- Journal Details
- First Published
- 30 Mar 2016
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Regional distribution of non-human H7N9 avian influenza virus detections in China and construction of a predictive model
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H7N9 avian influenza has broken out in Chinese poultry 10 times since 2013 and impacted the industry severely. Although the epidemic is currently under control, there is still a latent threat.
Epidemiological surveillance data for non-human H7N9 avian influenza from April 2013 to April 2020 were used to analyse the regional distribution and spatial correlations of positivity rates in different months and years and before and after comprehensive immunisation. In addition, positivity rate monitoring data were disaggregated into a low-frequency and a high-frequency trend sequence by wavelet packet decomposition (WPD). The particle swarm optimisation algorithm was adopted to optimise the least squares support-vector machine (LS-SVM) model parameters to predict the low-frequency trend sequence, and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to predict the high-frequency one. Ultimately, an LS-SVM-ARIMA combined model based on WPD was constructed.
The virus positivity rate was the highest in late spring and early summer, and overall it fell significantly after comprehensive immunisation. Except for the year 2015 and the single month of December from 2013 to 2020, there was no significant spatiotemporal clustering in cumulative non-human H7N9 avian influenza virus detections. Compared with the ARIMA and LS-SVM models, the LS-SVM-ARIMA combined model based on WPD had the highest prediction accuracy. The mean absolute and root mean square errors were 2.4% and 2.0%, respectively.
Low error measures prove the validity of this new prediction method and the combined model could be used for inference of future H7N9 avian influenza virus cases. Live poultry markets should be closed in late spring and early summer, and comprehensive H7N9 immunisation continued.
- epidemiological survey
- aetiological virus detection monitoring
- wavelet packet decomposition
- LS-SVM-ARIMA model
- PSO algorithm
- Open Access
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Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) of the
In this study, blood and faecal samples from 157 wild boars were collected from 14 provinces of Poland during the 2017–2018 hunting season. RNA was extracted from the faecal homogenate supernatant and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), while clotted blood samples were used for detection of antibodies against PEDV by ELISA.
Five blood samples (3.2%) were seropositive in ELISA, while none of the faecal samples were found positive using RT-qPCR assays.
The results of this analysis indicate the need for additional studies incorporating a larger number of samples and preferably comparing different serological methods, to confirm whether wild boars in Poland act as PEDV reservoirs.
- porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus
- wild boar
- Open Access
The presence of
Ehrlichia canis in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from ungulates in continental Eastern Europe
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A total of 64 pools of
The only pathogen identified in this study was
Based on these findings, it may be presumed that the
- spotted fever group
- tick-borne diseases
- Open Access
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The purpose of the study was to investigate post-mortem changes in dogs infected with
Cadavers of six dogs that did not survive babesiosis were collected. Necropsies were performed and samples of various organs were collected for histological examination.
Necropsies and histological examinations revealed congestion and oedemata in various organs. Most of the dogs had ascites, hydrothorax or hydropericardium, pulmonary oedema, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, and cerebral congestion, and necrosis of cardiomyocytes.
These results suggested disorders in blood circulation as the most probable cause of death. However, the pulmonary inflammatory response and cerebral babesiosis observed in some of these dogs could also be considered possible causes of death. This study also showed a possible role for renal congestion in the development of renal hypoxia and azotaemia in canine babesiosis.
- canine babesiosis
- cerebral babesiosis
- pulmonary oedema
- renal congestion
- Open Access
Cephenemyia stimulator larvae in male roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus L.) in the Lublin Upland, Poland, and their impact on particular animal health indicators
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The aim of the study was to carry out epizootic assessment of male roe deer to detect the presence of
The investigations were based on post-mortem analysis of
The parasite prevalence ranged from18 to 48% according to habitat type, with a mean value of 33%. The highest prevalence was detected in bucks living in grassland ecosystems. The presence of the parasites exerted influence on the individual condition of the animals, which was reflected in reduced carcass and antler weight. The differences were found both in young individuals and in somatically fully developed animals, but they were not statistically significant in all age groups.
