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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-134X
ISSN
2083-1331
First Published
16 Apr 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 31 (2013): Issue 4 (October 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-134X
ISSN
2083-1331
First Published
16 Apr 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

18 Articles
Open Access

Electrical conductivity of Pd47Ni47Si6 amorphous membrane while hydrogen permeation

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 484 - 488

Abstract

Abstract

Hydrogen diffusion through an amorphous membrane causes local disorders in the structure which can be detected through the measurement of changes of the electrical conductivity. Detecting these changes and comparing them directly with the amount of the permeated hydrogen provides information on the efficiency of separation, which can be used in hydrogen sensor and analyzer technology. This paper presents the results of electrical resistivity measurement of Pd47Ni47Si6 alloy amorphous membrane while hydrogen permeation flux was being changed along with the temperature. It was found that hydrogen changes the nature of the resistivity and the temperature coefficient of resistivity is negative, however, starting from the temperature of 365 K, its value becomes smaller. In order to explain this phenomenon thorough and detailed measurements of phase transitions were made with the use of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. On the basis of the research an attempt was made to explain the recorded changes of electrical conductivity.

Keywords

  • hydrogen separation
  • amorphous alloys
  • palladium-based alloy
  • electrical conductivity
Open Access

Determination of indium and nitrogen contents of InGaAsN quantum wells by HRXRD study supported by BAC calculation of the measured energy gap

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 489 - 494

Abstract

Abstract

Determination of indium and nitrogen content in InGaAsN quantum wells (QWs) is often based on the analysis of high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. The comparison of diffraction curves of two similar samples, with and without nitrogen, together with an assumption of constant indium incorporation efficiency during the growth of layers with and without nitrogen, may lead to a large deviation in the determined In and N content. The HRXRD curve simulations supported by bandgap determination and calculations seem to be a solution of this problem. Comparison of the results achieved from simulated HRXRD curves with the calculations of all QWs transitions measured by contactless electro-reflectance (CER) can lead to reduction of deviations in composition determination of InGaAsN quantum wells. The proposed algorithm was applied for investigation of InGaAsN QWs grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (APMOVPE).

Keywords

  • dilute nitrides
  • composition determination
  • quantum well
  • BAC band-anticrossing model
  • HRXRD high resolution X-ray diffraction
Open Access

Anomalous structural properties of some RCu2Ge2 compounds (R = La, Gd-Tm)

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 495 - 500

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, we address the issue of possible quadrupole ordering in RCu2Ge2 compounds. In the literature, there are reports on anomalous behaviour of lattice parameters, however, lack of high quality data makes the relevant analysis dubious. Therefore, we attempt to perform precise, non-ambient XRD measurements within 12–300 K temperature range. Our results confirm peculiar temperature behaviour of the c-lattice parameter that exhibits a well defined minimum at about 60–120 K for majority of investigated compounds. However, in contrast to the literature, the anomalous behaviour does not exhibit discontinuities. On the other hand, such behaviour has been evidenced for La-based compounds (LaCu2Ge2 and LaNi2Ge2), where the 4f orbitals are unoccupied.

Keywords

  • rare-earth intermetallics
  • non-ambient X-ray diffraction
Open Access

Synthesis and characterization of Co2FeAl Heusler alloy nanoparticles

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 501 - 505

Abstract

Abstract

Heusler alloy Co2FeAl (CFA) nanoparticles have been synthesized by reducing a mixture of the precursors: CoCl2·6H2O, Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and AlCl3·6H2O under H2 atmosphere. XRD, SEM and TEM techniques have been used for the characterization of the prepared material. XRD and SAED data from TEM show the formation of mixed phases of L21, B2 and A2 type crystal structure of the alloy. The estimated particle size from XRD data and TEM micrograph has been found in the range of 10 nm to 50 nm. The saturation magnetization has been found of 115 emu/g from M-H characteristics which is close to its bulk value of saturation magnetization. Chemical composition of the elements has also been estimated from EDAX, which shows a ratio of Co:Fe:Al as 2.12:1.06:0.81.

