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Journal & Issues

Volume 6 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 5 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 4 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 3 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 2 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 1 (2016): Issue 1 (July 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2657-3008
First Published
15 Dec 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 3 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2657-3008
First Published
15 Dec 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

What Happened to Primitive Cornish /I/ When Long in Closed Syllables?

Published Online: 11 May 2019
Page range: 5 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

Of the four unrounded front vowels in Primitive Cornish, /i/, /ɛ/ and /a/ remained stable when long in closed syllables, but /ɪ/ had a tendency to fall together with /ɛ/. Jackson (1953) and Williams (1995) dated this change to the twelfth century, but the present research indicates that in most words, the change took place substantially later. An analysis of spellings and of rhymes show that not all words changed at the same time. Most stressed monosyllables in historical /-ɪz/ were pronounced [-ɪːz] in Middle Cornish and [-ɛːz] in Late Cornish. Those with historical /-ɪð/ and /-ɪθ/ were dimorphic in Middle Cornish (i.e. they were spelled with both <y~i> and <e>), showing the sound-change in progress during that time. The process of change from [ɪː] to [ɛː] was one of lexical diffusion. The implications for the revived language are briefly examined.

Keywords

  • Cornish
  • front vowels
  • lexical diffusion
Open Access

The Origins of Tree Names in Celtic

Published Online: 11 May 2019
Page range: 33 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with the long-debated question of the origins of tree names and the methodological problems related to PIE etymologies. It aims at putting forward some basic principles of etymology, and at applying these principles to the analysis of twelve tree names. It also seeks to demonstrate the relevance of substratic pre-IE languages’ influence on the lexicon, and at isolating geographic areas corresponding to pre-Indo-European lexical stocks lying behind modern Celtic languages.

Keywords

  • pre-Indo-European
  • substrata
  • tree names
  • language contact
  • creolization
Open Access

The Dates of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi

Published Online: 11 May 2019
Page range: 47 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

In a previous issue of this journal, Natasha Sumner of Harvard claimed of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi that the “exact date of composition for the text is not known”; she yet quoted Professor Catherine McKenna, also of Harvard, for the tales as certainly predating the Fall of Gwynedd in 1282. A response to Professor Sumner’s comment thus has three functions. It cites publications on the question from 1897 to 2018; reveals the scholarly disagreement therein; but concludes with evidence to put the tales in the 1120s or early 1130s.

Keywords

  • Mabinogi
  • history of Celtic scholarship
  • dating of medieval texts
  • the twelfth century
Open Access

Young Speakers: A Pilot Study of Gaelic Bilinguals’ Language Practices

Published Online: 29 May 2019
Page range: 63 - 87

Abstract

Abstract

Studies of primary school pupils’ Gaelic to date have largely relied on criterion referenced tests to measure attainment against curricular expectations: with only NicLeòid’s (2015) work on student attitudes and Nance’s research (e.g. 2013 and 2015) on comparative phonology bucking this trend. There is a surprising lack of information or research about the language forms and bilingual repertoire of young speakers. A better understanding of young people’s language practices requires the Gaelic research community to develop datasets from spontaneous interactions. This paper draws on a pilot study with a primary 5-6 school cohort in Gaelic-medium education. Using a combination of audio and audio-visual data from the classroom together with data on young speakers’ language attitudes, this paper examines pupils’ determination and strategies to maintain the classroom language as Gaelic. The results of this pilot study can inform the development of new methodologies for collaborative research with the school community on children’s linguistic development and attainment. Such research, it is argued, is necessary in light of the dependency of the Gaelic language planning model on the primary school for the production of new Gaelic speakers.

Keywords

  • Gaelic
  • immersion
  • code-switching
  • primary school
  • language attitudes
  • language use
Open Access

Shane Leslie and the Irish Support for Language Struggle in Poland

Published Online: 29 May 2019
Page range: 89 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

This paper tells a little known story of the collecting and delivery of signatures of Irish school children from the northern part of Ireland as an act of moral support for Polish students on strike in defense of the Polish language at schools in the Prussian partition of Poland, in the first decade of the 20th century (Płygawko 1991). The bound signatures are in the Czartoryski Museum in Cracow, Poland, but the information about the action has not been found in Irish sources, and the Polish signatures collected in response seem to be missing. The role of the organizer of the initiative, Shane Leslie, is emphasized in this paper. It describes the background of this exchange of sympathy, and discusses possible reasons why the story remains obscure.