Although the parasitic infestations impaired the individual condition traits, their parametric values in most cases were not lower than those reported from other regions of Poland. Despite the
- roe deer
- Open Access
First report of multiple drug-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Arbat District, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq detected by
in vivo and in vitro methods
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The control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in small ruminants is principally dependent on anthelmintic therapy, which encounters the rising problem of anthelmintic resistance (AR) development. Veterinarians reported anthelmintic failure in several sheep farms in Arbat District, Sulaymaniyah, northern Iraq, which called for a systematic study about the efficacy of three commonly used drugs: albendazole, ivermectin, and levamisole.
A faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was conducted to elucidate the anthelmintics’ efficacies, with coprocultures to determine the GINs parasitising sheep in the study area. Larval development assays (LDAs) were conducted to determine the drugs’ median inhibitory concentrations (IC50).
The FECRT revealed that AR was widespread to all three drugs, and ivermectin was the least effective, reducing the faecal egg counts (FECs) by 50.5% to 57.1%. The coprocultures revealed that the GIN genera of sheep in Arbat District were
This study is the first Iraqi report of AR confirmed by both
- anthelmintic resistance
- larval development assay
- Open Access
New insights into the prevalence and phylogenetic diversity of
Cysticercus ovis isolates in sheep from Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
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Although ovine cysticercosis is not a zoonotic problem, it results in substantial economic losses due to the condemnation of infected tissues or entire carcasses. This study aimed to record preliminary data on the prevalence, and phylogenetic diversity of
From January to September 2020, 6, 411 slaughtered sheep were examined for
The overall prevalence rate was 1.3%, and the prevalence was significantly higher in older sheep (>1 year) than younger ones (<1 year) (P< 0.05). The cardiac muscle showed a higher tendency to carry
Globally, this report adds new data on
- phylogenetic diversity
- Open Access
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Because minipig skin is similar to human skin in anatomy and physiology, establishing an atopic dermatitis (AD) minipig model seems meaningful.
We applied 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) or ovalbumin onto the back skin of five Yucatan minipigs aged 8–10 months and 19 kg in median weight. Two minipigs with the same parameters served as controls.
Both DNFB and ovalbumin mediated epithelial hyperplasia, spongiosis, and immune cell infiltration in the dermis, which is a typical histopathological feature of AD. Moreover, AD upregulated the Th1- and Th2-related cytokine expressions in DNFB- or in ovalbumin-treated skin. Notably, AD-induced minipigs exhibited greater cytokine serum concentrations.
Histopathological finding and cytokine analysis revealed that DNFB or ovalbumin mediates AD. However, ovalbumin-treated minipig is a more reliable and precise AD model owing to the DNFB-induced severe skin damage. In summary, ovalbumin-treated skin shows similar AD as human in histopathological and molecular analysis.
- atopic dermatitis
- Yucatan minipig
- Open Access
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Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) are cytokines widely used in
The recombinant proteins rGM-CSF and rIL-4 were expressed in PEAKrapid CRL-2828 human kidney cells, ATCC CRL-2828. The functional activity of the recombinant cytokines was monitored by registering morphological changes in bovine monocytes and assessing the expression of CD14 upon incubation with them.
Both recombinant proteins were detected in the cell culture supernatant of transfected cells. Culture supernatants of transfected cells induced in bovine monocytes morphological changes that resemble macrophages or dendritic cells. In addition, bovine cells treated with rGM-CSF and rIL-4 showed reduced expression of the macrophage surface marker CD14 compared with untreated cells. This effect indicates the expected differentiation. The expression of the cytokines was stable after many successive cell passages and a freeze/thaw cycle.
The semi-stable mammalian episomal expression system used in this study allowed us to easily produce functional bovine rGM-CSF and rIL-4 without the need for protein purification steps.
- bovine GM-CSF
- bovine IL-4
- dendritic cells
- mammalian episomal expression
- Open Access
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Due to the widely documented and diverse toxic effects of acrylamide, the authors decided to evaluate the impact of high and low doses of this compound on the process of granulopoiesis in porcine bone marrow.
The experiment was conducted on 15 Danish Landrace pigs at the age of 8 weeks. The animals were randomly assigned into three equal groups (n = 5). Control animals received empty gelatine capsules as placebo. Animals in the first experimental group (the LD group) received a low dose of acrylamide of 0.5 μg/kg b.w./day, and animals in the second experimental group (the HD group) received a tenfold higher dose of acrylamide of 5 μg/kg b.w./day. Placebo and acrylamide capsules were administered with feed every morning for 28 days. Bone marrow was collected into tubes without an anticoagulant twice – before the first capsule administration (day 0) and on the 28th day of the study. After drying and staining, bone marrow smears were subjected to detailed cytological evaluation under a light microscope.