Keywords

  • Heusler alloy
  • nanoparticles
  • Co2FeAl
  • M-H characteristics
Open Access

Identification of growth mechanism of CBD CIAS thin films from SEM analysis

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 506 - 515

Abstract

Abstract

Near stoichiometric and stoichiometric CuIn(1−x)Al(x)Se2 (CIAS) thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) spectra have been employed to confirm the structure and composition of the prepared films. SEM analysis of near-stoichiometric and stoichiometric CIAS thin films enabled us to estimate the grain size, to identify the growth mechanism and also to visualize the surface morphology. Transmittance spectra have been employed to determine the type of transition and other optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant, refractive index, Sellmeier parameters and bandgap which are reported in this paper in detail.

Keywords

  • CBD
  • SEM
  • XRD
  • EDAX
  • stoichiometric and near-stoichiometric CIAS thin films
Open Access

Improved efficiency of p-type quasi-mono silicon blanket emitter solar cell by ion implantation and backside rounding

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 516 - 524

Abstract

Abstract

A novel type of silicon material, p-type quasi-mono wafer, has been produced using a seed directional solidification technique. This material is a promising alternative to traditional high-cost Czochralski (CZ) and float-zone (FZ) materials. This study evaluates the application of an advanced solar cell process that features a novel method of ion-implantation and backside rounding process on p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. The ion implantation process substituted for thermal POCl3 diffusion leads to better Rsheet uniformity (<3 %). After screen-printing, the interface of Al and back surface field (BSF) layers was analyzed for the as prepared samples and the samples etched to three different depth. SEM showed that increased etch depth improved both BSF layer and Al-Si layer. The IQE result also showed that the samples with higher etching depth had better performance at long wavelength. The I–V cell tester showed that the sample with the etching depth of 6 μm ± 0.1 μm had the greatest efficiency, due to the highest Voc and Isc. The solar cell fabricated in this innovative process on 156 × 156mm p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer achieved 18.82 % efficiency.

Keywords

  • quasi-mono wafer
  • ion implantation
  • POCl3
Open Access

Application of triton X-100 surfactant for silicon anisotropic etching in KOH-based solutions

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 525 - 530

Abstract

Abstract

The results of etching of silicon surfaces with different crystallographic orientations in KOH solutions containing a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 are presented in this paper. The etch rate ratio R(100)/R(110) >1, typical of KOH + IPA and TMAH + Triton X-100 mixtures, is achieved. The surface morphology of Si(hkl) wafers is closely investigated by SEM and AFM. The very low roughness of (110) and its vicinal (hh1) planes is observed and measured. In addition, the relatively smooth (h11) surfaces are obtained in the solution with Triton X-100 surfactant, as compared to the KOH solutions containing alcohols. Due to good smoothness of the studied surfaces, the KOH solution with Triton X-100 seems to be especially interesting for bulk micromachining employing non-standard (hkl) planes. The examples of mesas and trenches fabricated by anisotropic etching in the KOH solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant are presented. Keywords: silicon anisotropic etching;Triton X-100; potassium hydroxide; Si(hkl) surfaces

Open Access

Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic performances of materials based on CS2-modified titanate nanotubes

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 531 - 542

Abstract

Abstract

CS2-modified titanate nanotubes (CS2/TiO2-NTs) are fabricated by reaction of CS2 and Ti-O−Na+ species on titanate nanotubes. Pb2+ ions are coated on the modified nanotubes by ion exchange (Pb/CS2/TiO2-NTs). The products are characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77 K (BET method), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic performances of the products are evaluated by monitoring their catalytic activities for degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation. The effects of calcination temperature and atmosphere on the photocatalytic performance are investigated. The results reveal that the photocatalytic activities of CS2/TiO2-NTs and Pb/CS2/TiO2-NTs are far higher than that of primary nanotubes, and the optimum calcination temperature is 500 °C under N2 atmosphere. It is also discovered that physically adsorbed Pb2+ ions affect the photocatalytic activity of Pb/CS2/TiO2-NTs obviously. The photocatalytic activity of washed Pb/CS2/TiO2-NTs is higher than that of the unwashed one under the same thermal treatment and reaction conditions.

Keywords

  • titanate nanotubes
  • CS2
  • xanthate
  • Pb2+ ions
  • photocatalytic performance
Open Access

Evaluation of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures properties by QMSA and AFM techniques

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 543 - 547

Abstract

Abstract

Atomic force microscopy and Quantitative Mobility Spectrum Analysis (QMSA) were applied for characterization and evaluation of the quality of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The structural uniformity, growth mode and electrical properties of the heterostructures were determined. The obtained results indicated that the time of growth of the low temperature GaN nucleation layer influenced the morphology and electrical properties of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure.

