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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-134X
ISSN
2083-1331
First Published
16 Apr 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 30 (2012): Issue 3 (September 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-134X
ISSN
2083-1331
First Published
16 Apr 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

19 Articles
access type Open Access

Characteristics of GTA fusion zones and heat affected zones in superalloy 713C

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 159 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, metallographic examinations, characterising microstructural changes in the 713C superalloy subjected to remelting by GTA method, are presented. In the fusion zone, precipitation of M23C6 or M6C carbides based on chromium and molybdenum was observed. Eutectic mixtures of (γ-gg′)-MxCy type with highly developed morphology were also perceived. It was found that, in the matrix areas with non-homogeneous chemical composition, the eutectic reaction γ-γ′ can occur at the temperature close to that of the precipitation of the MxCy carbides. The presence of silicon in the carbide phases can be conducive to lowering their solidification point by creating low-melting compound NbSi. Both in the fusion zone (FZ) and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the secondary precipitates of the Ni3(AlTi)-γ′ phase, varying in size from 50 to 100 nm, were found. The lattice mismatch factor of the γ and γ′ particles was +0.48 % to +0.71 %, which is characteristic of the coherent precipitates of the Ni3Al phase enriched with titanium. No dislocations or stacking faults were observed in the microstructure of the FZ. In the HAZ, some primary undissolved γ′ precipitates, with a part of aluminium probably replaced with niobium were observed, which raised their melting point.

Keywords

  • 713C alloy
  • heat affected zone
  • Ni3Al
  • hot crack
  • lattice mismatch factor
access type Open Access

Structural features and gas tightness of EB-PVD 1Ce10ScSZ electrolyte films

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 170 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

The structure of Ceria doped Scandia Stabilized Zirconia (1Ce10ScSZ) electrolyte film deposited by EB-PVD (Electron Beam-Physical Vapour Deposition) technique on NiO-ZrO2 substrate was characterized by electron microscopy. The highly porous substrate was densely covered by deposited film without any spallation. The produced electrolyte layer was of a columnar structure with bushes, bundles of a diameter up to 30 μm and diverse height. Between the columns, delamination cracks of few microns length were visible. The annealing of zirconia film at 1000 °C resulted in its densification. The columnar grains and delaminating cracks changed their shape into a bit rounded. High magnification studies revealed nanopores 5–60 nm formed along the boundaries of the columnar grains during annealing. High-quality contacts between the electrolyte film and anode substrate ensured good conductivity of the electrolyte film and high efficiency of SOFC.

Keywords

  • SOFC
  • interface
  • FIB
  • microstructure characterization
access type Open Access

Molten salt synthesis of potassium hexatitanate

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 180 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

Potassium hexatitanate fibrous crystals have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction and via molten salt process. The molten salt process has been shown to be effective in preparing fine and non-agglomerated K2Ti6O13 whiskers. The type of molten salt (KCl, NaCl-KCl) has a significant effect on the chemical composition of the whiskers. By using a eutectic mixture of NaCl and KCl, the replacement of potassium ions in solid potassium hexatitanate by smaller sodium ions from the chloride flux can be achieved. The characterization of the samples was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, EDX and WDX.

Keywords

  • potassium hexatitanate
  • synthesis
  • conventional calcinations
  • molten salt process
  • whiskers
access type Open Access

TiO2/bone composite materials for the separation of heavy metal impurities from waste water solutions

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 189 - 196

Abstract

Abstract

Pure bone material obtained from cow meat, as apatite-rich material, and TiO2-bone composite materials are prepared and studied to be used for heavy metal ions separation from waste water solutions. Meat wastes are chemically and thermally treated to control their microstructure in order to prepare the composite materials that fulfill all the requirements to be used as selective membranes with high performance, stability and mechanical strength. The prepared materials are analyzed using Hg-porosimetry for surface characterization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) for elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for chemical composition investigation. Structural studies are performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructural properties are studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area studies are performed using Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method. XRD studies show that multiphase structures are obtained as a result of 1h sintering at 700–1200 °C for both pure bone and TiO2-bone composite materials. The factors affecting the transport of different heavy metal ions through the selected membranes are determined from permeation flux measurements. It is found that membrane pore size, membrane surface roughness and membrane surface charge are the key parameters that control the transport or rejection of heavy metal ions through the selected membranes.

Keywords

  • meat bones
  • composite membranes
  • heavy metal ions
  • permeation flux
  • selectivity
access type Open Access

Determination of critical stress triaxiality along yield locus of isotropic ductile materials under plane strain condition

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 197 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

It is widely accepted that failure due to plastic deformation in metals greatly depends on the stress triaxiality factor (TF). This article investigates the variation of stress triaxiality along the yield locus of ductile materials. Von Mises yield criteria and triaxiality factor have been used to determine the critical limits of stress triaxiality for the materials under plane strain condition. A generalized mathematical model for triaxiality factor has been formulated and a constrained optimization has been carried out using genetic algorithm. Finite element analysis of a two dimensional square plate has been carried out to verify the results obtained by the mathematical model. It is found that the set of values of the first and the second principal stresses on the yield locus, which results in maximum stress triaxiality, can be used to determine the location at which crack initiation may occur. Thus, the results indicate that while designing a certain component, such combination of stresses which leads the stress triaxiality to its critical value, should be avoided.

