Issues

Journal & Issues

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 3 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)
Expression artistique et cicatrices de la Première Guerre mondiale : continuités et discontinuités (1919-2019). Künstlerischer Ausdruck und die Narben des Ersten Weltkriegs: Kontinuitäten und Zäsuren (1919-2019)

Volume 2 (2020): Issue 1 (November 2020)
„1989/90 – 30 Jahre danach: Welche Erinnerungen? 30 ans après: quelles mémoires?”

Volume 1 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)
Kulturwissenschaften – Histoire culturelle – Cultural Studies: Konzeptionen, Debatten/Des conceptions en débat

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3858
First Published
03 Jan 2019
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
German, English, French

Search

Volume 3 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)
Expression artistique et cicatrices de la Première Guerre mondiale : continuités et discontinuités (1919-2019). Künstlerischer Ausdruck und die Narben des Ersten Weltkriegs: Kontinuitäten und Zäsuren (1919-2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3858
First Published
03 Jan 2019
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
German, English, French

Search

19 Articles
Open Access

Expression artistique et cicatrices de la Première Guerre mondiale : continuités et discontinuités (1919–2019)

Published Online: 09 Mar 2022
Page range: I - IV

Abstract

Open Access

Editorial

Published Online: 27 Oct 2021
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Open Access

Les arts peuvent-ils et doivent-ils « unir leurs forces » ?

Published Online: 09 Jul 2021
Page range: 7 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

Symbolism acted as a pioneer in the artistic movements of the 20th century. The Belle Epoque was followed by the fracture brought about by World War I and by attempts to rebuild the world (with scientific research, various artistic experiments, practice of dialogue between the arts). In addition to contemporary testimonies and commemorations, some artists decided to wipe up the past (Dadaists) and to suggest a new reality (Surrealists). This article reports their activity in Paris (poetry, music, dance) and the revolution of Russian Ballet in order to document the revival and renewal in thought and creativity. The innovative, even provocative dialogue between the arts during the War and even more the immediate post-war period greatly contributed to another remembrance and to the credibility of an alternative future.

Keywords

  • symbolism
  • surrealism
  • war
  • arts
  • cicatrization
  • resilience
Open Access

Nach-Krieg. Reflexionen in der Kunstkritik der Weimarer Republik am Beispiel des Verismus

Published Online: 09 Jul 2021
Page range: 17 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

The reflection of the events and experiences of World War I is one of the main aspects of modern German art at the beginning of the Weimar Republic. Dadaism and Verism made great contributions in this respect. The text investigates and documents the art critical reception of artists like Max Beckmann, Otto Dix and Georg Scholz. These artists were covered by the term Verism and represented the so-called ‘left wing’ of the New Objectivity-movement of the 1920s. Their sometimes merciless works of art were an attempt to overcome the militarism of the Wilhelmine empire.

Keywords

  • World War I
  • Verism
  • New Objectivity
  • Art criticism
  • Reception history
Open Access

Entre nationalisme, réactivations et pacifisme : La Première Guerre mondiale inspiratrice de chansons. Perspectives franco-allemandes (1915–2014)

Published Online: 18 Aug 2021
Page range: 27 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

Both during or after the «Great War», song belongs to the popular artistic languages that this major conflict generated. In fact, World War I is still a source of inspiration for some French and German singers today. The article examines how this relation has changed after the war itself when patriotic songs competed with a few pacifist songs. It shows how some songs were “reactivated” during other periods of conflict, and finally how, through such songs, a desire for witness, denunciation, and reconciliation gradually took hold, but in different ways on both sides of the Rhine.

Keywords

  • Song
  • World War I
  • trenches
  • patriotism
  • pacifism
Open Access

Akustisches Gedächtnis und bruitistisches Gedenken an den Ersten Weltkrieg: das Album Lament der Einstürzenden Neubauten (2014)

Published Online: 18 May 2021
Page range: 39 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

The commemorations of the First World War in Belgium encouraged the creation of singular musical works such as Lament, Ypres or Shell Shock, a requiem of war, opera around the post-traumatic syndrome suffered by the combatants. The Berlin experimental group Einstürzende Neubauten and its frontman Blixa Bargeld designed Lament after a commission from the West Flemish government for the commemoratives in West Flanders. This album was produced in the studio, then world premiered in Dixmude on November 8, 2014. The group then toured Europe and Australia until 2018, with around 30 dates. Although this choice of a German band may seem embarrassing to some Belgian critics, the album includes a significant amount of research work and combines noise expertise with historical sound archives from the First World War. This article aims to study the contributions of the musicians, the stakes of a commissioned work and the expectations of the public.