Keywords

  • AlGaN/GaN
  • Hall mobility
  • AFM
  • Quantive Mobility Spectrum Analysis
Open Access

Influence of electrical stress on printed polymer resistors filled with carbon nanomaterials

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 548 - 554

Abstract

Abstract

Superior electrical properties of carbon nanotubes were utilized by the authors in the fabrication of printed resistors. In common applications such as electrodes or sensors, only basic electrical and mechanical properties are investigated, leaving aside other key parameters related to the stability and reliability of particular elements. In this paper we present experimental results on the properties of printed resistive layers. One of the most important issues is their stability under high currents creating excessive thermal stresses. In order to investigate such behavior, a high direct current stress test was performed along with the observation of temperature distribution that allowed us to gain a fundamental insight into the electrical behavior at such operating conditions. These experiments allowed us to observe parametric failure or catastrophic damage that occurred under excessive supply parameters. Electrical parameters of all investigated samples remained stable after applying currents inducing an increase in temperature up to 130 °C and 200 °C. For selected samples, catastrophic failure was observed at the current values inducing temperature above 220 °C and 300 °C but in all cases the failure was related to the damage of PET or alumina substrate. Additional experiments were carried out with short high voltage pulse stresses. Printed resistors filled with nanomaterials sustained similar voltage levels (up to 750 V) without changing their parameters, while commonly used graphite filled polymer resistors changed their resistance value.

Keywords

  • carbon nanotubes
  • printed electronics
  • polymer resistors
  • high current stress
Open Access

Dielectric and spectroscopic analysis of cobalt doped potassium hexatitanate (K2Ti6O13) ceramics

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 555 - 560

Abstract

Abstract

Pure and cobalt doped (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 mol %) polycrystalline potassium hexatitanate (K2Ti6O13) ceramics were synthesized using conventional solid state reaction route. XRD result confirmed the successful doping of Co in the K2Ti6O13 matrix, as no additional peak was observed in the pattern. Dielectric permittivity was found to decrease with the increase in frequency while it increased with the increase in doping. The dielectric loss decreased with small doping whereas excessive doping caused its augmentation. Ac conductivity (σac) has also been studied as a function of frequency at room temperature for all the samples. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) inspection of the synthesized samples showed the formation of rod like shapes. FTIR analysis was carried out to identify the chemical bonds present in the system.

Keywords

  • ceramics
  • X-ray diffraction
  • dielectric properties
  • infrared spectroscopy
Open Access

Auxetic materials — A review

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 561 - 571

Abstract

Abstract

Auxetic materials are endowed with a behavior that contradicts common sense, when subjected to an axial tensile load they increase their transverse dimension. In case of a compression load, they reduce their transverse dimension. Consequently, these materials have a negative Poisson’s ratio in such direction. This paper reviews research related to these materials. It presents the theories that explain their deformation behavior and reveals the important role represented by the internal structure. Their mechanical properties are explored and some potential applications for these materials are shown.

Keywords

  • auxetics
  • Poisson’s ratio
  • elasticity
  • deformation
Open Access

Deep levels in GaN studied by deep level transient spectroscopy and Laplace transform deep-level spectroscopy

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 572 - 576

Abstract

Abstract

In this study we present the results of investigations on Schottky Au-GaN diodes by means of conventional DLTS and Laplace DLTS methods within the temperature range of 77–350 K. Si-doped GaN layers were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy technique (MBE) on sapphire substrates. DLTS signal spectra revealed the presence of four majority traps: two hightemperature and two low-temperature peaks. Using LDLTS method and Arrhenius plots the activation energy and capture cross sections were obtained. For two high-temperature majority traps they are equal to E1 = 0.65 eV, σ1 = 8.2 × 10−16cm2 and E2 = 0.58 eV, σ2 = 2.6 × 10−15 cm2 whereas for the two low-temperature majority traps E3 = 0.18 eV, σ3 = 9.72 × 10−18 cm2 and E4 = 0.13 eV, σ4 = 9.17 × 10−18 cm2. It was also found that the traps are related to point defects. Possible origin of the traps was discussed and the results were compared with the data found elsewhere [1–5].