Keywords

  • triaxiality
  • von Mises stress
  • Poisson’s ratio
  • genetic algorithm
  • yield stress
  • FEA
access type Open Access

Dry sliding wear behaviour of fly ash particles reinforced AA 2024 composites

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 204 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

AA 2024 alloy has been melted and cast in a permanent cast iron mould in the form of 18 mm Φ fingers. The synthesis of AA2024 alloy − 5wt.% fly ash composite was made by stir cast technique. A uniform distribution of fly ash particles in the matrix phase was obtained. Good bonding between the matrix and reinforcement was also achieved. Dry sliding wear behavior of the alloy and the composite has been investigated using a pin-on-disc wear tester. The investigation was carried out at a fixed sliding velocity of 2.0 m/s, track diameter of 60 mm and load ranging from 0.5 kgf to 1.5 kgf (4.9–14.7 N). SEM studies were carried out to assess the wear behavior of the alloy and the composite. The composite showed better wear resistance than the base alloy for the lower loads. However, for the higher loads and longer sliding distances, the wear in the composite was extensive due to the existence of fractured and dislodged fly ash particles in the alloy matrix.

Keywords

  • metal-matrix composite
  • Al-fly ash composites
  • wear testing
  • sliding wear
  • electron microscopy
access type Open Access

Molecular dynamics simulation study of the liquid crystal phase in small mesogene cluster (9CB)20

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 212 - 216

Abstract

Abstract

Using the molecular dynamics (MD) technique, we have investigated a nano droplet composed of twenty mesogene molecules 4-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (9CB). The geometry of the 9CB molecule was calculated with the DFT method. We treat 9CB molecules as rigid bodies, the intermolecular interaction is taken to be the full site-site pairwise additive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. We calculated the radial and orientational distribution functions in the temperature range of 100 to 350 K, as well as the linear and angular velocity autocorrelation functions and their Fourier transforms. We observed liquid crystal ordering in the studied nanoscale system, up to its vaporization temperature.

Keywords

  • mesogene cluster
  • nanoscale liquid crystal
  • molecular dynamics simulation (MD)
  • 9CB
access type Open Access

Structural aspects of corrosion resistance in alloys based on the Fe3Al intermetallic phase in the cast state

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 217 - 225

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the results of investigation of four cast alloys based on the Fe3Al intermetallic phase. Microstructure tests using light microscopy, electron scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods, have been performed. On this basis, a presence of particles rich in zirconium and molybdenum, and in case of the alloy with 28 at.% aluminium and 5 at.% chromium — the presence of sigma phase (FeCr), has been found. Also, the results of the study of the microstructure influence on the electrochemical corrosion resistance in the 5 % NaCl solution have been presented. The Fe-26Al-2Cr-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% and Fe-26Al-5Cr-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% alloys exhibited increased corrosion resistance in comparison to the Fe-23Al-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% alloy without chromium addition. The appearance of the sigma phase in the alloy of Fe-28Al-5Cr-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% chemical composition resulted in lowering the corrosion resistance of this alloy and a change in corrosion character from the pitting to the intercrystalline one.

Keywords

  • Fe3Al based iron aluminides
  • microstructure
  • electrochemical corrosion
  • sigma phase
access type Open Access

Ultra-high crystallinity millimeter long multiwall carbon nanotubes fabricated by mechanothermal method

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 226 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with ultra-high crystalline structure have been prepared by mechanothermal (MT) method. The novel super nanostructure is introduced for the first time as an extraordinary fullerene-carbon based material which, due to its special electronic and mechanical properties, can be used to construct unique building blocks for nanoengineering. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder has been obtained by mechanical activation under Ar atmosphere. Finally, the mechanically activated product is heat-treated at 1350 °C for 3–4 h under an Ar gas flow. However, the crystallite size and crystallinity degree of the MWCNTs increased with the increase in annealing temperature.

Keywords

  • carbon nanotube
  • reinforcement
  • crystallinity
  • mechanothermal method
  • HRTEM
access type Open Access

Corrosion behaviour and bioactivity of electrophoretically deposited hydroxyapatite on titanium in physiological media (Hanks’ solution)

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 231 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were developed on titanium by electrophoretic deposition at various deposition potentials from 30 to 60 V and at a constant deposition time of 5 minutes using the synthetic HA (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2,) powder in a suspension of dimethyleformamide (DMF, HCON(CH3)2). The electrochemical corrosion behavior of the HA coatings in simulated body fluid (SBF Hanks’ solution) at 37 °C and pH 7.4 was investigated by means of open-circuit potential (OCP) measurement and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The OCP test showed that the values OCP for the coated samples shifted to more noble potential than for uncoated titanium, especially after addition of dispersants. The polarization test revealed that all HA coated specimens had a corrosion resistance higher than that of the substrate, especially after addition of dispersants such as polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and triethanolamine (TEA) to the suspension. The coating morphology after polarization, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showed penetration of electrolyte into the HA coats. Bone bioactivity of the coatings was also studied by immersion of coated specimens in Hanks’ solution for 3 and 7 days. Apatite granules growth on the surface of the HA layers was observed.

