case of Breton

Published Online: 09 Apr 2020
Page range: 59 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

This paper explores the use of the Breton language (Brittany, North-West France) in contexts where speakers wish to signal their commitment to social equality through their linguistic practices. This is done with reference to examples of job advertisements which have pioneered the use of gender-fair language in Breton. Linguistic minorities are often portrayed as clinging to the past. This paper, however, sheds a different light on current minority language practices and demonstrates a progressive and egalitarian response to modernity among some current speakers of Breton, in their attempts to assume gender-fair stances.

Keywords

  • Breton
  • minority language
  • gender-fair language
  • new speakers
Open Access

“Dúthaigh Na Súpanna”: An Insight Into “Souper Territory” from the Folkloric Repertoire of Seán Mac Criomhthain

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 75 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

West Kerry storyteller Seán Mac Criomhthain (1873-1955) was born almost a quarter-century after the Great Irish Famine. Nevertheless, his upbringing occurred in a context which included both overt and covert references to the kinds of sectarian divisions which initially had contributed to the famine, and which later were entrenched by it. Sectarian division in the Irish context expressed itself primarily via denominational attachment, and to a lesser extent, along linguistic lines. Such divisions were explored across the country through traditional lore and through song; and in the specific repertoire of Seán Mac Criomhthain, through the medium of a mellifluous ‘brand’ of Munster Irish for which the Corca Dhuibhne peninsula has since become renowned. This article attempts to describe attitudes to sectarian division in the evidence of Mac Criomhthain’s repertoire. With extensive reference to a composition translated for the first time to English, it will be argued that concerns of immediate social pragmatism are afforded much greater importance than those of denominational or linguistic attachments.

Keywords

  • Irish folklore
  • Irish language studies
  • code-switching
  • diglossia
  • bilingualism
  • sectarianism
  • ethnology
  • ethnography
  • oral history
  • West Kerry
  • the Great Irish Famine
  • souperism
Open Access

Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 90 - 95

Abstract

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