Keywords

  • First World War
  • Einstürzende Neubauten
  • commemoration
  • commissioned work
  • sound archives
Open Access

La Première Guerre mondiale dans l’opérette de langue allemande à l’exemple de l’opérette Im Konzentrationslager (1917) de Helene Fürnkranz

Published Online: 13 Apr 2021
Page range: 49 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The article studies the case of an operetta written by a woman of Austrian origin interned at the Garaison camp (Hautes-Pyrénées) where German and Austrian civilian families were gathered during the First World War. This operetta by Helene Fürnkranz, whose title takes the official name of the camp, evokes precisely the life of the internees, drawing in large amounts on the author's biography and her experience at Garaison. The work is original in that it offers the point of view of an Austrian citizen in France during the First World War, a woman as well, and seems to be one of the few operettas that makes the conflict its very subject and not just a background. Putting this libretto into perspective with some of the more canonical operettas in the German-language repertoire (Gold gab ich für Eisen and Die Csárdasfürstin by Emmerich Kálmán, Die Rose von Stambul by Leo Fall and Viktoria und ihr Husar by Paul Abraham), the article first examines the realistic portrayal of war in Fürnkranz's operetta, then the light and humorous treatment and staging of the war, before considering the significance of the female perspective, which is central to the play.

Keywords

  • First World War
  • internment camp
  • Garaison
  • operetta
  • Helene Fürnkranz (1868–1936)
Open Access

Des écrivains et leur rapport à la Première Guerre mondiale : traces littéraires de la Grande Guerre dans la littérature produite en Alsace (allemand, parler dialectal alsacien) entre 1914 et 1939

Published Online: 13 Apr 2021
Page range: 57 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

In Alsace, the end of the First World War brought a great sense of relief to the population, as it did everywhere else; yet, it also brought about a major political change to the former ‘Empire land’ (Reichsland) which became part of France (again). This affected the daily lives of each individual, in their professional, linguistic, cultural or social dimensions. Did the war and its aftermaths manifest themselves in literature, especially at a thematic level? To answer this question, we shall focus neither on the most famous writers, nor on those who left Alsace after 1918, since their work has already been examined under that angle, but on writers whose reputation remained regional or local, in particular on those writers who turned to the Alsatian dialect as means of expression. Indeed, in this literature, the war was rarely addressed and its socio-political upheavals even more rarely so. The ‘trace’ left by that conflict is of an emotional nature; it takes the form of an identity statement. Such writers found refuge in an emotionally charged Alsace, which functions as a matrix of their identity.

Keywords

  • First World War
  • Alsace
  • Alsatian literature
  • identity
Open Access

Observations sur l’usage linguistique des poilus pendant la Grande Guerre et sa mise en scène rétrospective dans les bandes dessinées

Published Online: 15 May 2021
Page range: 65 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

In this contribution, we analyse the artistic linguistic expression in three selected comic strips on the First World War that were published about 100 years after the end of the war. Therefore, we compare the aestheticized language with the authentic linguistic usage of ordinary people in their private correspondence and in war diaries written between 1914 and 1918. From a lexical point of view, both authentic and artistic texts are marked by an affinity with popular and colloquial French and, to a lesser extent, with trench slang (argot des tranchées). Orality portrayed in comics and identified as simulated orality is characterized by a more playful use of language and a higher number of vulgarisms compared to the authentic documents. In addition, the fictional and stylized character of the comics contributes to a more pronounced variation of slang, popular and familiar lexemes, especially in the designation of the German enemy, which we do not find in the texts of contemporary soldiers.