Keywords

  • hydroxyapatite
  • electrophoretic deposition
  • titanium
  • corrosion
  • bioactivity
access type Open Access

Conduction in nanostructured La1−x SrxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 240 - 247

Abstract

Abstract

We investigated electrical properties of nanostructured La1−x SrxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) from 300 K–400 K. The nanostructured La1−x SrxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was synthesized by citrate gel method requiring no pH control. X-ray diffraction pattern showed that single phase LaFeO3 with an orthorhombic structure was formed. The structure changed into rhombohedral for x = 0.5 and it became cubic for x = 1.0. For x ≤ 0.5, our material showed non-linear current-voltage characteristics and for x > 0.5 it showed linear current-voltage characteristics. Poole Frenkel type conduction mechanism was found to be operative in LaFeO3 from 300 K–400 K. The experimental values of field-lowering coefficient were by 2.56–6.41 times higher than the predicted value and were attributed to the presence of localized fields. The increase in conductance with Sr content was due to formation of Fe4+ ions in addition to Fe3+ with the increase in Sr content. Impedance spectroscopy and ac conductivity analysis of La1−x SrxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was also carried out in the temperature range from 300 K–400 K and frequency was varied from 20 Hz - 2 MHz. The ac conduction followed the correlated barrier hopping model in La0.9Sr0.1FeO3.

Keywords

  • electrical properties
  • conduction
  • oxides
  • chemical synthesis
access type Open Access

Influence of annealing on structural, morphological and optical properties of CdxZn1−x O nanopowder prepared by Co-precipitation method

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 248 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

Structural and optical properties of CdxZn1−x O (x = 0.0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.1) nanopowder, synthesized by co-precipitation method have been investigated. The effect of annealing on the structural and morphological properties was studied using X-ray diffraction. The samples with x = 0.0 up to 0.075 exhibit wurtzite hexagonal phase, whereas, the sample with x = 0.1 shows two phases: wurtzite hexagonal ZnO and cubic CdO phase. This behavior is explained on the basis of solubility of CdO in ZnO. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) results revealed the existence of Cd, Zn, and O elements in the nanopowder. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images confirm that the particle size of the prepared samples is in nano range. The optical band gap values obtained from the absorption spectra show that absorption depends on Cd composition. By doping of ZnO with CdO, a red shift in the absorption edge was observed.

Keywords

  • co-precipitation
  • ZnO nano-powder
  • binary phase
  • CdZnO nano-powder
access type Open Access

Magnesium and iron nanoparticles production using microorganisms and various salts

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 254 - 258

Abstract

Abstract

Response of five fungi and two bacteria to different salts of magnesium and iron for production of nanoparticles was studied. Pochonia chlamydosporium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were exposed to three salts of magnesium while Curvularia lunata, Chaetomium globosum, A. fumigatus, A. wentii and the bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis and Bacillus coagulans were exposed to two salts of iron for nanoparticle production. The results revealed that P. chlamydosporium induces development of extracellular nanoparticles in MgCl2 solution while A. fumigatus produces also intracellular nanoparticles when exposed to MgSO4 solution. C. globosum was found as the most effective in producing nanoparticles when exposed to Fe2O3 solution. The FTIR analysis of the nanoparticles obtained from Fe2O3 solution showed the peaks similar to iron (Fe). In general, the species of the tested microbes were selective to different chemicals in their response for synthesis of nanoparticles. Further studies on their characterization and improving the efficiency of promising species of fungi need to be undertaken before tapping their potential as nanonutrients for plants.

Keywords

  • biosynthesis
  • nanoparticles
  • iron
  • magnesium
access type Open Access

Electrodeposition and magnetic properties of ternary Fe-Co-Ni alloy nanowire arrays with high squareness ratio

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 259 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

Highly-ordered ternary Fe-Co-Ni alloy nanowire arrays with diameters of about 50 nm have been fabricated by alternating current (AC) electrodeposition into the nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide templates. SEM and TEM results indicate that the alloy nanowires are highly ordered. XRD and HRTEM results show that the ternary FeCoNi alloy nanowires are polycrystalline, with HCP-FCC dual phase structure. Magnetic measurements demonstrate that the ternary alloy nanowire arrays have an obvious magnetic anisotropy with an easy magnetization direction being parallel to the nanowire arrays. Along the easy magnetization direction, the coercivity (Hc) and squareness ratio (S) increase as the annealing temperature increases, and reach a maximum level (Hc = 1337 Oe, S = 0.96) at 300 °C.