Keywords

  • GaN
  • DLTS
  • LDLTS
Open Access

One-pot synthesis of magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in ethanol-water mixed solvent

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 577 - 580

Abstract

Abstract

Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized via a low-temperature solution-based method using ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferrous chloride tetrahydrate as precursors in the mixed solvent of ethanol and water. X-ray diffraction, energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the obtained product was pure γ-Fe2O3. Transmission electron microscopy showed the morphology of the nanoparticles to be approximately spherical in shape with an average diameter of 11 nm. Magnetization measurements indicated the dry powders exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with a maximum saturation magnetization of 41.1 emu/g at room temperature.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • magnetic materials
  • synthesis
  • FTIR
  • X-ray techniques
Open Access

Effect of low oxygen pressure on structural and magnetic properties of quenched SrFe12O19 thin films

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 581 - 586

Abstract

Abstract

Strontium hexaferrite thin films have been grown on glass substrates at room temperature in oxygen environment by pulsed laser deposition method. The effect of oxygen pressure (po2) on the structural and magnetic properties has been investigated. The as-deposited films were found to be amorphous in nature. The crystallization of these films was achieved by annealing at a temperature of 850 °C in air. The thickness of the film increased with po2. The film grown at po2 = 0.455 Pa had a clear hexagonal structure. The values of coercivity for the films were found to increase with po2.

Keywords

  • thin films
  • pulsed laser deposition
  • hexaferrites
  • magnetic properties
Open Access

Magnetic resonance study of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles dressed in oxygen based free radicals

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 587 - 594

Abstract

Abstract

Two composites consisting of γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanoparticles covered by two different oxygen-based free radicals derived from a 4-(methylamino)phenol sulphate and 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-trisulfonic trisodium salt acid were prepared and investigated by the magnetic resonance method in the 4–300 K range. Both composites displayed broad and very intense ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) lines originating from γ-Fe2O3 agglomerated nanoparticles. The FMR spectrum was fitted satisfactorily at each temperature by two Landau-Lifshitz functions reflecting the existence of magnetic anisotropy in the investigated system. The temperature dependence of the obtained FMR parameters (resonance field, linewidth, integrated intensity) was studied and the results were interpreted in terms of magnetic interactions between free radicals and nanoparticle agglomerates. A comparison with previously studied similar systems containing maghemite nanoparticles was made and conclusions about the role of free radicals were drawn.

Keywords

  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • maghemite nanoparticles
  • magnetic resonance
Open Access

Electro-optical properties of diluted GaAsN on GaAs grown by APMOVPE

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 595 - 600

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we report on the optical and electrical studies of single GaAs1−x Nx epitaxial layers grown on GaAs substrates by means of atmospheric pressure metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (APMOVPE). Three kinds of samples with 1.2 %, 1.6 % and 2.7 % nitrogen content were studied. Optical properties of the layers were investigated with the use of room temperature transmittance and reflectance measurements. Subsequently Schottky Au-GaAs1−x Nx contacts were processed and characterized by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements within 80–480 K temperature range. From the I-V and C-V characteristics the ideality factor, series resistance and built-in potential were determined. Obtained diodes can be used for further studies on defects with the use of DLTS method.

Keywords

  • GaAs1−xNx
  • I-V
  • C-V
  • transmittance and reflectance spectra
Open Access

Study of magnetic properties of two samples from FeVO4-Co3V2O8 system

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 601 - 610

Abstract

Abstract

Two samples containing phases formed in the FeVO4-Co3V2O8 system were prepared by a conventional sintering method. The sample designated as H5 was one-phase with the howardevansite-type structure, while the sample designated as HL7 contained a mixture of H-type and lyonsite-type structures. The temperature dependence of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra and static magnetic susceptibility χ was investigated in the temperature range from liquid helium to room temperature. Both the EPR spectra and the dc magnetic susceptibility showed anomalous behavior indicating that the magnetic competition process may be responsible. A comparison of the obtained results with previous studies on related compounds with the same structure, i.e. M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Mg(II), Zn(II), and Cu(II)) revealed that the observed anomaly shifted to lower temperatures on replacing the non-magnetic ions by magnetic Co(II) ions. The temperature dependence of the inverse susceptibility χ −1 indicates the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions between Fe(III) and Co(II) spins in sample H5. The obtained values of the Curie-Weiss temperatures are lower than for the Mn3Fe4V6O24 compound and comparable to compounds from M3Fe4V6O24 systems with M diamagnetic cations. The introduction of cobalt cations intensifies the magnetic frustration what is reflected in the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures.