Keywords

  • historical sociolinguistics
  • comics
  • simulated orality
Open Access

Les plaies de la Grande Guerre dans la Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung, un imaginaire de papier sous la République de Weimar

Published Online: 16 Apr 2021
Page range: 77 - 84

Abstract

Abstract

After the armistice, World War One remained an important topic in the Berliner Ilustrirte Zeitung – an illustrated magazine devoted to general, political and cultural news. Analyzing its coverage of the war allows us to address what these representations have to say about the expectations, fears and hopes of Weimar progressives at the time. After showing some benevolence towards former enemies at the beginning of 1919, the BIZ grew more acrimonious when the terms of the peace treaty became official. These disappointed hopes certainly made the cultural demobilization of the BIZ more difficult. The magazine continued to relay the war rhetoric for some time, before trying to tend to the wounds and ease the mourning through artistic means. Eventually, the BIZ did not seek to preserve the memory of the war, but rather to promote a pacifist and republican way of thinking.

Keywords

  • illustrated press
  • Great War
  • Weimar Republic
  • collective memory
  • pacifism
Open Access

Bucheinbände und Rezeption der Antikriegsromane von Alexander Moritz Frey und Adrienne Thomas

Published Online: 13 Apr 2021
Page range: 85 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

Two autobiographically inspired anti-war novels, Die Pflasterkästen. Ein Feldsanitätsroman (1929, tr. as The Cross Bearers, 1930) by Alexander Moritz Frey (1881–1957) and Die Katrin wird Soldat. Ein Roman aus Elsass-Lothringen (1930, tr. by Margaret L. Goldsmith as Catherine Joins Up / Katrin Becomes a Soldier, London / Boston, 1931) by Adrienne Thomas make literary capital out of the experiences of wartime medicine and nursing. Published in the Weimar Republic soon after Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, they were good enough to hold their own against this bestseller for a time. Their dust jackets and covers, often created by prestigious designers, illustrated the oblivion and memory of the works within and commented on the stories they contained.

Keywords

  • anti-war novels
  • Frey (Alexander Moritz)
  • Thomas (Adrienne)
  • book jacket/book cover
  • reception history
Open Access

Georg Wilhelm Pabst : blessure de la guerre, cicatrices de la pellicule

Published Online: 21 Mar 2021
Page range: 97 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

Of all the filmmakers who made up Germany's cinematic glory in the interwar period, G. W. Pabst is the one who received the least recognition or took the longest to do so. But he is also the one who, as early as the late 1920s, made the First World War a cinematic event which is reflected, more or less directly, in four of his films: The Love of Jeanne Ney, Westfront 1918, Kameradschaft and Street of Shadows. War appears as a traumatic experience that has wounded individuals, souls and peoples. But these four films also form an artistic manifesto, in which Pabst affirms the restorative power of cinema, which, in essence, consists of an incessant dialectic between cut and reunion. With its proper aesthetic means, the cinema can thus repair the after-effects of war.

Keywords

  • Pabst (Georg Wilhelm)
  • German film
  • New Objectivity
  • aesthetics of film
  • history of reception
Open Access

Behandeln, Aufarbeiten und Reparieren durch Kunst: zeitgenössische Darstellungen der vom Krieg „verletzten“ Landschaften Ost-Frankreichs

Published Online: 09 May 2021
Page range: 103 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

The first part of this contribution is dedicated to theoretical aspects of treatment, reappraisal and reparation through the arts. The verb “(to) treat” (behandeln in German) best reflects the complexity of an artistic approach which associates creation and reception without neglecting the material or artisanal/handmade dimension (cf. the German word be-hand-eln that refers etymologically to what is taken in one's hand). “To repair”, used in the francophone context, highlights the paradoxical compensation (Wiedergutmachung in German) that art makes possible without disposing the traces (scars) of what has been broken/wounded. At last, the term “reappraisal” (Aufarbeitung) emphasizes the idea of digging out former subjects, which have left, however, physical and psychological traces in the here and now. The second part focuses on Eastern France's landscapes marked by the war and various rearrangements of borders. The special potential of the arts, in the context of the commemoration of World War I, is stressed on the basis of chosen works of contemporary art, particularly from the field of artistic photography.