Keywords

  • electrodeposition
  • magnetic properties
  • Fe-Co-Ni alloy nanowires
  • porous anodic aluminum oxide template
access type Open Access

Synthesis and X-ray structural investigation of undoped borate glasses

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 264 - 273

Abstract

Abstract

A series of undoped borate glasses: Li2B4O7, LiKB4O7, LiB3O5, SrB4O7, and LiCaBO3 of high optical quality and chemical purity were obtained from the corresponding polycrystalline compounds using standard glass synthesis under technological conditions developed by the authors. The glasses were obtained by rapid cooling of molten crystalline material, which was heated to 100 K above the melting point to prevent crystallization and to exceed the glass transition point. The X-ray diffraction intensity profiles of the investigated glasses were typical of glassy compounds. The most typical intensity profile, consisting of almost symmetrical peaks, was observed in the case of Li2B4O7 and LiB3O5. Substitution and partial substitution of Li atoms by Sr and Ca atoms was accompanied by significant changes in the intensity profiles of the investigated glasses. Pair correlation functions and structural parameters (average interatomic distances and coordination number to oxygen) of the investigated glasses were evaluated and analyzed. Structural peculiarities of the investigated borate glasses are discussed in comparison with structural data available for their crystalline analogs.

Keywords

  • borate glasses
  • fabrication
  • X-ray diffraction
  • intensity curves
  • pair correlation functions
access type Open Access

Influence of dielectric coverage on photovoltaic conversion of silicon solar cells obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 274 - 277

Abstract

Abstract

This work presents an analysis of the influence of SiO2 dielectric coverage of a Si substrate on the solar-cell efficiency of Si thin layers obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). The layers were obtained by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). All experiments were carried out under the following conditions: initial temperature of growth: 1193 K; temperature difference ΔT = 60 K; ambient gas: Ar; metallic solvent: Sn+Al; cooling rates: 0.5 K/min and 1 K/min. To compare the influence of the interior reflectivity of photons, we used two types of dielectric masks in a shape of a grid etched in SiO2 along the 〈110〉 and 〈112〉 directions on a p+ boron-doped (111) silicon substrate, where silicon dioxide covered 70 % and 80 % of the silicon surface, respectively. The results obtained in this work depict the correlation between the interior efficiency and percentage of SiO2 coverage of the substrate of the ELO solar cells.

Keywords

  • liquid phase epitaxy
  • thin film solar cells
  • epitaxial lateral overgrowth
access type Open Access

Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrites synthesized using sol-gel techniques

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 278 - 281

Abstract

Abstract

Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) was synthesized using sol-gel techniques from cobalt nitrate: iron nitrate: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel in a ratio of 1:2:12. Variations in the amount of PVA in water (5 %, 10 % and 15 %) influenced the crystallite size and phases of the ferrite products, which in turn controlled their magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction studies indicated single phase CoFe2O4 with larger crystallite size and with the hysteresis loops displaying an increase in both coercive field and squareness as the PVA content was increased. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that desorption of water and combustion of excess gel were clearly observed in CoFe2O4 prepared from 10 % and 15 % PVA in water. In the case of 5 % PVA in water, two other ratios of cobalt nitrate: iron nitrate: PVA solution were also tested and it was found that the 1:2:10 ratio led to the smallest coercive field and squareness.

Keywords

  • cobalt ferrites
  • sol-gel method
  • XRD
  • DSC
  • hysteresis loops
access type Open Access

Microstructure and properties of ultrafine grain nickel 200 after hydrostatic extrusion processes

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 282 - 289

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the studies of the structure and properties of ultrafine grained nickel 200 obtained by hydrostatic extrusion processes. Microstructure was characterized by means of optical microscopy and electron transmission microscopy. Corrosion resistance was studied by impedance and potentiodynamic methods using an AutoLab PGSTAT 100 potentiostat in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution and in acidified (by addition of H2SO4) 0.1 M NaCl solution at pH = 4.2 at room temperature. Microhardness tests were also performed. The results showed that hydrostatic extrusion produces a heterogeneous, ultrafine-grained microstructure in nickel 200. The corrosive resistance tests showed that the grain refinement by hydrostatic extrusion is accompanied by a decreased corrosive resistance of nickel 200.

Keywords

  • nickel 200
  • hydrostatic extrusion process
  • ultrafine grained microstructure
  • corrosive resistance
access type Open Access

Low frequency dielectric relaxation and optical behaviour of a nematic liquid crystal 4-methyl n (2′-hydroxy, 4′-n-hexadecyloxy) azobenzene

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 290 - 296

Abstract

Abstract

Low frequency dielectric relaxation has been reported for a nematic liquid crystal in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range from 25 °C to 100 °C. The optical behaviour has also been studied by measuring the refractive indices, birefringence and optical transmittance in the temperature range mentioned above. The birefringence data have been used to calculate the order parameter by Vuks’ approach, and its variation with temperature has been discussed. Transition temperatures obtained using different techniques are found to be in good agreement with each other.

