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MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES, Guest Editors: Stefan Schindler and Linda Olsvig-Whittaker

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1805-4196
ISSN
1803-2427
First Published
20 Jun 2008
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 4 (2011): Issue 2 (April 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1805-4196
ISSN
1803-2427
First Published
20 Jun 2008
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
access type Open Access

Prediction of Dragon's Blood Tree (Dracaena Cinnabari Balf.) Stand Sample Density on Soqotra Island

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 5 - 17

Abstract

Prediction of Dragon's Blood Tree (<italic>Dracaena Cinnabari</italic> Balf.) Stand Sample Density on Soqotra Island

Dracaena cinnabari Balf. On The Soqotra Island is a spectacural relict of the Tethys tropical forest. This unique endemic plant, producing medicinally valuable sap, used to cover larger areas in the past. Natural regeneration of this species is restricted to inaccessible localities with steep slopes. All seedlings are threatened by goats grazing. Age structure of Dracaena populations indicates maturity and overmaturity depending on browsing.

The objective of this work is to predict growing dynamics of Dragon's Blood Trees in permanent sample plot at Firmihin, where there is the largest existing stand of Dracaena species. The prediction and visualization of variation in abundance of trees over 100 years is based on direct field measurements supported by mathematical calculations. The study presents options in forest regeneration and identifies threats that might occur during the implementation.

Keywords

  • Soqotra
  • stand visualization
  • trees density prediction
access type Open Access

Vascular Plants Distribution as a Tool for Adaptive Forest Management of Floodplain Forests in the Dyje River Basin

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 18 - 34

Abstract

Vascular Plants Distribution as a Tool for Adaptive Forest Management of Floodplain Forests in the Dyje River Basin

The study is based on a full floristic inventory of floodplain forests in South Moravia along the upper part of the Dyje River (Forest district Valtice). The study area is located in the Dolní Morava Biosphere Reserve and includes several Sites of Community Importance within Natura 2000. The aim of the inventory was to analyze diversity of herb and woody species occuring in the study area, including both native protected and threatened species, and invasive species. The study area was divided into segments. A segment represented the smallest unit of spatial forest division - "forest stand part". The species were recorded into a special scratch-list. Altogether, 656 plant species were found. The floristic database has been integrated with GIS. Maps of distribution of selected plant species or groups of plants were produced. On the basis of geographical visualization of the above mentioned results we identified areas with a high diversity of all species and endangered species. The results may be used as a base for adaptive forest and environmental management.

access type Open Access

Responses of Vegetation Stages with Woody Dominants to Stress and Disturbance During Succession on Abandoned Tailings in Cultural Landscape

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 35 - 48

Abstract

Responses of Vegetation Stages with Woody Dominants to Stress and Disturbance During Succession on Abandoned Tailings in Cultural Landscape

Studies of ecological succession on tailing containments (abandoned sedimentation basins with waste deposited by a factory producing sulphuric acid from pyrite ore) near the village of Chvaletice (Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic) were carried out since 1973 with increased intensity and complexity between 1986 and 2002 (Kovář 2004). Vegetation cover in its relationships to various factors has been periodically monitored up to now. The abandoned ore-washery deposit is characterized by relative strong toxicity of the sediment material (high heavy metal content) and fluctuations of the microsite conditions up to extreme values (pH, salinity, surface temperatures). Species richness and the courses of some ecological processes are influenced both by availability of plant diaspores (regional species pool) determined with the presence of adequate dispersal mechanisms (anemochory, zoochory) and by the seasonal moderation of environmental variables excluding stress non-tolerant species at extreme epizodes and enabling survival of resistant species during the competition. Long lasting existence of patches without any vegetation together with herbaceous types of stands and woody successional stages create mosaics on the surface plateau. The oldest tree stands (in average 20 - 30 years old) are predominantly formed by Populus tremula and Betula pendula, with minor admixture of Salix sp. div. (mainly S. caprea), Pinus sylvestris, Quercus robur or Cerassus avium, rarely Sarothamnus scoparius. The abundance ratio of two main dominants, aspen and birch, was changed for the benefit of the first one after the summer fire in extremely hot days. The effect of clonality on aspen regeneration and regrowth immediately after the fire disturbance was profitably manifested and it apparently facilitates the present state with aspen prevailing in the most forested tailing places at present, seventeen years after the fire. This fact supports the importance of clonal plant species role during primary succession.