Keywords

  • Reappraisal
  • contemporary art
  • artistic photography
  • war landscape
  • Eastern France
Open Access

Les traces des traces de la Première Guerre mondiale : la représentation photographique des lieux de conflit et ses enjeux mémoriels

Published Online: 08 Oct 2021
Page range: 111 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

Devoted to the photography of the places where the fighting of the First World War took place, this contribution examines the memorial significance of the aesthetic choices. Photographic traces of the physical traces left by conflicts in space, photographic representation must be questioned insofar as it has a collective meaning: aspiring to take over the public space, the images also have a performativity of their own and thus influence reality. After examining the notion of trace as a meeting point between photography and its object, and then the collective dimension of photographic representation, we will look at the work of Michael St Maur Sheil, Guillaume Amat and Paola de Pietri, three photographers who seek to express the need for resistance to oblivion through the photography of conflict sites.

Keywords

  • Photography
  • Collective memory
  • Battlefields
  • First World War
  • Traces
  • Visual history
Open Access

Photographies et mémoires de la Première Guerre dans les guides Michelin (1917–2019)

Published Online: 06 Jul 2021
Page range: 117 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

Michelin's Illustrated Battlefields Guides are no ordinary travel guides. A considerable number of photo-engravings were collected and published between 1917 and 2019. Reuse and addition of engravings demonstrate the interdependence of communicative memory and cultural memory. Up to 1921 the illustrations bore witness to the end of war / post-war climate, and military photojournalism still enjoyed a monopoly: events and material reality of destruction prevailed. During the interwar period, this monopoly and the objectifying knowledge of World War I persisted and became more complex, focusing on Verdun both as a concrete referent and an emerging myth. The 2019 guide changes paradigms and takes cemeteries, war memorials, stelae, as a starting point, with a view to reconciling the interest of all and the empathy of each visitor, commemorating the past and symbolically preserving it for the future.

Keywords

  • Michelin
  • travel Guide
  • World War I
  • ruins
  • cultural memory
Open Access

Paroles et performances d’artistes contemporains

Published Online: 18 Nov 2021
Page range: 131 - 134

Abstract

Open Access

Nachwort / Postface

Published Online: 06 Jul 2021
Page range: 135 - 141

Abstract

Open Access

Palatini, John (dir.), Kunst im Lager. Das Kriegsgefangenenlager Merseburg im Ersten Weltkrieg, Halle (Saale), Landesheimatbund Sachsen-Anhalt e.V., 2020.

Published Online: 18 Aug 2021
Page range: 143 - 145

Abstract

Open Access

Glossaire / Glossar: Cicatrices / cicatrisation versus Narben / Heilungsprozess

Published Online: 09 Oct 2021
Page range: 147 - 148

Abstract

19 Articles
Open Access

Expression artistique et cicatrices de la Première Guerre mondiale : continuités et discontinuités (1919–2019)

Published Online: 09 Mar 2022
Page range: I - IV

Abstract

Open Access

Editorial

Published Online: 27 Oct 2021
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Open Access

Les arts peuvent-ils et doivent-ils « unir leurs forces » ?

Published Online: 09 Jul 2021
Page range: 7 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

Symbolism acted as a pioneer in the artistic movements of the 20th century. The Belle Epoque was followed by the fracture brought about by World War I and by attempts to rebuild the world (with scientific research, various artistic experiments, practice of dialogue between the arts). In addition to contemporary testimonies and commemorations, some artists decided to wipe up the past (Dadaists) and to suggest a new reality (Surrealists). This article reports their activity in Paris (poetry, music, dance) and the revolution of Russian Ballet in order to document the revival and renewal in thought and creativity. The innovative, even provocative dialogue between the arts during the War and even more the immediate post-war period greatly contributed to another remembrance and to the credibility of an alternative future.

Keywords

  • symbolism
  • surrealism
  • war
  • arts
  • cicatrization
  • resilience
Open Access

Nach-Krieg. Reflexionen in der Kunstkritik der Weimarer Republik am Beispiel des Verismus

Published Online: 09 Jul 2021
Page range: 17 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

The reflection of the events and experiences of World War I is one of the main aspects of modern German art at the beginning of the Weimar Republic. Dadaism and Verism made great contributions in this respect. The text investigates and documents the art critical reception of artists like Max Beckmann, Otto Dix and Georg Scholz. These artists were covered by the term Verism and represented the so-called ‘left wing’ of the New Objectivity-movement of the 1920s. Their sometimes merciless works of art were an attempt to overcome the militarism of the Wilhelmine empire.