Keywords

  • nematics
  • dielectrics
  • order parameter
  • phase transition
19 Articles
access type Open Access

Characteristics of GTA fusion zones and heat affected zones in superalloy 713C

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 159 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, metallographic examinations, characterising microstructural changes in the 713C superalloy subjected to remelting by GTA method, are presented. In the fusion zone, precipitation of M23C6 or M6C carbides based on chromium and molybdenum was observed. Eutectic mixtures of (γ-gg′)-MxCy type with highly developed morphology were also perceived. It was found that, in the matrix areas with non-homogeneous chemical composition, the eutectic reaction γ-γ′ can occur at the temperature close to that of the precipitation of the MxCy carbides. The presence of silicon in the carbide phases can be conducive to lowering their solidification point by creating low-melting compound NbSi. Both in the fusion zone (FZ) and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the secondary precipitates of the Ni3(AlTi)-γ′ phase, varying in size from 50 to 100 nm, were found. The lattice mismatch factor of the γ and γ′ particles was +0.48 % to +0.71 %, which is characteristic of the coherent precipitates of the Ni3Al phase enriched with titanium. No dislocations or stacking faults were observed in the microstructure of the FZ. In the HAZ, some primary undissolved γ′ precipitates, with a part of aluminium probably replaced with niobium were observed, which raised their melting point.

Keywords

  • 713C alloy
  • heat affected zone
  • Ni3Al
  • hot crack
  • lattice mismatch factor
access type Open Access

Structural features and gas tightness of EB-PVD 1Ce10ScSZ electrolyte films

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 170 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

The structure of Ceria doped Scandia Stabilized Zirconia (1Ce10ScSZ) electrolyte film deposited by EB-PVD (Electron Beam-Physical Vapour Deposition) technique on NiO-ZrO2 substrate was characterized by electron microscopy. The highly porous substrate was densely covered by deposited film without any spallation. The produced electrolyte layer was of a columnar structure with bushes, bundles of a diameter up to 30 μm and diverse height. Between the columns, delamination cracks of few microns length were visible. The annealing of zirconia film at 1000 °C resulted in its densification. The columnar grains and delaminating cracks changed their shape into a bit rounded. High magnification studies revealed nanopores 5–60 nm formed along the boundaries of the columnar grains during annealing. High-quality contacts between the electrolyte film and anode substrate ensured good conductivity of the electrolyte film and high efficiency of SOFC.

Keywords

  • SOFC
  • interface
  • FIB
  • microstructure characterization
access type Open Access

Molten salt synthesis of potassium hexatitanate

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 180 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

Potassium hexatitanate fibrous crystals have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction and via molten salt process. The molten salt process has been shown to be effective in preparing fine and non-agglomerated K2Ti6O13 whiskers. The type of molten salt (KCl, NaCl-KCl) has a significant effect on the chemical composition of the whiskers. By using a eutectic mixture of NaCl and KCl, the replacement of potassium ions in solid potassium hexatitanate by smaller sodium ions from the chloride flux can be achieved. The characterization of the samples was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, EDX and WDX.

Keywords

  • potassium hexatitanate
  • synthesis
  • conventional calcinations
  • molten salt process
  • whiskers
access type Open Access

TiO2/bone composite materials for the separation of heavy metal impurities from waste water solutions

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 189 - 196

Abstract

Abstract

Pure bone material obtained from cow meat, as apatite-rich material, and TiO2-bone composite materials are prepared and studied to be used for heavy metal ions separation from waste water solutions. Meat wastes are chemically and thermally treated to control their microstructure in order to prepare the composite materials that fulfill all the requirements to be used as selective membranes with high performance, stability and mechanical strength. The prepared materials are analyzed using Hg-porosimetry for surface characterization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) for elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for chemical composition investigation. Structural studies are performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructural properties are studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area studies are performed using Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method. XRD studies show that multiphase structures are obtained as a result of 1h sintering at 700–1200 °C for both pure bone and TiO2-bone composite materials. The factors affecting the transport of different heavy metal ions through the selected membranes are determined from permeation flux measurements. It is found that membrane pore size, membrane surface roughness and membrane surface charge are the key parameters that control the transport or rejection of heavy metal ions through the selected membranes.

Keywords

  • meat bones
  • composite membranes
  • heavy metal ions
  • permeation flux
  • selectivity
access type Open Access

Determination of critical stress triaxiality along yield locus of isotropic ductile materials under plane strain condition

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 197 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

It is widely accepted that failure due to plastic deformation in metals greatly depends on the stress triaxiality factor (TF). This article investigates the variation of stress triaxiality along the yield locus of ductile materials. Von Mises yield criteria and triaxiality factor have been used to determine the critical limits of stress triaxiality for the materials under plane strain condition. A generalized mathematical model for triaxiality factor has been formulated and a constrained optimization has been carried out using genetic algorithm. Finite element analysis of a two dimensional square plate has been carried out to verify the results obtained by the mathematical model. It is found that the set of values of the first and the second principal stresses on the yield locus, which results in maximum stress triaxiality, can be used to determine the location at which crack initiation may occur. Thus, the results indicate that while designing a certain component, such combination of stresses which leads the stress triaxiality to its critical value, should be avoided.