Keywords

  • Irish-Polish relations
  • Prussian Poland
  • Shane Leslie
  • language activism
  • school-strike
Open Access

Review

Published Online: 19 Jul 2019
Page range: 109 - 114

Abstract

6 Articles
Open Access

What Happened to Primitive Cornish /I/ When Long in Closed Syllables?

Published Online: 11 May 2019
Page range: 5 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

Of the four unrounded front vowels in Primitive Cornish, /i/, /ɛ/ and /a/ remained stable when long in closed syllables, but /ɪ/ had a tendency to fall together with /ɛ/. Jackson (1953) and Williams (1995) dated this change to the twelfth century, but the present research indicates that in most words, the change took place substantially later. An analysis of spellings and of rhymes show that not all words changed at the same time. Most stressed monosyllables in historical /-ɪz/ were pronounced [-ɪːz] in Middle Cornish and [-ɛːz] in Late Cornish. Those with historical /-ɪð/ and /-ɪθ/ were dimorphic in Middle Cornish (i.e. they were spelled with both <y~i> and <e>), showing the sound-change in progress during that time. The process of change from [ɪː] to [ɛː] was one of lexical diffusion. The implications for the revived language are briefly examined.

Keywords

  • Cornish
  • front vowels
  • lexical diffusion
Open Access

The Origins of Tree Names in Celtic

Published Online: 11 May 2019
Page range: 33 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with the long-debated question of the origins of tree names and the methodological problems related to PIE etymologies. It aims at putting forward some basic principles of etymology, and at applying these principles to the analysis of twelve tree names. It also seeks to demonstrate the relevance of substratic pre-IE languages’ influence on the lexicon, and at isolating geographic areas corresponding to pre-Indo-European lexical stocks lying behind modern Celtic languages.

Keywords

  • pre-Indo-European
  • substrata
  • tree names
  • language contact
  • creolization
Open Access

The Dates of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi

Published Online: 11 May 2019
Page range: 47 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

In a previous issue of this journal, Natasha Sumner of Harvard claimed of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi that the “exact date of composition for the text is not known”; she yet quoted Professor Catherine McKenna, also of Harvard, for the tales as certainly predating the Fall of Gwynedd in 1282. A response to Professor Sumner’s comment thus has three functions. It cites publications on the question from 1897 to 2018; reveals the scholarly disagreement therein; but concludes with evidence to put the tales in the 1120s or early 1130s.

Keywords

  • Mabinogi
  • history of Celtic scholarship
  • dating of medieval texts
  • the twelfth century
Open Access

Young Speakers: A Pilot Study of Gaelic Bilinguals’ Language Practices

Published Online: 29 May 2019
Page range: 63 - 87

Abstract

Abstract

Studies of primary school pupils’ Gaelic to date have largely relied on criterion referenced tests to measure attainment against curricular expectations: with only NicLeòid’s (2015) work on student attitudes and Nance’s research (e.g. 2013 and 2015) on comparative phonology bucking this trend. There is a surprising lack of information or research about the language forms and bilingual repertoire of young speakers. A better understanding of young people’s language practices requires the Gaelic research community to develop datasets from spontaneous interactions. This paper draws on a pilot study with a primary 5-6 school cohort in Gaelic-medium education. Using a combination of audio and audio-visual data from the classroom together with data on young speakers’ language attitudes, this paper examines pupils’ determination and strategies to maintain the classroom language as Gaelic. The results of this pilot study can inform the development of new methodologies for collaborative research with the school community on children’s linguistic development and attainment. Such research, it is argued, is necessary in light of the dependency of the Gaelic language planning model on the primary school for the production of new Gaelic speakers.

Keywords

  • Gaelic
  • immersion
  • code-switching
  • primary school
  • language attitudes
  • language use
Open Access

Shane Leslie and the Irish Support for Language Struggle in Poland

Published Online: 29 May 2019
Page range: 89 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

This paper tells a little known story of the collecting and delivery of signatures of Irish school children from the northern part of Ireland as an act of moral support for Polish students on strike in defense of the Polish language at schools in the Prussian partition of Poland, in the first decade of the 20th century (Płygawko 1991). The bound signatures are in the Czartoryski Museum in Cracow, Poland, but the information about the action has not been found in Irish sources, and the Polish signatures collected in response seem to be missing. The role of the organizer of the initiative, Shane Leslie, is emphasized in this paper. It describes the background of this exchange of sympathy, and discusses possible reasons why the story remains obscure.

Keywords

  • Irish-Polish relations
  • Prussian Poland
  • Shane Leslie
  • language activism
  • school-strike
Open Access

Review

Published Online: 19 Jul 2019
Page range: 109 - 114

Abstract

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