- Journal Details
- First Published
- 30 Mar 2016
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Models to assess the risk of introduction of selected animal viral diseases through the importation of live animals as a key part of risk analysis
Page range: 383 - 389
Introduction of an animal viral disease, especially a notifiable disease, into an importing country or region free from the disease may lead to serious epidemiological consequences and economic losses. Trade in live animals is historically considered one of the most important risk pathways. To estimate the magnitude of such risk, the likelihood of a virus’ entry into a country and the consequences of this event should be jointly evaluated. Depending on data availability, the urgency of the problem and the detail level of the objectives, a risk assessment may be conducted in a qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative way. The purpose of this review was firstly to provide a brief description of each step of the risk analysis process, with particular emphasis on the risk assessment component, and subsequently to supply examples of different approaches to the assessment of the risk of the introduction of selected animal viral diseases. Based on the reviewed models, the overall likelihood of introduction of particular diseases was generally estimated as low. The output risk value was strongly dependent on the duration of the silent phase of the epidemic in the country of origin. Other parameters with some bearing upon the risk derived from the epidemiological situation in the country of origin and the biosecurity or mitigation measures implemented in the country of destination. The investigated models are universal tools for conducting assessment of the risk of introduction of various animal diseases to any country. Their application may lead to timely implementation of appropriate measures for the prevention of the spread of a disease to another country or region.
- infectious diseases
- import risk analysis
- risk models
- Open Access
Page range: 391 - 399
Derzsy’s disease and Muscovy duck parvovirus disease have become common diseases in waterfowl culture in the world and their potential to cause harm has risen. The causative agents are goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV), which can provoke similar clinical symptoms and high mortality and morbidity rates. In recent years, duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome has been prevalent in the Cherry Valley duck population in eastern China. It is characterised by the physical signs for which it is named. Although the mortality rate is low, it causes stunting and weight loss, which have caused serious economic losses to the waterfowl industry. The virus that causes this disease was named novel goose parvovirus (NGPV). This article summarises the latest research on the genetic relationships of the three parvoviruses, and reviews the aetiology, epidemiology, and necropsy characteristics in infected ducks, in order to facilitate further study.
- genetic relationship
- goose parvovirus
- Muscovy duck parvovirus
- novel goose parvovirus
- Open Access
Page range: 401 - 405
The pseudorabies virus (PRV) gene encoding thymidine kinase (tk) is an important virulence-associated factor. Attenuation of PRV in susceptible animals is a frequent result of tk deletion. The aim of the study was to assess the pathogenicity of tk-deleted PRV in rats.
Sprague Dawley rats were infected with the tk-deleted PRV strain SuHV-1 ΔTK:247
Infection with SuHV-1 ΔTK:247 could cause death in rats. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of SuHV-1 ΔTK:247
The results of this study show that rats are highly susceptible to PRV infection, and tk deletion did not completely diminish the pathogenicity of PRV in rats.
- pseudorabies virus
- thymidine kinase
- Open Access
Page range: 407 - 413
Feline foamy virus (FFVfca) is widespread and its prevalence in naturally infected domestic cats ranges between 30% and 80% worldwide. The infection is persistent, with a sustained antibody response in FFVfca-positive cats; however to date, no defined disease or clinical symptoms have been proved to be associated with it. The goal of the presented study was to determine the prevalence of FFVfca infection in domestic cats in Poland.
A total of 223 serum samples collected from domestic cats were tested with a glutathione S-transferase capture ELISA test to detect antibodies specific to capsid (Gag), accessory (Bet) and envelope (Env) FFVfca antigens. A Western blot test was used to confirm the ELISA results.
The cut-off value for the Gag antigen was established by calculation and evaluation with the immunoblotting assay. The cut-off values for Bet and Env were calculated from the reactivity of Gag-negative samples. The sera of 99 cats (44%) showed reactivity to Gag, those of 80 did so (35.9 %) to Bet, while only 56 samples (25%) were reactive to Env. Only 51 (22.9%) sera were positive for all antigens. The main diagnostic antigen was selected to be Gag. A statistically significant association was found between FFVfca status and the age of the cat.
This study proved the high seroprevalence of FFVfca in domestic cats in Poland for the first time and confirmed that adult cats are at higher FFVfca infection risk than preadult cats. Its results correspond to those reported from other countries.