Keywords

  • magnetic properties
  • electron paramagnetic resonance
18 Articles
Open Access

Electrical conductivity of Pd47Ni47Si6 amorphous membrane while hydrogen permeation

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 484 - 488

Abstract

Abstract

Hydrogen diffusion through an amorphous membrane causes local disorders in the structure which can be detected through the measurement of changes of the electrical conductivity. Detecting these changes and comparing them directly with the amount of the permeated hydrogen provides information on the efficiency of separation, which can be used in hydrogen sensor and analyzer technology. This paper presents the results of electrical resistivity measurement of Pd47Ni47Si6 alloy amorphous membrane while hydrogen permeation flux was being changed along with the temperature. It was found that hydrogen changes the nature of the resistivity and the temperature coefficient of resistivity is negative, however, starting from the temperature of 365 K, its value becomes smaller. In order to explain this phenomenon thorough and detailed measurements of phase transitions were made with the use of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. On the basis of the research an attempt was made to explain the recorded changes of electrical conductivity.

Keywords

  • hydrogen separation
  • amorphous alloys
  • palladium-based alloy
  • electrical conductivity
Open Access

Determination of indium and nitrogen contents of InGaAsN quantum wells by HRXRD study supported by BAC calculation of the measured energy gap

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 489 - 494

Abstract

Abstract

Determination of indium and nitrogen content in InGaAsN quantum wells (QWs) is often based on the analysis of high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. The comparison of diffraction curves of two similar samples, with and without nitrogen, together with an assumption of constant indium incorporation efficiency during the growth of layers with and without nitrogen, may lead to a large deviation in the determined In and N content. The HRXRD curve simulations supported by bandgap determination and calculations seem to be a solution of this problem. Comparison of the results achieved from simulated HRXRD curves with the calculations of all QWs transitions measured by contactless electro-reflectance (CER) can lead to reduction of deviations in composition determination of InGaAsN quantum wells. The proposed algorithm was applied for investigation of InGaAsN QWs grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (APMOVPE).

Keywords

  • dilute nitrides
  • composition determination
  • quantum well
  • BAC band-anticrossing model
  • HRXRD high resolution X-ray diffraction
Open Access

Anomalous structural properties of some RCu2Ge2 compounds (R = La, Gd-Tm)

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 495 - 500

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, we address the issue of possible quadrupole ordering in RCu2Ge2 compounds. In the literature, there are reports on anomalous behaviour of lattice parameters, however, lack of high quality data makes the relevant analysis dubious. Therefore, we attempt to perform precise, non-ambient XRD measurements within 12–300 K temperature range. Our results confirm peculiar temperature behaviour of the c-lattice parameter that exhibits a well defined minimum at about 60–120 K for majority of investigated compounds. However, in contrast to the literature, the anomalous behaviour does not exhibit discontinuities. On the other hand, such behaviour has been evidenced for La-based compounds (LaCu2Ge2 and LaNi2Ge2), where the 4f orbitals are unoccupied.

Keywords

  • rare-earth intermetallics
  • non-ambient X-ray diffraction
Open Access

Synthesis and characterization of Co2FeAl Heusler alloy nanoparticles

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 501 - 505

Abstract

Abstract

Heusler alloy Co2FeAl (CFA) nanoparticles have been synthesized by reducing a mixture of the precursors: CoCl2·6H2O, Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and AlCl3·6H2O under H2 atmosphere. XRD, SEM and TEM techniques have been used for the characterization of the prepared material. XRD and SAED data from TEM show the formation of mixed phases of L21, B2 and A2 type crystal structure of the alloy. The estimated particle size from XRD data and TEM micrograph has been found in the range of 10 nm to 50 nm. The saturation magnetization has been found of 115 emu/g from M-H characteristics which is close to its bulk value of saturation magnetization. Chemical composition of the elements has also been estimated from EDAX, which shows a ratio of Co:Fe:Al as 2.12:1.06:0.81.

Keywords

  • Heusler alloy
  • nanoparticles
  • Co2FeAl
  • M-H characteristics
Open Access

Identification of growth mechanism of CBD CIAS thin films from SEM analysis

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 506 - 515

Abstract

Abstract

Near stoichiometric and stoichiometric CuIn(1−x)Al(x)Se2 (CIAS) thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) spectra have been employed to confirm the structure and composition of the prepared films. SEM analysis of near-stoichiometric and stoichiometric CIAS thin films enabled us to estimate the grain size, to identify the growth mechanism and also to visualize the surface morphology. Transmittance spectra have been employed to determine the type of transition and other optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant, refractive index, Sellmeier parameters and bandgap which are reported in this paper in detail.