Changes in cell morphology,
Acrylamide at doses of 0.5 μg/kg b.w./day and 5 μg/kg b.w./day clearly influences porcine granulopoiesis.
- bone marrow
- Open Access
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Marine biotoxins are toxic substances that may cause illness and death in marine organisms and humans. This article disseminates the results of a 4-year study on the occurrence of marine biotoxins in raw bivalve molluscs purchased from Polish suppliers.
A total of 256 samples of 8 different molluscs species were analysed for the presence of biotoxins using the ELISA method for paralytic shellfish poison, diarrhoetic shellfish poison, and amnaesic shellfish poison.
The permitted limits of marine biotoxin content were not exceeded in any of the analysed samples and the majority of them were free from these compounds.
The results of the study indicate that the tested raw bivalve molluscs available in Poland were safe for consumers.
- marine biotoxins
- bivalve molluscs
- food control
- Open Access
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Milk has been suggested to be a possible source of oestrogenically active compounds. In order to assess the health risk for milk consumers and ensure the safety of this staple part of the human diet, it is important to study the effect of xenooestrogen mixtures present in milk. This investigation used the available
The recommended immature golden hamster uterotrophic bioassay was chosen. A total of 132 animals were divided into nine groups of experimental animals and positive and negative control groups, each of 12 animals. The experimental females received
The milk samples from individual cows and the retail milk samples did not show oestrogenic activity. However, in three groups, decreased uterine weights were observed.
Considering that milk supplies are beneficial to health, contamination in this food should be avoided. There is a need for further animal experiments and epidemiological studies are warranted to evaluate any causative role of milk in human endocrinological disorders.
- raw milk
- commercial milk
- oestrogenic activity
- immature females
- hamster uterotrophic assay
- Open Access
Luteolin attenuates cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through the modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in rats
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In our study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of luteolin in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in rat models induced by cerebral hypoperfusion by two-vessel occlusion (2-VO).
Seventy-five male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 2-VO surgery, in all but 15 (the sham group, group I) the ligation being permanent to impair cognitive abilities. The sham group rats received saline instead of a drug; 15 2-VO rats were not injected at all (the model group, group II); 15 2-VO rats were administered luteolin at 50 mg/kg b.w. (the lut 50 group, group III); to a further 15 luteolin was given at 100 mg/kg b.w. (the lut 100 group, group IV); and the final 15 received nimodipine at 16 mg/kg b.w. as positive controls (the nimodipine group, group V). Object recognition and Morris water maze tests were performed to investigate memory ability. A Western blot test was also conducted to assess expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), its downstream target protein kinase B (Akt), and the phosphorylated form (P-Akt) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus tissue samples.
Significant variations in the discrimination index in the object recognition test, the escape latencies in the Morris water maze test, and expression levels of PI3K-p110α and PI3K-p85 were observed three months after 2-VO surgery in both lut groups, with a significant change in the nimodipine group compared to the model group. P-Akt and Akt were expressed significantly higher in both lut groups and the nimodipine group than in the model group.
Luteolin treatment of rats cognitively dysfunctional after experimental cerebral hypo perfusion was neuroprotective by activating the PI3K/Akt signals which inhibit neuronal death in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region.
- Open Access
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Masitinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the c-KIT receptor, is used for the treatment of mast cell tumours in dogs. Masitinib has previously been investigated in various cancers; however, its potential anticancer effect in canine mammary tumours (CMTs) is unknown. In the present paper, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of masitinib in CMT cells and its possible mechanisms of action.
The effect of masitinib on the proliferation of CMT-U27 and CMT-U309 cells was assessed by MTT assay and DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometric analysis was used to measure the effect of masitinib on apoptosis and the cell cycle. Additionally, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF) were measured, and the proliferation marker Ki-67 was visualised in immunocytochemical stainings in CMT cells.
Treatment with masitinib inhibited the proliferation of CMT cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximal apoptotic activity and DNA fragmentation were observed at approximately IC50 of masitinib in both cell lines. In addition, cell cycle distribution was altered and VEGF levels and Ki-67 proliferation indices were decreased in masitinib-treated cells in comparison with control cells.