- feline foamy virus
- domestic cats
- Open Access
Monitored therapy of sporadic mycobacteriosis caused by
Mycobacterium genavense in Atlantic canaries ( Serinus canaria) and Bengalese finch ( Lonchura striata)
Page range: 415 - 423
Mycobacteriosis is a significant disease of companion and wild birds which causes emaciation and widely distributed lesions, as well as being a potential zoonosis. Its primary aetiological agents in birds are
Five Atlantic canaries (
Molecular tests yielded positive results for up to four months after treatment initiation for
Canary circovirus and polyomavirus co-infection may suppress the immune system and this may facilitate the development of mycobacteriosis. The set of drugs used led to the complete cure of mycobacteriosis in three canaries. In one bird the disease returned. Clarithromycin was the active drug against
- avian mycobacteriosis
- canary infectious diseases
- Open Access
Page range: 425 - 430
Diarrhoea in growing-finishing pigs is a common problem of commercial pig farms. Among many causative factors, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is one considered an important pathogen in modern pig production. The aim of the study was to verify if PCV2 was responsible for antibiotic non-responsive diarrhoea and wasting in pigs.
A total of 13 dead pigs aged between 12 and 15 weeks from three Polish farms with persistent herd symptoms suggestive of PCV2 infection were provided for evaluation. Sections of lymph nodes and intestines were analysed by
ISH and histopathological examination showed that all pigs were PCV2 systemic disease negative. Swine dysentery was confirmed by real-time PCR on two farms, and proliferative enteropathy on one farm. In histological examinations, erosions of the caecal and colonic mucosa were found, together with cysts and trophozoites of
These results suggest that monitoring of
- farm water quality
- Open Access
The protective action of piperlongumine against mycobacterial pulmonary tuberculosis in its mitigation of inflammation and macrophage infiltration in male BALB/c mice
Page range: 431 - 440
Piperlongumine (PL) is a bioactive alkaloid and medicinal compound of piperamide isolated from the long pepper (
Piperlongumine inhibited inflammatory mediators and adherence of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 to MH-S cells following TDM activation. It also improved macrophage clearance of MTB. In TDM-stimulated MH-S cells, PL significantly influenced the macrophage inducible Ca2+-dependent lectin receptor (Mincle)-Syk-ERK signalling pathway. Oral dosing of PL effectively suppressed the development of pulmonary granulomas and inflammatory reactions in the TDM-elicited mouse granuloma model.
PL as an inhibitor of MTB-triggered granulomatous inflammation may be an effective complementary treatment for mycobacterial infection.
- Open Access
Page range: 441 - 447
Q fever in dairy cattle has been investigated in Latvia since 2012. In 2015, 10.7% of farms tested positive for the DNA of
Investigation was carried out of 187 samples of a diverse range of dairy products from 41 Latvian milk producers. Twenty-six comparable samples pooled from Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain were also included. The all-countries total number of fermented milk products was 160. Special attention was paid to products that could be more attractive to children because of their added chocolate, cacao, berry and fruit content. DNA was extracted and amplification of
Overall positivity was 60.56%. Domestic products were positive more often (60.96%) than foreign ones (57.69%). Only 26.67% of unpasteurised Latvian cow’s milk samples were positive whereas 76.47% of pasteurised equivalents and 63.13% of fermented milk products were. Sweetened and fruit-containing samples were 71.43% positive.
The shedding of
- Q fever
- dairy products
- Open Access
Page range: 449 - 455
Enterococci are widespread, being part of the bacterial flora of humans and animals. The food chain can be therefore considered as the main route of transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria between the animal and human populations. Milk in particular represents a source from which resistant bacteria can enter the human food chain. The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence and resistance to antimicrobial agents of
A total of 207 goat’s milk samples were collected. Samples were cultivated on selective media and confirmed as
Enterococcal strains totalling 196 were isolated, of which 40.8% were
This study affords better knowledge concerning the safety of raw goat’s milk in terms of the enterococci possible to isolate from this foodstuff. It seems that enterococci in milk are still mostly susceptible to antimicrobials of major concern as multiply resisted drugs, such as gentamycin and vancomycin. However, the presence of multi-resistant strains in goat milk is cause for apprehension.