Keywords

  • World War I
  • Verism
  • New Objectivity
  • Art criticism
  • Reception history
Open Access

Entre nationalisme, réactivations et pacifisme : La Première Guerre mondiale inspiratrice de chansons. Perspectives franco-allemandes (1915–2014)

Published Online: 18 Aug 2021
Page range: 27 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

Both during or after the «Great War», song belongs to the popular artistic languages that this major conflict generated. In fact, World War I is still a source of inspiration for some French and German singers today. The article examines how this relation has changed after the war itself when patriotic songs competed with a few pacifist songs. It shows how some songs were “reactivated” during other periods of conflict, and finally how, through such songs, a desire for witness, denunciation, and reconciliation gradually took hold, but in different ways on both sides of the Rhine.

Keywords

  • Song
  • World War I
  • trenches
  • patriotism
  • pacifism
Open Access

Akustisches Gedächtnis und bruitistisches Gedenken an den Ersten Weltkrieg: das Album Lament der Einstürzenden Neubauten (2014)

Published Online: 18 May 2021
Page range: 39 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

The commemorations of the First World War in Belgium encouraged the creation of singular musical works such as Lament, Ypres or Shell Shock, a requiem of war, opera around the post-traumatic syndrome suffered by the combatants. The Berlin experimental group Einstürzende Neubauten and its frontman Blixa Bargeld designed Lament after a commission from the West Flemish government for the commemoratives in West Flanders. This album was produced in the studio, then world premiered in Dixmude on November 8, 2014. The group then toured Europe and Australia until 2018, with around 30 dates. Although this choice of a German band may seem embarrassing to some Belgian critics, the album includes a significant amount of research work and combines noise expertise with historical sound archives from the First World War. This article aims to study the contributions of the musicians, the stakes of a commissioned work and the expectations of the public.

Keywords

  • First World War
  • Einstürzende Neubauten
  • commemoration
  • commissioned work
  • sound archives
Open Access

La Première Guerre mondiale dans l’opérette de langue allemande à l’exemple de l’opérette Im Konzentrationslager (1917) de Helene Fürnkranz

Published Online: 13 Apr 2021
Page range: 49 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The article studies the case of an operetta written by a woman of Austrian origin interned at the Garaison camp (Hautes-Pyrénées) where German and Austrian civilian families were gathered during the First World War. This operetta by Helene Fürnkranz, whose title takes the official name of the camp, evokes precisely the life of the internees, drawing in large amounts on the author's biography and her experience at Garaison. The work is original in that it offers the point of view of an Austrian citizen in France during the First World War, a woman as well, and seems to be one of the few operettas that makes the conflict its very subject and not just a background. Putting this libretto into perspective with some of the more canonical operettas in the German-language repertoire (Gold gab ich für Eisen and Die Csárdasfürstin by Emmerich Kálmán, Die Rose von Stambul by Leo Fall and Viktoria und ihr Husar by Paul Abraham), the article first examines the realistic portrayal of war in Fürnkranz's operetta, then the light and humorous treatment and staging of the war, before considering the significance of the female perspective, which is central to the play.

Keywords

  • First World War
  • internment camp
  • Garaison
  • operetta
  • Helene Fürnkranz (1868–1936)
Open Access

Des écrivains et leur rapport à la Première Guerre mondiale : traces littéraires de la Grande Guerre dans la littérature produite en Alsace (allemand, parler dialectal alsacien) entre 1914 et 1939

Published Online: 13 Apr 2021
Page range: 57 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

In Alsace, the end of the First World War brought a great sense of relief to the population, as it did everywhere else; yet, it also brought about a major political change to the former ‘Empire land’ (Reichsland) which became part of France (again). This affected the daily lives of each individual, in their professional, linguistic, cultural or social dimensions. Did the war and its aftermaths manifest themselves in literature, especially at a thematic level? To answer this question, we shall focus neither on the most famous writers, nor on those who left Alsace after 1918, since their work has already been examined under that angle, but on writers whose reputation remained regional or local, in particular on those writers who turned to the Alsatian dialect as means of expression. Indeed, in this literature, the war was rarely addressed and its socio-political upheavals even more rarely so. The ‘trace’ left by that conflict is of an emotional nature; it takes the form of an identity statement. Such writers found refuge in an emotionally charged Alsace, which functions as a matrix of their identity.