Keywords

  • triaxiality
  • von Mises stress
  • Poisson’s ratio
  • genetic algorithm
  • yield stress
  • FEA
access type Open Access

Dry sliding wear behaviour of fly ash particles reinforced AA 2024 composites

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 204 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

AA 2024 alloy has been melted and cast in a permanent cast iron mould in the form of 18 mm Φ fingers. The synthesis of AA2024 alloy − 5wt.% fly ash composite was made by stir cast technique. A uniform distribution of fly ash particles in the matrix phase was obtained. Good bonding between the matrix and reinforcement was also achieved. Dry sliding wear behavior of the alloy and the composite has been investigated using a pin-on-disc wear tester. The investigation was carried out at a fixed sliding velocity of 2.0 m/s, track diameter of 60 mm and load ranging from 0.5 kgf to 1.5 kgf (4.9–14.7 N). SEM studies were carried out to assess the wear behavior of the alloy and the composite. The composite showed better wear resistance than the base alloy for the lower loads. However, for the higher loads and longer sliding distances, the wear in the composite was extensive due to the existence of fractured and dislodged fly ash particles in the alloy matrix.

Keywords

  • metal-matrix composite
  • Al-fly ash composites
  • wear testing
  • sliding wear
  • electron microscopy
access type Open Access

Molecular dynamics simulation study of the liquid crystal phase in small mesogene cluster (9CB)20

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 212 - 216

Abstract

Abstract

Using the molecular dynamics (MD) technique, we have investigated a nano droplet composed of twenty mesogene molecules 4-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (9CB). The geometry of the 9CB molecule was calculated with the DFT method. We treat 9CB molecules as rigid bodies, the intermolecular interaction is taken to be the full site-site pairwise additive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. We calculated the radial and orientational distribution functions in the temperature range of 100 to 350 K, as well as the linear and angular velocity autocorrelation functions and their Fourier transforms. We observed liquid crystal ordering in the studied nanoscale system, up to its vaporization temperature.

Keywords

  • mesogene cluster
  • nanoscale liquid crystal
  • molecular dynamics simulation (MD)
  • 9CB
access type Open Access

Structural aspects of corrosion resistance in alloys based on the Fe3Al intermetallic phase in the cast state

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 217 - 225

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the results of investigation of four cast alloys based on the Fe3Al intermetallic phase. Microstructure tests using light microscopy, electron scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods, have been performed. On this basis, a presence of particles rich in zirconium and molybdenum, and in case of the alloy with 28 at.% aluminium and 5 at.% chromium — the presence of sigma phase (FeCr), has been found. Also, the results of the study of the microstructure influence on the electrochemical corrosion resistance in the 5 % NaCl solution have been presented. The Fe-26Al-2Cr-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% and Fe-26Al-5Cr-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% alloys exhibited increased corrosion resistance in comparison to the Fe-23Al-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% alloy without chromium addition. The appearance of the sigma phase in the alloy of Fe-28Al-5Cr-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% chemical composition resulted in lowering the corrosion resistance of this alloy and a change in corrosion character from the pitting to the intercrystalline one.

Keywords

  • Fe3Al based iron aluminides
  • microstructure
  • electrochemical corrosion
  • sigma phase
access type Open Access

Ultra-high crystallinity millimeter long multiwall carbon nanotubes fabricated by mechanothermal method

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 226 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with ultra-high crystalline structure have been prepared by mechanothermal (MT) method. The novel super nanostructure is introduced for the first time as an extraordinary fullerene-carbon based material which, due to its special electronic and mechanical properties, can be used to construct unique building blocks for nanoengineering. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder has been obtained by mechanical activation under Ar atmosphere. Finally, the mechanically activated product is heat-treated at 1350 °C for 3–4 h under an Ar gas flow. However, the crystallite size and crystallinity degree of the MWCNTs increased with the increase in annealing temperature.

Keywords

  • carbon nanotube
  • reinforcement
  • crystallinity
  • mechanothermal method
  • HRTEM
access type Open Access

Corrosion behaviour and bioactivity of electrophoretically deposited hydroxyapatite on titanium in physiological media (Hanks’ solution)

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 231 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were developed on titanium by electrophoretic deposition at various deposition potentials from 30 to 60 V and at a constant deposition time of 5 minutes using the synthetic HA (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2,) powder in a suspension of dimethyleformamide (DMF, HCON(CH3)2). The electrochemical corrosion behavior of the HA coatings in simulated body fluid (SBF Hanks’ solution) at 37 °C and pH 7.4 was investigated by means of open-circuit potential (OCP) measurement and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The OCP test showed that the values OCP for the coated samples shifted to more noble potential than for uncoated titanium, especially after addition of dispersants. The polarization test revealed that all HA coated specimens had a corrosion resistance higher than that of the substrate, especially after addition of dispersants such as polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and triethanolamine (TEA) to the suspension. The coating morphology after polarization, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showed penetration of electrolyte into the HA coats. Bone bioactivity of the coatings was also studied by immersion of coated specimens in Hanks’ solution for 3 and 7 days. Apatite granules growth on the surface of the HA layers was observed.