- goat’s milk
- antimicrobial resistance
- resistance genes
- Open Access
Page range: 457 - 461
For the first time in Spain, a survey was undertaken in commercial retail free-range poultry. A total of 50 thighs from different animals were analysed. The samples were homogenised and an acid pepsin digestion procedure was applied prior to molecular analysis.
DNA extracted from 5 out of 50 tissue samples was positive for both genes by qPCR amplification.
The 10% prevalence of
- free-range chickens
- Open Access
Occurrence of selected pathogenic microorganisms in raw and processed eggs of snails of the
Page range: 463 - 467
This study investigated the eggs of Polish-bred edible snails of the
Raw material, semi-finished products, and the final product were collected during the production cycle. Testing for the presence of
The absence of
- snail eggs
- coagulase-positive staphylococci
- Open Access
Analysis of β-agonists in different biological matrices by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
Page range: 469 - 475
Wide use is made of β-agonists in therapy due to their smooth muscle–relaxant properties. They also have a side effect of increasing muscle mass. Besides improving oxygen utilisation as bronchodilators, β-agonists increase protein synthesis and promote fat burning. The growth- and performance-enhancing effects are often exploited in illegal use. The guiding objective of this study was to develop a procedure for the determination of β-agonists by a single method in different types of matrices.
Five grams of homogenised samples were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase in ammonium acetate, pH 5.2. Purification was performed by solid phase extraction. Analytes were eluted with 10% acetic acid in methanol. The eluted β-agonists were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.
Validation results met the requirement of the confirmation criteria according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC in terms of apparent recoveries (93.2–112.0%), repeatability (3.1–7.1%) and intra-laboratory reproducibility (4.1–8.2%).
The method can be successfully applied in the detection and determination of clenbuterol, salbutamol, mabuterol, mapenterol, terbutaline, brombuterol, zilpaterol, isoxsuprine and ractopamine in feed, drinking water, urine, muscle, lung and liver matrices.
- food products
- Open Access
Page range: 477 - 481
Many consumers seek long-ripening meat products. The availability of these highly distinctive cured pork varieties is continuously expanding and their safety should be subject to monitoring. One of potentially harmful substances in these products is histamine. The presence of this toxic amine is reported in many countries, even in high concentrations. However, the EU has not regulated the permissible histamine content in meat, in a situation at odds with that of regulated fish and fish products. This study established the usefulness of biogenic amine testing in long-ripening pork and furnished indicative concentrations potential useful as a background for future research in preparation for EU regulative intervention.
A total of 97 samples of long-ripening meat products untreated by heat were bought from various shops in the Puławy and Lublin regions of Poland and tested for the presence of histamine using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array.
The histamine concentration ranged from below limit of detection to 346.64 mg/kg, where 3.47 mg/kg was the lowest in a positive sample. Histamine was detected in 48 samples (49.5%). The maximum amount of histamine was identified in dry ham and the minimum in traditional salami.
The results of this study suggest that testing meat products for biogenic amines should be a very good indicator of the food safety of long-ripening meats. In half of the tested products, levels of biogenic amines potentially toxic to consumers were determined.
- high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array
- long-ripening meat products
- dry meat products
- Open Access
Page range: 483 - 486
Histamine is one of the most important and toxic biogenic amines which may be present in food and may cause food poisoning in humans when contained at a high level. It is produced during bacterial decarboxylation of histidine in fish muscles. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of histamine in fish and fish products available in Poland during 2014–2018.
A total of 421 samples of raw (248), smoked (107), canned (50), and marinated fish (
Histamine was detected in 14.1% samples of raw fish, 29% of smoked fish, 22% of canned fish and 93.8% of marinated fish in concentrations ranging from 3.4 to 156.4 mg/kg. Content of this amine above 100 mg/kg was found in four samples: raw Atlantic salmon, smoked European sprat and two samples of marinated Atlantic herring.
The study showed that fish and fish products on the Polish market generally meet the food safety criteria for histamine and are safe for consumers.
- fish products
- histamine fish poisoning
- Open Access
Page range: 487 - 495
The study measured the hormonal and protein markers of acute stress, those of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in swine oral fluid, determined which of these parameters would be the most appropriate for future livestock welfare assessment and established the time when the samples should be taken.