Keywords

  • First World War
  • Alsace
  • Alsatian literature
  • identity
Open Access

Observations sur l’usage linguistique des poilus pendant la Grande Guerre et sa mise en scène rétrospective dans les bandes dessinées

Published Online: 15 May 2021
Page range: 65 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

In this contribution, we analyse the artistic linguistic expression in three selected comic strips on the First World War that were published about 100 years after the end of the war. Therefore, we compare the aestheticized language with the authentic linguistic usage of ordinary people in their private correspondence and in war diaries written between 1914 and 1918. From a lexical point of view, both authentic and artistic texts are marked by an affinity with popular and colloquial French and, to a lesser extent, with trench slang (argot des tranchées). Orality portrayed in comics and identified as simulated orality is characterized by a more playful use of language and a higher number of vulgarisms compared to the authentic documents. In addition, the fictional and stylized character of the comics contributes to a more pronounced variation of slang, popular and familiar lexemes, especially in the designation of the German enemy, which we do not find in the texts of contemporary soldiers.

Keywords

  • historical sociolinguistics
  • comics
  • simulated orality
Open Access

Les plaies de la Grande Guerre dans la Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung, un imaginaire de papier sous la République de Weimar

Published Online: 16 Apr 2021
Page range: 77 - 84

Abstract

Abstract

After the armistice, World War One remained an important topic in the Berliner Ilustrirte Zeitung – an illustrated magazine devoted to general, political and cultural news. Analyzing its coverage of the war allows us to address what these representations have to say about the expectations, fears and hopes of Weimar progressives at the time. After showing some benevolence towards former enemies at the beginning of 1919, the BIZ grew more acrimonious when the terms of the peace treaty became official. These disappointed hopes certainly made the cultural demobilization of the BIZ more difficult. The magazine continued to relay the war rhetoric for some time, before trying to tend to the wounds and ease the mourning through artistic means. Eventually, the BIZ did not seek to preserve the memory of the war, but rather to promote a pacifist and republican way of thinking.

Keywords

  • illustrated press
  • Great War
  • Weimar Republic
  • collective memory
  • pacifism
Open Access

Bucheinbände und Rezeption der Antikriegsromane von Alexander Moritz Frey und Adrienne Thomas

Published Online: 13 Apr 2021
Page range: 85 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

Two autobiographically inspired anti-war novels, Die Pflasterkästen. Ein Feldsanitätsroman (1929, tr. as The Cross Bearers, 1930) by Alexander Moritz Frey (1881–1957) and Die Katrin wird Soldat. Ein Roman aus Elsass-Lothringen (1930, tr. by Margaret L. Goldsmith as Catherine Joins Up / Katrin Becomes a Soldier, London / Boston, 1931) by Adrienne Thomas make literary capital out of the experiences of wartime medicine and nursing. Published in the Weimar Republic soon after Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, they were good enough to hold their own against this bestseller for a time. Their dust jackets and covers, often created by prestigious designers, illustrated the oblivion and memory of the works within and commented on the stories they contained.

Keywords

  • anti-war novels
  • Frey (Alexander Moritz)
  • Thomas (Adrienne)
  • book jacket/book cover
  • reception history
Open Access

Georg Wilhelm Pabst : blessure de la guerre, cicatrices de la pellicule

Published Online: 21 Mar 2021
Page range: 97 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

Of all the filmmakers who made up Germany's cinematic glory in the interwar period, G. W. Pabst is the one who received the least recognition or took the longest to do so. But he is also the one who, as early as the late 1920s, made the First World War a cinematic event which is reflected, more or less directly, in four of his films: The Love of Jeanne Ney, Westfront 1918, Kameradschaft and Street of Shadows. War appears as a traumatic experience that has wounded individuals, souls and peoples. But these four films also form an artistic manifesto, in which Pabst affirms the restorative power of cinema, which, in essence, consists of an incessant dialectic between cut and reunion. With its proper aesthetic means, the cinema can thus repair the after-effects of war.