Keywords

  • Vegetation succession
  • biodiversity
  • abandoned tailings
  • ore-washery sedimentation basin
  • substrate toxicity
  • salinity
  • fluctuation
  • fire disturbance
  • pattern of woody dominants
  • aspen
  • birch
  • environmental stress
  • regeneration
  • clonality
access type Open Access

Possibilities of Forest Altitudinal Vegetation Zones Modelling by Geoinformatic Analysis

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 49 - 61

Abstract

Possibilities of Forest Altitudinal Vegetation Zones Modelling by Geoinformatic Analysis

According to Zlatnik (1976) there are 10 forest vegetation zones on the territory of the former Czechoslovakia. These are at present being modeled by phytocenological studies using bioindicator species of plants. Their incidence is affected by many abiotic factors, like temperature, precipitation or influence of climatic-inverse locations. By effective modelling of factors affecting the site requirements of bioindicator species, it is possible to make a comprehensive modelling of vegetation zonation. For the process of modelling, however, it is essential to identify the abiotic factors influencing this phenomenon and determine the extent of their influence. Hence, all the selected factors were analyzed using geoinformation tools and then combined with a typological map, which describes, among others, vegetation zonation in forest stands. The outcome of this combination was subjected to discrimination analysis, which identified influential factors and determined the extent of their influence. For modelling forest vegetation zones two methods were tested, first maximum likelihood clasification and second classification function of discriminant analysis in three territories with different reliefs. Both methods create a new raster of vegetation zonation based on geospatial relationship of individual factors and vegetation zones. Match of result models and input typological dates reaches 70 % - 90 %.

Keywords

  • vegetation zonation
  • classification
  • climate
  • relief
access type Open Access

Multi-Scale Effect on Landscape Pattern Analysis Using Satellite Data with a Range of Spatial Resolutions

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 62 - 72

Abstract

Multi-Scale Effect on Landscape Pattern Analysis Using Satellite Data with a Range of Spatial Resolutions

In recent years, identifying the relationship between pattern and scale has emerged as a central issue in ecology and geography. Scale has been defined by grain or resolution but bias in results will occur if the scale is wrongly selected relevant to the landscape evaluation. In this research, satellite data of varying resolution, QuickBird (2.5m), ALOS/AVNIR-2 (10m), Terra/ASTER (15m) and Landsat/ETM+ (30m), were employed to analyze the scale effects of grain size. The research was implemented at Azeta, a typical rural landscape located in Sakura City, central Japan. Land-cover classifications were first implemented using the Maximum Likelihood Method on satellite data of varying resolution. Based on the results of these classifications, a number of landscape metrics imbedded in the FRAGSTATS were extracted for landscape pattern analysis. The results indicate that most landscape patterns show some degree of consistency and scaling relations such as power-law among the various satellite resolutions. The applicability of these various satellite data resolutions for landscape analysis in the target area was also evaluated.

Keywords

  • LULC classification
  • extrapolability
  • landscape metrics
  • scale effect
5 Articles
access type Open Access

Prediction of Dragon's Blood Tree (Dracaena Cinnabari Balf.) Stand Sample Density on Soqotra Island

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 5 - 17

Abstract

Prediction of Dragon's Blood Tree (<italic>Dracaena Cinnabari</italic> Balf.) Stand Sample Density on Soqotra Island

Dracaena cinnabari Balf. On The Soqotra Island is a spectacural relict of the Tethys tropical forest. This unique endemic plant, producing medicinally valuable sap, used to cover larger areas in the past. Natural regeneration of this species is restricted to inaccessible localities with steep slopes. All seedlings are threatened by goats grazing. Age structure of Dracaena populations indicates maturity and overmaturity depending on browsing.

The objective of this work is to predict growing dynamics of Dragon's Blood Trees in permanent sample plot at Firmihin, where there is the largest existing stand of Dracaena species. The prediction and visualization of variation in abundance of trees over 100 years is based on direct field measurements supported by mathematical calculations. The study presents options in forest regeneration and identifies threats that might occur during the implementation.

Keywords

  • Soqotra
  • stand visualization
  • trees density prediction
access type Open Access

Vascular Plants Distribution as a Tool for Adaptive Forest Management of Floodplain Forests in the Dyje River Basin

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 18 - 34

Abstract

Vascular Plants Distribution as a Tool for Adaptive Forest Management of Floodplain Forests in the Dyje River Basin

The study is based on a full floristic inventory of floodplain forests in South Moravia along the upper part of the Dyje River (Forest district Valtice). The study area is located in the Dolní Morava Biosphere Reserve and includes several Sites of Community Importance within Natura 2000. The aim of the inventory was to analyze diversity of herb and woody species occuring in the study area, including both native protected and threatened species, and invasive species. The study area was divided into segments. A segment represented the smallest unit of spatial forest division - "forest stand part". The species were recorded into a special scratch-list. Altogether, 656 plant species were found. The floristic database has been integrated with GIS. Maps of distribution of selected plant species or groups of plants were produced. On the basis of geographical visualization of the above mentioned results we identified areas with a high diversity of all species and endangered species. The results may be used as a base for adaptive forest and environmental management.

access type Open Access

Responses of Vegetation Stages with Woody Dominants to Stress and Disturbance During Succession on Abandoned Tailings in Cultural Landscape

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 35 - 48

Abstract

Responses of Vegetation Stages with Woody Dominants to Stress and Disturbance During Succession on Abandoned Tailings in Cultural Landscape

Studies of ecological succession on tailing containments (abandoned sedimentation basins with waste deposited by a factory producing sulphuric acid from pyrite ore) near the village of Chvaletice (Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic) were carried out since 1973 with increased intensity and complexity between 1986 and 2002 (Kovář 2004). Vegetation cover in its relationships to various factors has been periodically monitored up to now. The abandoned ore-washery deposit is characterized by relative strong toxicity of the sediment material (high heavy metal content) and fluctuations of the microsite conditions up to extreme values (pH, salinity, surface temperatures). Species richness and the courses of some ecological processes are influenced both by availability of plant diaspores (regional species pool) determined with the presence of adequate dispersal mechanisms (anemochory, zoochory) and by the seasonal moderation of environmental variables excluding stress non-tolerant species at extreme epizodes and enabling survival of resistant species during the competition. Long lasting existence of patches without any vegetation together with herbaceous types of stands and woody successional stages create mosaics on the surface plateau. The oldest tree stands (in average 20 - 30 years old) are predominantly formed by Populus tremula and Betula pendula, with minor admixture of Salix sp. div. (mainly S. caprea), Pinus sylvestris, Quercus robur or Cerassus avium, rarely Sarothamnus scoparius. The abundance ratio of two main dominants, aspen and birch, was changed for the benefit of the first one after the summer fire in extremely hot days. The effect of clonality on aspen regeneration and regrowth immediately after the fire disturbance was profitably manifested and it apparently facilitates the present state with aspen prevailing in the most forested tailing places at present, seventeen years after the fire. This fact supports the importance of clonal plant species role during primary succession.

Keywords

  • Vegetation succession
  • biodiversity
  • abandoned tailings
  • ore-washery sedimentation basin
  • substrate toxicity
  • salinity
  • fluctuation
  • fire disturbance
  • pattern of woody dominants
  • aspen
  • birch
  • environmental stress
  • regeneration
  • clonality
access type Open Access

Possibilities of Forest Altitudinal Vegetation Zones Modelling by Geoinformatic Analysis

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 49 - 61

Abstract

Possibilities of Forest Altitudinal Vegetation Zones Modelling by Geoinformatic Analysis

According to Zlatnik (1976) there are 10 forest vegetation zones on the territory of the former Czechoslovakia. These are at present being modeled by phytocenological studies using bioindicator species of plants. Their incidence is affected by many abiotic factors, like temperature, precipitation or influence of climatic-inverse locations. By effective modelling of factors affecting the site requirements of bioindicator species, it is possible to make a comprehensive modelling of vegetation zonation. For the process of modelling, however, it is essential to identify the abiotic factors influencing this phenomenon and determine the extent of their influence. Hence, all the selected factors were analyzed using geoinformation tools and then combined with a typological map, which describes, among others, vegetation zonation in forest stands. The outcome of this combination was subjected to discrimination analysis, which identified influential factors and determined the extent of their influence. For modelling forest vegetation zones two methods were tested, first maximum likelihood clasification and second classification function of discriminant analysis in three territories with different reliefs. Both methods create a new raster of vegetation zonation based on geospatial relationship of individual factors and vegetation zones. Match of result models and input typological dates reaches 70 % - 90 %.

Keywords

  • vegetation zonation
  • classification
  • climate
  • relief
access type Open Access

Multi-Scale Effect on Landscape Pattern Analysis Using Satellite Data with a Range of Spatial Resolutions

Published Online: 08 Aug 2012
Page range: 62 - 72

Abstract

Multi-Scale Effect on Landscape Pattern Analysis Using Satellite Data with a Range of Spatial Resolutions

In recent years, identifying the relationship between pattern and scale has emerged as a central issue in ecology and geography. Scale has been defined by grain or resolution but bias in results will occur if the scale is wrongly selected relevant to the landscape evaluation. In this research, satellite data of varying resolution, QuickBird (2.5m), ALOS/AVNIR-2 (10m), Terra/ASTER (15m) and Landsat/ETM+ (30m), were employed to analyze the scale effects of grain size. The research was implemented at Azeta, a typical rural landscape located in Sakura City, central Japan. Land-cover classifications were first implemented using the Maximum Likelihood Method on satellite data of varying resolution. Based on the results of these classifications, a number of landscape metrics imbedded in the FRAGSTATS were extracted for landscape pattern analysis. The results indicate that most landscape patterns show some degree of consistency and scaling relations such as power-law among the various satellite resolutions. The applicability of these various satellite data resolutions for landscape analysis in the target area was also evaluated.

Keywords

  • LULC classification
  • extrapolability
  • landscape metrics
  • scale effect

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