Stress was induced in 7 out of 14 castrated six-week-old Danbred×Duroc pigs by immobilisation on a nasal snare at 8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 6 p.m. and samples were taken both directly after the stressor was applied and 30 min later. The remaining pigs were the control group, which were not immobilised; their samples were taken at the same times. The concentrations of hormones and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, while those of alpha-amylase and TAC were measured using spectrophotometry.
The levels of cortisol and cortisone increased with statistical significance immediately after the acute stress response and 30 min later. A cut-off value set at 0.25 ng/mL cortisol concentration was capable of distinguishing between the stressed and control groups with 100% accuracy in evening samples and 95% accuracy overall. Prednisolone was not present, and the levels of testosterone and corticosterone were low and not distinctive. Alpha-amylase became significantly more concentrated during stress induction and 30 min later. The TAC and MDA levels rose after the stress but without statistical significance.
The most suitable markers of acute stress were cortisol, cortisone and alpha-amylase. Oral fluid is a reliable material for monitoring the level of pigs’ stress and should be collected in the evening.
- swine oral fluid
- acute stress markers
- oxidative stress
- Open Access
A pilot study on the effect of a novel feed additive containing exogenous enzymes, acidifiers, sodium butyrate and silicon dioxide nanoparticles on selected cellular immune indices and body weight gains of calves
Page range: 497 - 504
The rearing of calves is a difficult period for farmers due to health problems to which the animals are prone this time. Since the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has been forbidden, various innovative feed additives have been tested in many countries around the world.
In this study, experimental (E) calves were supplemented with a novel feed additive consisting of the pancreatic-like enzymes protease and lipase, a fat-coated mixture of organic fumaric, malic, citric and sorbic acids, sodium butyrate and silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Control (C) calves received feed without additive. During the supplementation, white blood cell (WBC) counts with leukocyte differentiation, percentages of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes and their subpopulations, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst of circulating monocytes and granulocytes were examined. Body weight (b.w.) gains of the calves were also monitored.
The WBC counts in the E and C calves were within the reference ranges throughout the study. In the analysis of the percentages of the lymphocyte subpopulations, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst, no statistically significant differences were reported between the E and C groups. However, higher average daily body weight gains were obtained for the E calves.
The study revealed that the examined feed additive did not modulate the immune response of the calves significantly. The tendency to higher daily average b.w. gains in the E calves than in the C calves suggests a beneficial effect of this feed additive.
- feed additive
- immune response
- average daily body weight gains
- Open Access
Protective effects of bisoprolol against cadmium-induced myocardial toxicity through inhibition of oxidative stress and NF-κΒ signalling in rats
Page range: 505 - 511
The aim of the study was to investigate the mitigative effects of bisoprolol (BIS) in cadmium-induced myocardial toxicity on oxidative stress and its inhibitive effect on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) signalling in rats.
Male albino Wistar rats were assigned to control, Cd, BIS 2 (2 mg/kg b.w.) and BIS 8 (8 mg/kg b.w.) groups with nine rats in each. Over four weeks, the control group was administered 1% gum acacia, all other groups received 3mg/kg b.w. CdCl2 dissolved in distilled water, and the BIS groups were additionally given bisoprolol in gum acacia. Blood samples were collected for biochemical estimations. Blood pressure and serum biomarker (lactate dehydrogenase, aspirate transaminase, alanine transferase and creatine kinase-MB, enzyme (superoxide dismutase, lipid hydroxy peroxidase, catalase and malondialdehyde), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentrations were measured. Western blot analysis was conducted for NF-κB and glutathione S-transferase (GST). After sacrificing the rats, cardiac tissue samples were examined histopathologically.
Our findings pointed to a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the studied serum biomarkers and levels of the relevant enzymes in the BIS 8 group compared to the Cd group. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in NF-kB p65 expression and TNF-α levels was noted in the BIS 8 group relative to the BIS 2 and Cd groups, indicating a reduction at a higher dose. In microscopy, histopathological changes in the cardiac muscles of the BIS 8 group were evident compared to those of the Cd group.
BIS seemed to have protective effects against cardiac injury induced by cadmium and could be considered a novel therapeutic drug and prognostic biomarker in the pathology of the many cardiovascular diseases caused by heavy metal intake.
- myocardial toxicity
- Open Access
Page range: 513 - 517
Ozone is not harmful itself; however, it directly oxidises biomolecules and produces radical-dependent cytotoxicity. Exposure to ozone is by inhalation and therefore the lungs develop the main anti-inflammatory response, while ozone has an indirect impact on the other organs. This study investigated the local and systemic effects of the ozone-associated inflammatory response.