Keywords

  • CBD
  • SEM
  • XRD
  • EDAX
  • stoichiometric and near-stoichiometric CIAS thin films
Open Access

Improved efficiency of p-type quasi-mono silicon blanket emitter solar cell by ion implantation and backside rounding

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 516 - 524

Abstract

Abstract

A novel type of silicon material, p-type quasi-mono wafer, has been produced using a seed directional solidification technique. This material is a promising alternative to traditional high-cost Czochralski (CZ) and float-zone (FZ) materials. This study evaluates the application of an advanced solar cell process that features a novel method of ion-implantation and backside rounding process on p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. The ion implantation process substituted for thermal POCl3 diffusion leads to better Rsheet uniformity (<3 %). After screen-printing, the interface of Al and back surface field (BSF) layers was analyzed for the as prepared samples and the samples etched to three different depth. SEM showed that increased etch depth improved both BSF layer and Al-Si layer. The IQE result also showed that the samples with higher etching depth had better performance at long wavelength. The I–V cell tester showed that the sample with the etching depth of 6 μm ± 0.1 μm had the greatest efficiency, due to the highest Voc and Isc. The solar cell fabricated in this innovative process on 156 × 156mm p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer achieved 18.82 % efficiency.

Keywords

  • quasi-mono wafer
  • ion implantation
  • POCl3
Open Access

Application of triton X-100 surfactant for silicon anisotropic etching in KOH-based solutions

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 525 - 530

Abstract

Abstract

The results of etching of silicon surfaces with different crystallographic orientations in KOH solutions containing a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 are presented in this paper. The etch rate ratio R(100)/R(110) >1, typical of KOH + IPA and TMAH + Triton X-100 mixtures, is achieved. The surface morphology of Si(hkl) wafers is closely investigated by SEM and AFM. The very low roughness of (110) and its vicinal (hh1) planes is observed and measured. In addition, the relatively smooth (h11) surfaces are obtained in the solution with Triton X-100 surfactant, as compared to the KOH solutions containing alcohols. Due to good smoothness of the studied surfaces, the KOH solution with Triton X-100 seems to be especially interesting for bulk micromachining employing non-standard (hkl) planes. The examples of mesas and trenches fabricated by anisotropic etching in the KOH solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant are presented. Keywords: silicon anisotropic etching;Triton X-100; potassium hydroxide; Si(hkl) surfaces

Open Access

Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic performances of materials based on CS2-modified titanate nanotubes

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 531 - 542

Abstract

Abstract

CS2-modified titanate nanotubes (CS2/TiO2-NTs) are fabricated by reaction of CS2 and Ti-O−Na+ species on titanate nanotubes. Pb2+ ions are coated on the modified nanotubes by ion exchange (Pb/CS2/TiO2-NTs). The products are characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77 K (BET method), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic performances of the products are evaluated by monitoring their catalytic activities for degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation. The effects of calcination temperature and atmosphere on the photocatalytic performance are investigated. The results reveal that the photocatalytic activities of CS2/TiO2-NTs and Pb/CS2/TiO2-NTs are far higher than that of primary nanotubes, and the optimum calcination temperature is 500 °C under N2 atmosphere. It is also discovered that physically adsorbed Pb2+ ions affect the photocatalytic activity of Pb/CS2/TiO2-NTs obviously. The photocatalytic activity of washed Pb/CS2/TiO2-NTs is higher than that of the unwashed one under the same thermal treatment and reaction conditions.

Keywords

  • titanate nanotubes
  • CS2
  • xanthate
  • Pb2+ ions
  • photocatalytic performance
Open Access

Evaluation of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures properties by QMSA and AFM techniques

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 543 - 547

Abstract

Abstract

Atomic force microscopy and Quantitative Mobility Spectrum Analysis (QMSA) were applied for characterization and evaluation of the quality of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The structural uniformity, growth mode and electrical properties of the heterostructures were determined. The obtained results indicated that the time of growth of the low temperature GaN nucleation layer influenced the morphology and electrical properties of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure.