Keywords

  • hydroxyapatite
  • electrophoretic deposition
  • titanium
  • corrosion
  • bioactivity
access type Open Access

Conduction in nanostructured La1−x SrxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 240 - 247

Abstract

Abstract

We investigated electrical properties of nanostructured La1−x SrxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) from 300 K–400 K. The nanostructured La1−x SrxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was synthesized by citrate gel method requiring no pH control. X-ray diffraction pattern showed that single phase LaFeO3 with an orthorhombic structure was formed. The structure changed into rhombohedral for x = 0.5 and it became cubic for x = 1.0. For x ≤ 0.5, our material showed non-linear current-voltage characteristics and for x > 0.5 it showed linear current-voltage characteristics. Poole Frenkel type conduction mechanism was found to be operative in LaFeO3 from 300 K–400 K. The experimental values of field-lowering coefficient were by 2.56–6.41 times higher than the predicted value and were attributed to the presence of localized fields. The increase in conductance with Sr content was due to formation of Fe4+ ions in addition to Fe3+ with the increase in Sr content. Impedance spectroscopy and ac conductivity analysis of La1−x SrxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was also carried out in the temperature range from 300 K–400 K and frequency was varied from 20 Hz - 2 MHz. The ac conduction followed the correlated barrier hopping model in La0.9Sr0.1FeO3.

Keywords

  • electrical properties
  • conduction
  • oxides
  • chemical synthesis
access type Open Access

Influence of annealing on structural, morphological and optical properties of CdxZn1−x O nanopowder prepared by Co-precipitation method

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 248 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

Structural and optical properties of CdxZn1−x O (x = 0.0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.1) nanopowder, synthesized by co-precipitation method have been investigated. The effect of annealing on the structural and morphological properties was studied using X-ray diffraction. The samples with x = 0.0 up to 0.075 exhibit wurtzite hexagonal phase, whereas, the sample with x = 0.1 shows two phases: wurtzite hexagonal ZnO and cubic CdO phase. This behavior is explained on the basis of solubility of CdO in ZnO. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) results revealed the existence of Cd, Zn, and O elements in the nanopowder. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images confirm that the particle size of the prepared samples is in nano range. The optical band gap values obtained from the absorption spectra show that absorption depends on Cd composition. By doping of ZnO with CdO, a red shift in the absorption edge was observed.

Keywords

  • co-precipitation
  • ZnO nano-powder
  • binary phase
  • CdZnO nano-powder
access type Open Access

Magnesium and iron nanoparticles production using microorganisms and various salts

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 254 - 258

Abstract

Abstract

Response of five fungi and two bacteria to different salts of magnesium and iron for production of nanoparticles was studied. Pochonia chlamydosporium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were exposed to three salts of magnesium while Curvularia lunata, Chaetomium globosum, A. fumigatus, A. wentii and the bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis and Bacillus coagulans were exposed to two salts of iron for nanoparticle production. The results revealed that P. chlamydosporium induces development of extracellular nanoparticles in MgCl2 solution while A. fumigatus produces also intracellular nanoparticles when exposed to MgSO4 solution. C. globosum was found as the most effective in producing nanoparticles when exposed to Fe2O3 solution. The FTIR analysis of the nanoparticles obtained from Fe2O3 solution showed the peaks similar to iron (Fe). In general, the species of the tested microbes were selective to different chemicals in their response for synthesis of nanoparticles. Further studies on their characterization and improving the efficiency of promising species of fungi need to be undertaken before tapping their potential as nanonutrients for plants.

Keywords

  • biosynthesis
  • nanoparticles
  • iron
  • magnesium
access type Open Access

Electrodeposition and magnetic properties of ternary Fe-Co-Ni alloy nanowire arrays with high squareness ratio

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 259 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

Highly-ordered ternary Fe-Co-Ni alloy nanowire arrays with diameters of about 50 nm have been fabricated by alternating current (AC) electrodeposition into the nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide templates. SEM and TEM results indicate that the alloy nanowires are highly ordered. XRD and HRTEM results show that the ternary FeCoNi alloy nanowires are polycrystalline, with HCP-FCC dual phase structure. Magnetic measurements demonstrate that the ternary alloy nanowire arrays have an obvious magnetic anisotropy with an easy magnetization direction being parallel to the nanowire arrays. Along the easy magnetization direction, the coercivity (Hc) and squareness ratio (S) increase as the annealing temperature increases, and reach a maximum level (Hc = 1337 Oe, S = 0.96) at 300 °C.