In this study, masitinib suppressed cell proliferation concomitantly
- tyrosine kinase inhibitor
- canine mammary cancer
- Open Access
Effect of negative energy balance on plasma metabolites, minerals, hormones, cytokines and ovarian follicular growth rate in Holstein dairy cows
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of negative energy balance (NEB) on the final growth of the dominant ovarian follicle in Holstein cows.
Cows at 14 to 21 d postpartum from an intensive dairy farm were randomly selected and allocated into a positive energy balance group (PEB, with β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level < 1.2 mmol/L, n = 15) and an NEB group (BHBA > 1.2 mmol/L, n = 15). Plasma samples were collected at 21, 50 and 55 d postpartum to assess the concentrations of energy metabolites, minerals, hormones and cytokines. Ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasound on days 50 and 55 (120 hours later) to evaluate the diameter of the largest follicle.
Compared with PEB cows, there were a more severe body condition loss and a lower milk yield in NEB cows (P < 0.05) and these had greater concentrations of plasma BHBA, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, urea nitrogen, growth hormone, interleukin 6, and fibroblast growth factor 21 and lesser concentrations of plasma glucose, total cholesterol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and angiopoietin-like protein 8 on d 21 (P < 0.05), while plasma minerals were not affected by energy status (P > 0.05). These changes persisted until the end of the study period (50–55 days postpartum) resulting in a lower follicular growth rate for cows in the NEB than the PEB group.
These observations indicate that follicular growth rate is associated with measurable changes in energy metabolite, hormone and cytokine concentrations caused by early postpartum NEB.
- dairy cow
- negative energy balance
- Open Access
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Foot rot in small ruminants is highly contagious, causes severe lameness, and impairs fertility and wool and meat production. It is usually treated with parenteral antibiotics, with attendant antibiotic resistance risk, and with bactericidal footbaths, potentially harmful to humans and the environment. An alternative treatment in sheep is proposed based on repeated topical ozonated ointment application. Its effectiveness and safety were evaluated by estimation of acute-phase response, biochemical indicators of organic damage, and antioxidant/oxidant balance (AOB).
The study was conducted on ten sheep with Egerton scale 2–3 lesions. Ozone application was repeated every day for seven days. Blood was drawn first (T0) after foot cleaning and before ozonation, then (T1) seven days after the first ozone application, and finally (T2) four days after the last application.
High clinical effectiveness was observed, with total recovery by 28 days from the start of treatment. A significant increase in antiradical activity was noted on the basis of a 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay from 1.16 ± 0.04 μmolTe/mL at T0 to 1.23 ± 0.03 μmolTe/mL at T1, with a slight decrease in oxidative stress. Calculated on the basis of antiradical capacity, AOB was higher at T1 (130 ± 19%) and decreased to 110 ± 16% at T2. Calculated on the basis of reducing power, it was 169 ± 22% at T1 and 131 ± 17% at T2.
These results indicated that the AOB is efficient enough to prevent oxidative organ injury and the applied doses of ozone are safe for animals.
- foot rot
- ozonated olive ointment
- antioxidant/oxidant balance
- Open Access
A preliminary study on semen collection, its evaluation, and testicular and sperm morphometries in the wild proboscis monkey (
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The proboscis monkey (
Eight semen collection procedures using electro-ejaculation and digital manipulation were conducted in three wild adult male proboscis monkeys. A total of 21 ejaculates were collected. The testicular biometry was measured with the aid of ultrasonography. Sample evaluation included semen volume and pH and sperm concentration, viability, and abnormality. The sperm morphometry was undertaken using phase contrast microscopy.
The mean (±SD) total testicular volume of these animals was 5.77 cm3 (±1.58). Semen collection by electro-ejaculation resulted in an 84% success rate, while digital manipulation did not result in any ejaculation. Each animal showed different semen characteristics, where the volume was 5–540 μL, pH 8–9, and sperm concentration 0.041–83.00 ×106/mL. The percentage of abnormal sperm was high at 76.8% (±89.60), largely due to midpiece abnormality. Normal sperm had a spherical head and long tail with a head : midpiece : tail length ratio of 1 : 2: 8.
The social status of these animals may contribute to the generally low quality of the semen. The techniques and data from this study are useful for future conservation and application of assisted reproductive technology in this species.
- proboscis monkey
- semen collection
- sperm morphometry
- testicular morphometry