Keywords

  • AlGaN/GaN
  • Hall mobility
  • AFM
  • Quantive Mobility Spectrum Analysis
Open Access

Influence of electrical stress on printed polymer resistors filled with carbon nanomaterials

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 548 - 554

Abstract

Abstract

Superior electrical properties of carbon nanotubes were utilized by the authors in the fabrication of printed resistors. In common applications such as electrodes or sensors, only basic electrical and mechanical properties are investigated, leaving aside other key parameters related to the stability and reliability of particular elements. In this paper we present experimental results on the properties of printed resistive layers. One of the most important issues is their stability under high currents creating excessive thermal stresses. In order to investigate such behavior, a high direct current stress test was performed along with the observation of temperature distribution that allowed us to gain a fundamental insight into the electrical behavior at such operating conditions. These experiments allowed us to observe parametric failure or catastrophic damage that occurred under excessive supply parameters. Electrical parameters of all investigated samples remained stable after applying currents inducing an increase in temperature up to 130 °C and 200 °C. For selected samples, catastrophic failure was observed at the current values inducing temperature above 220 °C and 300 °C but in all cases the failure was related to the damage of PET or alumina substrate. Additional experiments were carried out with short high voltage pulse stresses. Printed resistors filled with nanomaterials sustained similar voltage levels (up to 750 V) without changing their parameters, while commonly used graphite filled polymer resistors changed their resistance value.

Keywords

  • carbon nanotubes
  • printed electronics
  • polymer resistors
  • high current stress
Open Access

Dielectric and spectroscopic analysis of cobalt doped potassium hexatitanate (K2Ti6O13) ceramics

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 555 - 560

Abstract

Abstract

Pure and cobalt doped (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 mol %) polycrystalline potassium hexatitanate (K2Ti6O13) ceramics were synthesized using conventional solid state reaction route. XRD result confirmed the successful doping of Co in the K2Ti6O13 matrix, as no additional peak was observed in the pattern. Dielectric permittivity was found to decrease with the increase in frequency while it increased with the increase in doping. The dielectric loss decreased with small doping whereas excessive doping caused its augmentation. Ac conductivity (σac) has also been studied as a function of frequency at room temperature for all the samples. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) inspection of the synthesized samples showed the formation of rod like shapes. FTIR analysis was carried out to identify the chemical bonds present in the system.

Keywords

  • ceramics
  • X-ray diffraction
  • dielectric properties
  • infrared spectroscopy
Open Access

Auxetic materials — A review

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 561 - 571

Abstract

Abstract

Auxetic materials are endowed with a behavior that contradicts common sense, when subjected to an axial tensile load they increase their transverse dimension. In case of a compression load, they reduce their transverse dimension. Consequently, these materials have a negative Poisson’s ratio in such direction. This paper reviews research related to these materials. It presents the theories that explain their deformation behavior and reveals the important role represented by the internal structure. Their mechanical properties are explored and some potential applications for these materials are shown.

Keywords

  • auxetics
  • Poisson’s ratio
  • elasticity
  • deformation
Open Access

Deep levels in GaN studied by deep level transient spectroscopy and Laplace transform deep-level spectroscopy

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 572 - 576

Abstract

Abstract

In this study we present the results of investigations on Schottky Au-GaN diodes by means of conventional DLTS and Laplace DLTS methods within the temperature range of 77–350 K. Si-doped GaN layers were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy technique (MBE) on sapphire substrates. DLTS signal spectra revealed the presence of four majority traps: two hightemperature and two low-temperature peaks. Using LDLTS method and Arrhenius plots the activation energy and capture cross sections were obtained. For two high-temperature majority traps they are equal to E1 = 0.65 eV, σ1 = 8.2 × 10−16cm2 and E2 = 0.58 eV, σ2 = 2.6 × 10−15 cm2 whereas for the two low-temperature majority traps E3 = 0.18 eV, σ3 = 9.72 × 10−18 cm2 and E4 = 0.13 eV, σ4 = 9.17 × 10−18 cm2. It was also found that the traps are related to point defects. Possible origin of the traps was discussed and the results were compared with the data found elsewhere [1–5].