Keywords

  • electrodeposition
  • magnetic properties
  • Fe-Co-Ni alloy nanowires
  • porous anodic aluminum oxide template
access type Open Access

Synthesis and X-ray structural investigation of undoped borate glasses

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 264 - 273

Abstract

Abstract

A series of undoped borate glasses: Li2B4O7, LiKB4O7, LiB3O5, SrB4O7, and LiCaBO3 of high optical quality and chemical purity were obtained from the corresponding polycrystalline compounds using standard glass synthesis under technological conditions developed by the authors. The glasses were obtained by rapid cooling of molten crystalline material, which was heated to 100 K above the melting point to prevent crystallization and to exceed the glass transition point. The X-ray diffraction intensity profiles of the investigated glasses were typical of glassy compounds. The most typical intensity profile, consisting of almost symmetrical peaks, was observed in the case of Li2B4O7 and LiB3O5. Substitution and partial substitution of Li atoms by Sr and Ca atoms was accompanied by significant changes in the intensity profiles of the investigated glasses. Pair correlation functions and structural parameters (average interatomic distances and coordination number to oxygen) of the investigated glasses were evaluated and analyzed. Structural peculiarities of the investigated borate glasses are discussed in comparison with structural data available for their crystalline analogs.

Keywords

  • borate glasses
  • fabrication
  • X-ray diffraction
  • intensity curves
  • pair correlation functions
access type Open Access

Influence of dielectric coverage on photovoltaic conversion of silicon solar cells obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 274 - 277

Abstract

Abstract

This work presents an analysis of the influence of SiO2 dielectric coverage of a Si substrate on the solar-cell efficiency of Si thin layers obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). The layers were obtained by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). All experiments were carried out under the following conditions: initial temperature of growth: 1193 K; temperature difference ΔT = 60 K; ambient gas: Ar; metallic solvent: Sn+Al; cooling rates: 0.5 K/min and 1 K/min. To compare the influence of the interior reflectivity of photons, we used two types of dielectric masks in a shape of a grid etched in SiO2 along the 〈110〉 and 〈112〉 directions on a p+ boron-doped (111) silicon substrate, where silicon dioxide covered 70 % and 80 % of the silicon surface, respectively. The results obtained in this work depict the correlation between the interior efficiency and percentage of SiO2 coverage of the substrate of the ELO solar cells.

Keywords

  • liquid phase epitaxy
  • thin film solar cells
  • epitaxial lateral overgrowth
access type Open Access

Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrites synthesized using sol-gel techniques

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 278 - 281

Abstract

Abstract

Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) was synthesized using sol-gel techniques from cobalt nitrate: iron nitrate: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel in a ratio of 1:2:12. Variations in the amount of PVA in water (5 %, 10 % and 15 %) influenced the crystallite size and phases of the ferrite products, which in turn controlled their magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction studies indicated single phase CoFe2O4 with larger crystallite size and with the hysteresis loops displaying an increase in both coercive field and squareness as the PVA content was increased. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that desorption of water and combustion of excess gel were clearly observed in CoFe2O4 prepared from 10 % and 15 % PVA in water. In the case of 5 % PVA in water, two other ratios of cobalt nitrate: iron nitrate: PVA solution were also tested and it was found that the 1:2:10 ratio led to the smallest coercive field and squareness.

Keywords

  • cobalt ferrites
  • sol-gel method
  • XRD
  • DSC
  • hysteresis loops
access type Open Access

Microstructure and properties of ultrafine grain nickel 200 after hydrostatic extrusion processes

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 282 - 289

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the studies of the structure and properties of ultrafine grained nickel 200 obtained by hydrostatic extrusion processes. Microstructure was characterized by means of optical microscopy and electron transmission microscopy. Corrosion resistance was studied by impedance and potentiodynamic methods using an AutoLab PGSTAT 100 potentiostat in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution and in acidified (by addition of H2SO4) 0.1 M NaCl solution at pH = 4.2 at room temperature. Microhardness tests were also performed. The results showed that hydrostatic extrusion produces a heterogeneous, ultrafine-grained microstructure in nickel 200. The corrosive resistance tests showed that the grain refinement by hydrostatic extrusion is accompanied by a decreased corrosive resistance of nickel 200.

Keywords

  • nickel 200
  • hydrostatic extrusion process
  • ultrafine grained microstructure
  • corrosive resistance
access type Open Access

Low frequency dielectric relaxation and optical behaviour of a nematic liquid crystal 4-methyl n (2′-hydroxy, 4′-n-hexadecyloxy) azobenzene

Published Online: 14 Sep 2012
Page range: 290 - 296

Abstract

Abstract

Low frequency dielectric relaxation has been reported for a nematic liquid crystal in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range from 25 °C to 100 °C. The optical behaviour has also been studied by measuring the refractive indices, birefringence and optical transmittance in the temperature range mentioned above. The birefringence data have been used to calculate the order parameter by Vuks’ approach, and its variation with temperature has been discussed. Transition temperatures obtained using different techniques are found to be in good agreement with each other.

Keywords

  • nematics
  • dielectrics
  • order parameter
  • phase transition

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