Keywords

  • Pabst (Georg Wilhelm)
  • German film
  • New Objectivity
  • aesthetics of film
  • history of reception
Open Access

Behandeln, Aufarbeiten und Reparieren durch Kunst: zeitgenössische Darstellungen der vom Krieg „verletzten“ Landschaften Ost-Frankreichs

Published Online: 09 May 2021
Page range: 103 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

The first part of this contribution is dedicated to theoretical aspects of treatment, reappraisal and reparation through the arts. The verb “(to) treat” (behandeln in German) best reflects the complexity of an artistic approach which associates creation and reception without neglecting the material or artisanal/handmade dimension (cf. the German word be-hand-eln that refers etymologically to what is taken in one's hand). “To repair”, used in the francophone context, highlights the paradoxical compensation (Wiedergutmachung in German) that art makes possible without disposing the traces (scars) of what has been broken/wounded. At last, the term “reappraisal” (Aufarbeitung) emphasizes the idea of digging out former subjects, which have left, however, physical and psychological traces in the here and now. The second part focuses on Eastern France's landscapes marked by the war and various rearrangements of borders. The special potential of the arts, in the context of the commemoration of World War I, is stressed on the basis of chosen works of contemporary art, particularly from the field of artistic photography.

Keywords

  • Reappraisal
  • contemporary art
  • artistic photography
  • war landscape
  • Eastern France
Open Access

Les traces des traces de la Première Guerre mondiale : la représentation photographique des lieux de conflit et ses enjeux mémoriels

Published Online: 08 Oct 2021
Page range: 111 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

Devoted to the photography of the places where the fighting of the First World War took place, this contribution examines the memorial significance of the aesthetic choices. Photographic traces of the physical traces left by conflicts in space, photographic representation must be questioned insofar as it has a collective meaning: aspiring to take over the public space, the images also have a performativity of their own and thus influence reality. After examining the notion of trace as a meeting point between photography and its object, and then the collective dimension of photographic representation, we will look at the work of Michael St Maur Sheil, Guillaume Amat and Paola de Pietri, three photographers who seek to express the need for resistance to oblivion through the photography of conflict sites.

Keywords

  • Photography
  • Collective memory
  • Battlefields
  • First World War
  • Traces
  • Visual history
Open Access

Photographies et mémoires de la Première Guerre dans les guides Michelin (1917–2019)

Published Online: 06 Jul 2021
Page range: 117 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

Michelin's Illustrated Battlefields Guides are no ordinary travel guides. A considerable number of photo-engravings were collected and published between 1917 and 2019. Reuse and addition of engravings demonstrate the interdependence of communicative memory and cultural memory. Up to 1921 the illustrations bore witness to the end of war / post-war climate, and military photojournalism still enjoyed a monopoly: events and material reality of destruction prevailed. During the interwar period, this monopoly and the objectifying knowledge of World War I persisted and became more complex, focusing on Verdun both as a concrete referent and an emerging myth. The 2019 guide changes paradigms and takes cemeteries, war memorials, stelae, as a starting point, with a view to reconciling the interest of all and the empathy of each visitor, commemorating the past and symbolically preserving it for the future.

Keywords

  • Michelin
  • travel Guide
  • World War I
  • ruins
  • cultural memory
Open Access

Paroles et performances d’artistes contemporains

Published Online: 18 Nov 2021
Page range: 131 - 134

Abstract

Open Access

Nachwort / Postface

Published Online: 06 Jul 2021
Page range: 135 - 141

Abstract

Open Access

Palatini, John (dir.), Kunst im Lager. Das Kriegsgefangenenlager Merseburg im Ersten Weltkrieg, Halle (Saale), Landesheimatbund Sachsen-Anhalt e.V., 2020.

Published Online: 18 Aug 2021
Page range: 143 - 145

Abstract

Open Access

Glossaire / Glossar: Cicatrices / cicatrisation versus Narben / Heilungsprozess

Published Online: 09 Oct 2021
Page range: 147 - 148

Abstract

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo