- Journal Details
- First Published
- 20 Jun 2008
- Publication timeframe
- 3 times per year
- Open Access
Sustainable Development and Sustainability: Landscape Approach as a Practical Interpretation of Principles and Implementation Concepts
Page range: 5 - 30
The situation for governors and managers of natural resources has increased in complexity. Previously it was enough to sustain the yields of wood, food and energy. Today, maintenance of ecosystem services, conservation of biodiversity, rural development and human wellbeing are new additional objectives. At the same time there are new risks and uncertainties linked to climate change, economic globalisation, energy security and water supply. Consequently, adaptive and holistic research, governance and management are needed. Landscape is a concept and framework that can be used as an approach to enhance implementation of policies about sustainable development as a societal process and sustainability as outcomes on the ground. For our analysis to define the landscape approach we used a hierarchical framework consisting of principles, concepts and initiatives; and included three principles defining SD and sustainability and five international concepts to analyze its implementation for our analysis to define landscape approach. We propose a practical operationalization that consists of five core attributes, (1) a sufficiently large area that matches management requirements and challenges to deliver desired goods, services and values, (2) multi-level and multi-sector stakeholder collaboration that promotes sustainable development as a social process, (3) commitment to and understanding of sustainability as an aim among stakeholders, (4) integrative knowledge production, and (5) sharing of experience, results and information, to develop local or tacit to general or explicit knowledge. Finally, we discuss the need for integrative research to study landscape approach concepts and what local initiatives using different concepts deliver on the ground.
- Open Access
Page range: 31 - 40
Landscape structure and land use history were clarified based on the old maps in the Boso Peninsula, central Japan. Landscape map dated around the 1880s was created through modification of old maps and landscape map from the 1980s was made based on actual vegetation maps. Natural vegetation of this area was evergreen broad leaved forest. Around the 1880s, evergreen coniferous forest composed of
- Open Access
Page range: 41 - 48
Nowadays in Russia, due to the depressive state of landscape-oriented economic sector - agriculture and forestry - we observe the process of mass abandonment of cultivated land. Small part of abandoned territory changes the type of land use to settlement or recreational, greater part starts functioning and evolving in natural mode. Prediction of abandoned landscapes trend of evolution is a requisite base of optimal landscape and socio-economic planning.
In the article we analyze the plentiful material of 33-year functioning of the Vozha catchment cultural landscape (Central Meschera), obtained by the group of Moscow university chair of Physical Geography and Landscape Studies. During the observation period, three phases of socio-economic development of the territory were seen: 1966-1985 - extensive arable and pasture farming with self-flowing drainage; 1986-1993 - intensive agriculture with draining-irrigation system supplied by locks and pumping station; 1993-2010 - fields abandonment, closedown of pumping station, channels clogging and soiling.
Main goal of this work was to compare the function of landscape under various anthropogenic pressures and estimation of the degradation of the Vozha catchment cultural landscape. Cultural landscape is understood as a landscape purposely modified by man to effectively meet its socio-economic functions - resource-reproductive, environmental, nature conservation, aesthetic and educational (????? 1989). Used classification of landscape socio-economic functions is similar to adopted in Europe classification of ecosystem services - provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural function (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). Estimation was carried out under the following criteria:
- Biological production, a characteristic of reproductive function, valued by harvests in meadow sites and by timber increment in forested geosystems
- Swamping process, a characteristic of environmental function, valued by soil moisture content and bio-indication.
- Soil fertility, a characteristic of nature conservation and reproductive functions, valued by humus and nitrogen content, pH and bio-indication.
This article discloses only results of investigation which concerns meadow sites dynamics.
- Open Access
Ecosystem Services in Energy Crop Production - A Concept for Regulatory Measures in Spatial Planning?
Page range: 49 - 66
Land management faces huge challenges to fulfill increasing demands for limited natural resources and to safeguard sustainable land use. The CBD stresses the necessity to minimize land use conflicts and to improve the management of landscapes. Therefore favourable strategies and methods have to be developed.
According to European and German energy policies, the proportion of renewable resources for energy is to be increased significantly in the coming years. The extended cultivation of energy crops can lead to conflicts, e.g. severe impacts on various ecosystem services based on groundwater, soils, biodiversity and the overall appearance of the landscape scenery. Energy crops compete in space with food production, and they have various ecological, economic and social effects. There is a need for suitable spatial planning instruments to regulate energy crop cultivation and to reduce the impact on ecosystems and landscapes.
As it includes all levels of sustainability with economic, ecological and social aspects, the concept of Ecosystem Services can be a stimulus and a suitable tool to find appropriate solutions. On the one hand, it will be shown that ecosystem services are suited to assess the consequences of energy crops. On the other hand, it is discussed whether and how regulatory measures and methods in spatial planning consider ecosystem services and if they contribute to govern land use management.
- Renewable Energy
- Short Rotation Coppices
- Protected Areas
- Moritzburg Small-Hill Landscape
- energy crops
- nature conservation
- regulatory measures
- planning instruments
- Open Access
Page range: 67 - 84
In the present days the effects of the global climate change can be observed everywhere. The negative impacts of this phenomenon, especially temperature rising, can be felt significantly in the cities of Central Europe. In these areas the effects of the global temperature rising and the urban heat island intensify each other.
However, these phenomena grant the opportunity to find the most suitable vegetation types for moderating the warming up of such urban areas. The aim of this study is to provide support in determining these vegetation types.
The examined area is Budapest, the capital of Hungary. This city has a wide selection of various urban green surfaces; consequently as a result of the examination it shall become clear which of these are the best vegetation types and the best vegetation structures in respect of the positive climatic effects. With the help of this study it shall also be clarified how the strength of this moderating effect depends on the water supply of the plants. The importance of this question lies within the fact that depending on the water supply different vegetation types may have totally different effects. Thus the main plant species and the structure of the canopy layers must be taken into thorough consideration.
A collection of thermal infrared satellite images serve as the main source of data for this study. These images were produced in the last decade. They thoroughly show the thermal attributes of the examined area (green surface). The other important source of information is the examination of those structure species and vegetation types which are the most efficient in reducing the negative climate impacts under urban circumstances. The water supply dependence of this reducing effect is also very important piece of information.
- various vegetation types
- urban heat island
- thermal infrared satellite images