Keywords

  • GaN
  • DLTS
  • LDLTS
Open Access

One-pot synthesis of magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in ethanol-water mixed solvent

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 577 - 580

Abstract

Abstract

Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized via a low-temperature solution-based method using ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferrous chloride tetrahydrate as precursors in the mixed solvent of ethanol and water. X-ray diffraction, energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the obtained product was pure γ-Fe2O3. Transmission electron microscopy showed the morphology of the nanoparticles to be approximately spherical in shape with an average diameter of 11 nm. Magnetization measurements indicated the dry powders exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with a maximum saturation magnetization of 41.1 emu/g at room temperature.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • magnetic materials
  • synthesis
  • FTIR
  • X-ray techniques
Open Access

Effect of low oxygen pressure on structural and magnetic properties of quenched SrFe12O19 thin films

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 581 - 586

Abstract

Abstract

Strontium hexaferrite thin films have been grown on glass substrates at room temperature in oxygen environment by pulsed laser deposition method. The effect of oxygen pressure (po2) on the structural and magnetic properties has been investigated. The as-deposited films were found to be amorphous in nature. The crystallization of these films was achieved by annealing at a temperature of 850 °C in air. The thickness of the film increased with po2. The film grown at po2 = 0.455 Pa had a clear hexagonal structure. The values of coercivity for the films were found to increase with po2.

Keywords

  • thin films
  • pulsed laser deposition
  • hexaferrites
  • magnetic properties
Open Access

Magnetic resonance study of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles dressed in oxygen based free radicals

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 587 - 594

Abstract

Abstract

Two composites consisting of γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanoparticles covered by two different oxygen-based free radicals derived from a 4-(methylamino)phenol sulphate and 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-trisulfonic trisodium salt acid were prepared and investigated by the magnetic resonance method in the 4–300 K range. Both composites displayed broad and very intense ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) lines originating from γ-Fe2O3 agglomerated nanoparticles. The FMR spectrum was fitted satisfactorily at each temperature by two Landau-Lifshitz functions reflecting the existence of magnetic anisotropy in the investigated system. The temperature dependence of the obtained FMR parameters (resonance field, linewidth, integrated intensity) was studied and the results were interpreted in terms of magnetic interactions between free radicals and nanoparticle agglomerates. A comparison with previously studied similar systems containing maghemite nanoparticles was made and conclusions about the role of free radicals were drawn.

Keywords

  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • maghemite nanoparticles
  • magnetic resonance
Open Access

Electro-optical properties of diluted GaAsN on GaAs grown by APMOVPE

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 595 - 600

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we report on the optical and electrical studies of single GaAs1−x Nx epitaxial layers grown on GaAs substrates by means of atmospheric pressure metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (APMOVPE). Three kinds of samples with 1.2 %, 1.6 % and 2.7 % nitrogen content were studied. Optical properties of the layers were investigated with the use of room temperature transmittance and reflectance measurements. Subsequently Schottky Au-GaAs1−x Nx contacts were processed and characterized by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements within 80–480 K temperature range. From the I-V and C-V characteristics the ideality factor, series resistance and built-in potential were determined. Obtained diodes can be used for further studies on defects with the use of DLTS method.

Keywords

  • GaAs1−xNx
  • I-V
  • C-V
  • transmittance and reflectance spectra
Open Access

Study of magnetic properties of two samples from FeVO4-Co3V2O8 system

Published Online: 15 Dec 2013
Page range: 601 - 610

Abstract

Abstract

Two samples containing phases formed in the FeVO4-Co3V2O8 system were prepared by a conventional sintering method. The sample designated as H5 was one-phase with the howardevansite-type structure, while the sample designated as HL7 contained a mixture of H-type and lyonsite-type structures. The temperature dependence of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra and static magnetic susceptibility χ was investigated in the temperature range from liquid helium to room temperature. Both the EPR spectra and the dc magnetic susceptibility showed anomalous behavior indicating that the magnetic competition process may be responsible. A comparison of the obtained results with previous studies on related compounds with the same structure, i.e. M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Mg(II), Zn(II), and Cu(II)) revealed that the observed anomaly shifted to lower temperatures on replacing the non-magnetic ions by magnetic Co(II) ions. The temperature dependence of the inverse susceptibility χ −1 indicates the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions between Fe(III) and Co(II) spins in sample H5. The obtained values of the Curie-Weiss temperatures are lower than for the Mn3Fe4V6O24 compound and comparable to compounds from M3Fe4V6O24 systems with M diamagnetic cations. The introduction of cobalt cations intensifies the magnetic frustration what is reflected in the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures.

Keywords

  • magnetic properties
  • electron paramagnetic resonance

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