Three groups each of 5 Wistar Han rats aged 6 months were exposed for 2h to airborne ozone at 0.5 ppm and a fourth identical group were unexposed controls. Sacrifice was at 3h after exposure for control rats and one experimental group and at 24 h and 48 h for the others. Lung and liver samples were evaluated for changes in expression of transforming growth factor beta 1, anti-inflammatory interleukin 10, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta and two nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of B cells subunit genes. Total RNA was isolated from the samples in spin columns and cDNA was synthesised in an RT-PCR. Expression levels were compared to those of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and analysed statistically.
All variables changed non-linearly over time comparing experimental groups to the control. Conspicuous expression changes in the subunit genes and cytokines were observed in both evaluated organs.
Locally and systemically, inflammation responses to ozone inhalation include regulation of certain genes’ expression. The mechanisms are unalike in lungs and liver but ozone exerts a similar effect in both organs. A broader range of variables influential on ozone response should be studied in the future.
- free radicals
- inflammatory response
- respiratory tract inflammation, rat
- Open Access
Page range: 519 - 526
Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs) are rare malignant skin tumours in dogs and humans. The literature published so far focuses mostly on the clinico-epidemiological aspect of these tumours, but little is known about their pathogenesis. In this study we aimed to determine whether the
Forty canine ASGCs were submitted to laser capture microdissection to isolate neoplastic cells, from which DNA was subsequently extracted. PCR amplification and sequencing of
Sixteen mutations within the
The results of the present study indicate both the participation of the
- apocrine sweat gland carcinoma
- gene, mutations
- Open Access
Glibenclamide ameliorates the expression of neurotrophic factors in sevoflurane anaesthesia-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in hippocampal neurons of old rats
Page range: 527 - 538
Several antidiabetic medications have been proposed as prospective treatments for cognitive impairments in type 2 diabetes patients, glibenclamide (GBC) among them. Our research aimed to evaluate the impact of GBC on hippocampal learning memory and inflammation due to enhanced neurotrophic signals induced by inhalation of sevoflurane.
Rats (Sprague Dawley, both sexes) were assigned to four groups: a control (vehicle,
The Morris maze test results revealed an improvement in the length of the escape latency on days 1 (P < 0.05), 2 (P < 0.01), 3, and 4 in the low-dose Sevo group. Time spent in the quadrant and crossing axis and the percentage of spontaneous alterations showed a substantial decrease in the low-dose Sevo group which received GBC at 10 mg/kg b.w. Significant increases were shown in IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the low-dose Sevo group, whereas a decrease was evident in the GBC group.
Our results indicate that glibenclamide may be a novel drug to prevent sevoflurane inhalation-induced impaired learning and reduce brain-derived neurotrophic factor release, which may be a vital target for the development of potential therapies for cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration.
- Morris maze test
- neurotrophic factor
- Open Access
Spontaneous alteration of blood pH by a bicarbonate buffer system during experimental hypercalcaemia in cows
Page range: 539 - 543
Maintaining mineral homeostasis as well as the secretion and metabolism of mineralotropic hormones is important for healthy of periparturient dairy cows. To increase the activity of mineralotropic hormones, blood pH can be adjusted. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in blood pH and the mechanism of action of this change in induced hypercalcaemic cows.
Six non-lactating Holstein cows were used in a 2 × 2 crossover design. To induce hypercalcaemia, calcium borogluconate was administered subcutaneously to experimental cows and normal saline was administered subcutaneously to control cows. Blood and urine samples were collected serially after administration. Whole blood without any anticoagulant was processed with a portable blood gas analyser. Plasma concentration and urinary excretion of calcium were measured.
In hypercalcaemic cows, both blood and urine calcium levels were significantly increased at 8 h compared to those at 0 h (P < 0.05), and a spontaneous increase in blood pH was also observed. The calcium concentration in plasma was highest at 2 h after administration (3.02 ± 0.27 mmol/L). The change in pH correlated with that in bicarbonate (
Hypercalcaemia induced a spontaneous change in blood pH through the bicarbonate buffer system and this system may be a maintainer of calcium homeostasis.
- blood pH
- bicarbonate buffer system